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President World's Columbian Exposition. 



Representative Women 


THE world's congress OF REPRESENTATIVE 




THE woman's branch OF 



MRS. CHAI^lJSi HFNROTIN, Vicf-Pjresident. 







Copyright, 1894, by Rand, McNally & Co. 

' . • • • 

• ! • »"• i • • ; -• • • •• 




Extracts from Addresses Delivered in the General Congress and frok 
Discussions of said Addresses by Ida A. Harper, Lillian Davis Dun> 
CANSON, Laura M. Johns, Sarah C. Hall, Susan B. Anthony, and 
Martha Strickland — Extracts from Addresses Delivered in thk 
Department Congress of the National American Woman's Suffrage. 
Association by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Helen H. Gardener — 
Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Department Congress 
of the Order of the Eastern Star by Mary A. Flint — Extracts 
from an Address Delivered ,in the Department Congress of the 
Loyal Women of American Liberty by AbbieA. C. Peaslie — Extracts 
from an Address Delivered in the Department Congress of the. 
Woman's National Indian Association by Mrs. William E. Burke — 
Extracts from Addresses Delivered in the Report Congress by thr 
Countess of Aberdeen, the Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, and the. 
Baroness Thorborg-Rappe. 

Women in Municipal Government — Address by Ida 
A. Harper of Indiana. 

WHEN the young people of the present generation 
read Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the speeches of 
Garrison and Phillips, and the history of ante- 
bellum days, they are filled with amazement. They are 
unable to comprehend that the monstrous evil of slavery 
existed and flourished in this beautiful country, and found 
its defenders among ministers and church members and the 
so-called best element of society. "And you named this 
the land of the free,'* they exclaim, " when three million 




'IJuman beiiigs-|^'dre held in bondage ! " And we scarcely 
tnow Kow 'to 'exDlain to them the peculiar condition of 
., 5:fu'bB4v9etitSrriteftt \rhose finer perceptions had become 
dulled by long familiarity with this crime. So indignant 
do they grow over the thought, we scarcely can persuade 
them that they owe any respect to ancestors who tolerated 
such an evil. 

Just like this will it be, a few generations hence, as the 
youth of that age read of a time when the women of the 
•nation were held in a state of political bondage. " Do you 
mean to say women were compelled to pay taxes and yet 
were refused all representation ? " they will inquire. ** Did 
they collect taxes from women to pay public officials and 
then not permit them to hold any of the offices or vote for 
those who did ? " " Did they compel women to obey the laws 
and not let them help make the laws or select the law- 
makers?" ** Did they allow men who had no property 
to vote taxes on the property of women, to build rail- 
roads, sewers, etc., and not let the women express their 
wishes in respect to these improvements ? " ** Did the most 
ignorant and degraded of foreigners, the lowest and most 
vicious of Americans, the paupers and vagrants, and saloon- 
keepers and drunkards, who happened to be men, have the 
privilege and the power of the ballot, while the hosts of 
church women, and the army of school-teachers, and all the 
wives and mothers were disfranchised because they were 
women ? " And when all these questions are answered in 
the affirmative, these broad-minded and liberally educated 
young people will be filled with contempt for the genera- 
tions that sanctioned this terrible injustice. Then they 
will begin to study the family history, and one will shout 
with triumphant joy, "My father and mother protested 
against these wrongs and fought long and bravely until 
they were abolished ;" and another will discover, with deep 
humiliation and a shame which never can be eradicated, 
that his father voted against equal rights for women, and 
that his mother was a "remonstrant." 


Future generations never can understand the social and 
political conditions which would not permit all citizens to 
have a voice in the municipal government of the city in 
which they lived, owned property, and paid taxes. Even 
we who are living under these conditions can not quite 
comprehend that absolute defiance of equity, justice, and 
right on the part of men who, having the power, refuse to 
grant to women the same privileges in the municipality 
which they themselves enjoy. There is not an interest 
which men have in the good government of the town or 
city that is not shared by women. Take, for instance, 
the question of street improvement, and we find women 
even more anxious for well-paved and cleanly kept streets. 
It is their dresses which must sweep up the debris ; it is 
their thinly shod feet which must suffer from the cobble- 
stones between the street railroad-tracks, and from the 
inequalities of sidewalks and curbstones. Cleanliness is an 
essential characteristic of women, and if they were invested 
with the power to bring it about, the littered and dirty streets 
of our cities would be a thing of the past in a very short time. 
The woman who looks well to the ways of her own house- 
hold would give equally as good attention to the ways of 
the city in which she and her family must live. There is a 
crying need for women in municipal housekeeping. In the 
making of parks, the building of fountains, the planting of 
shade-trees, women would feel even greater interest than 
do men. 

Then we come to the subject of public health; here 
women are vitally interested. If sewers are defective, 
if drainage is bad, if water is impure, women and children, 
as well as men, must suffer ; and it is highly probable that 
women, being less engrossed in business, would look into 
these things with more care than men. There is an idea 
that women are not deeply interested in these things, which 
would not be strange, as they have always been debarred 
from having any part in them, but facts do not bear out 
this theory. The Association of Collegiate Alumnae, com- 


posed of a good many hundreds of the most highly educated 
women in the United States, with all the great questions of 
the day before them, selected the subject of drainage and sew- 
erage for their investigations. They have brought forward a 
collection of valuable statistics and suggestions which have 
attracted the respectful attention of those best acquainted 
with these matters, and promise fruitful results. In New 
York, Indianapolis, Chicago, and a number of cities, the 
women have formed sanitary associations, and petitioned 
the boards of health to permit them to cooperate in the 
eflFort to keep the city clean and to enforce the rules of the 
board. This, at first, has been refused, or grudgingly 
granted, although after a trial their assistance has always 
been pronounced to be desirable. But here we have the 
spectacle, first, of women begging permission to do what is 
plainly their duty and right as citizens to do ; second, per- 
forming without pay a work which men are receiving a salary 
for doing, and this salary women are taxed to pay. *' But," 
they say, " women do not know how to construct sewers, 
lay off streets, build pavements, etc." Neither do men, 
except the few who have learned the business. But women 
have quite as much ability as men to select a good work- 
man, to hold him to a contract, and to punish him for 

A part of municipal business is to build school-houses, em- 
ploy teachers, and decide various questions relating to the 
schools. Why should these matters be solely in the hands 
of men ? Women, as a rule, are much more interested in 
educational matters than men are, and know much more 
about the school-life of the children, the courses of study, and 
the fitness of teachers. They are quite as capable of select- 
ing good locations and building suitable school-houses. 
Over half the States in the Union have given women 
school suflFrage and the right to serve on school boards. 

" But,** they say, " women can not serve on the police 
force." But they can, and do, and should serve as police 
matrons, and the women of our cities are insisting that 


there shall be not only matrons at the police stations, but 
at the jails; and that girls and women in prisons and 
reformatories shall be placed in charge of those of their 
own sex. There are always enough men trying to get on 
the police force to make it improbable that there will be 
any demand for women to serve, and women can continue 
in the future, as in the past, to contribute their share of the 
taxes out of which the salaries of the police force are. paid. 

The Girl's Reformatory and Woman's Prison of Indiana 
is wholly under the management of women, and it is said 
to be one of the most perfectly conducted in the world. In 
the few instances where women have been placed on the 
boards of State and municipal institutions the latter always 
have been benefited. Why is there not a representation of 
women on the boards of all State institutions, for the 
insane, the blind, the deaf-mutes, the feeble-minded, the 
orphans, the criminal ? Do not children and the afflicted, 
above all others, need the attention and sympathy of 
women ? Women have petitioned again and again to serve 
on these boards, and have been refused. They are just as 
much interested as men in these institutions ; their taxes 
help support them ; why must women petition men for a 
representation in their supervision and management ? 

In our large cities the ordinances relating to reform and 
morality are practically a dead letter. A new administra- 
tion goes into power under the most solemn promises to 
enforce existing laws. A few spasmodic efforts are made 
and then the city government drops down to the dead level 
of its predecessor. The saloons openly defy the law; 
gambling flourishes practically unrestrained ; houses of evil 
character are not questioned as to their business. Then 
the people wax indignant with righteous wrath and demand 
REFORM, in large capitals. The political managers of both 
parties hold long and anxious consultations. Where can 
they find candidates who will represent at the same time 
reform and a constituency ? Nobody thinks that this demand 
for reform represents the majority of the votes, but there 


is just enough of a respectable sentiment to make it dan- 
gerous to ignore it. This man can not get the saloon vote, 
and that one can not get the foreign vote. Naturally it 
is not so much of a question what he will do after he is 
elected as whether he can be elected. As a result the con- 
scientious voter finds himself with very little choice among 
candidates. After the election the ofl&cial is continually 
intimidated by the threat that he will injure his party if he 
attempt any measure of reform. 

And thus it goes, and thus it will continue to go until the 
character of the constituency is changed. So long as 
officials are dependent upon a constituency of the ignorant, 
the degraded, the demoralized, the unprincipled, while 
the representation of sobriety, intelligence, and integrity 
remains a minority, just so long shall we have corruption, 
and inefficiency, and cowardice in official life. Changing the 
politics of an administration will not materially change 
results. Nothing could be more absurd than the cry that 
popular government is not a success. Let us first try it 
before we pronounce it a failure. Only one-half of the peo- 
ple have any voice in the management of affairs. The 
better half, the half that stands for the church, the sanctity 
of the marriage tie, the purity of -the home, the correct 
rearing of the children, the promotion of temperance, the 
preservation of virtue, the condemnation of vice — this half 
has been entirely shut out from any participation in munic- 
ipal government. And yet this class possesses in high 
degree the qualities which are most needed and most con- 
spicuously lacking. 

If men had made a grand success of their work in munic- 
ipal government, women might not be so persistent in 
pressing their claims to a representation ; but men have 
made a conspicuous and self-confessed failure. From everj^ 
city in the country comes the same cry of distress, " cor- 
ruption, inefficiency, and cowardice on the part of officials, 
and no hope of anything better." There is hope, there 
is relief, if the debt-burdened and badly governed cities 


will accept it. No general would give up a battle with 
a great force in reserve, only waiting the call to move 
forward. The women of the country are this reserve 
corps. They are vitally interested in every question that 
relates to the municipality ; they are intelligent, patriotic, 
well-informed, and capable ; they have executive ability, 
they are economical, they are resolute in enforcing what is 
right ; they are exacting in demanding the fulfillment of 
pledges. Bring the candidates for municipal office up to 
the requirements of a constituency of women. Make the 
officials answerable to a constituency of women. If men 
can not be found who will be equal to these demands, then 
take the city officials from the able and trustworthy women 
of the community. But there are many men of business 
ability, unimpeachable honesty, and high moral courage 
who would be willing to serve their municipality, if the offices 
could be separated from the influences of corrupt politics 
and politicians. There are many such men who would 
gladly take an interest in municipal politics, and the welfare 
of the city, if they were not in a helpless minority. Re- 
enforce these men with a constituency of women, who will 
assist and sustain them ; recognize the rights of women 
as citizens ; bring in the best element to counteract the 
influence of the worst ; and then, and then only, shall we be 
able to judge of the merits of a government by the people. 

One Phase of Woman's Work for the Municipality — 
Address by Lillian Davis Duncanson of Illinois. 

A woman's home is, or should be, her first consideration, 
and she should let no opportunity escape her to further the 
interests of that home. A home under the influence of a 
good and wise woman who is well informed in municipal 
affairs is the very basis of a better city government. A 
woman not only influences the minds of the young but in 
a great measure directs their future lives. How necessary 


then is it that women should be cognizant of municipal 
affairs for the education of the future administrators ! 

It has been demonstrated in some of our wisest munici- 
palities that causing women to interest themselves in this 
matter has brought to the minds of the people questions of 
vital importance heretofore unnoticed. Why ? Because the 
keen eye and the quick perception belonging to woman have 
been applied to the matter of government, with the cooler 
qualities of man used heretofore alone in city aflfairs. 

The judicious administration of a city government affects 
more the home and its inmates, the women and children, 
than the man in his business. Good municipal government 
means good sanitary conditions and a healthful moral 
atmosphere. Is it not a part of woman's work to see that 
the surroundings for her home and children are the very 
best ? Will casting a vote at the polls alone secure these con- 
ditions ? The personal interest and energy of each woman 
in a municipality is needed to secure these better condi- 
tions for the present and future generations. 

The long-talked-of emancipation of woman will not come 
through voting alone, but must of necessity come through 
broadening the minds of women and interesting them 
in their home governments. Those of you who are visit- 
ing Chicago should organize in your own cities societies or 
leagues for the purpose of bringing this subject to the 
minds of your women. Tell your women of the importance 
of this question, and of the necessity for a thorough course 
of study; aid the men by giving them the valuable sug- 
gestions of thinking women, and all intelligent men will 
honor women for their activity and help. 

To the women of Chicago let me say, keep on with the 
good work ; you have the support of the Chicago men and 
the hearty indorsement of the Chicago press. I make 
this appeal to the younger women, who seem to think that 
time is long and their interest not yet needed. It is the 
younger women, however, who must carry on the work so 
well begun by the pioneers. Then go on with the work. 


The education of the masses is the foundation of munidpal 
reform, and municipal reform the Mecca of our hopes. 

Woman's Participation in Municipal Government — 
Address by Laura M. Johns of Kansas. 

The old State House in the city of Boston has been con- 
verted into a storehouse for articles of historic value. On 
the wall of what was once the House of Representatives 
hangs the best evidence of what was the early idea of the 
proper education for women ; not only the idea, but the idea 
put into practice. This piece of evidence represents a 
diploma of a girl of that time. You know the public 
schools in the United States were not open at first to 
girls. Think of it ! Public schools which excluded girls ! 
That was in the time when men made the laws for all, 
without the interference of meddling women. However, 
there was one of those meddling women — one of those 
remote agitators — who made the almost suicidal attempt 
to investigate the injustice of refusing the future mothers 
and daughters opportunities for education. She went to 
the school authorities, and there she made an appeal for the 
admission of girls to the public schools. The reply made 
was this: "What, shall our good tax money be used to 
school shes?" 

The education of girls at that time was very slight indeed. 
I think we should not call it education now, but simply lack 
of education. They had diplomas, made not of "sheep- 
skin," but of canvas, inscribed by the hand of the fair 
graduate. They did not call them diplomas; they called 
them "samplers." You may have seen a sampler done by 
your grandmother or great-grandmother. It is a piece of 
canvas about twelve inches square, and at the top the alpha- 
bet is worked out in infinitesimal stitches, and if the young 
woman's education was very elaborate she added it in 
Roman characters. This canvas was put under glass and 


framed, and hung on the wall, the pride and admiration of 
the family. The sampler that I saw was worked by the 
daughter of a colonial family. She was rather more ambi- 
tious than the ordinary g^rl, and she had undertaken to 
represent the scene of the Garden of Eden. The tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil arose exactly in the center and 
stood exactly straight. The main branches were exactly at 
right angles. The little twigs hung exactly at right angles, 
and on these hung pumpkin-sized apples that filled me with 
terror for the life of Eve, who reclined luxuriously on paris- 
green grass, the blades of which stood up straight, but at 
very irregular intervals. Eve was fearfully " made up.** 
Her hair was arranged with most elaborate pains, and 
fastened with a comb. It was very plain that Eve never had 
attended a woman's congress, or been in a dress-reform 
meeting, because in the outline of her figure no provision 
was made for the proper functions of her heart, her stom- 
ach, her liver, and her lungs. I feel certain that there was 
no legislation against crinoline, because she had gone to the 
full extent of hoop-skirts ; and Adam stood at the side of the 
tree of knowledge of good and evil resplendent in colored 
waistcoat and knee-breeches and buttoned shoes. 

As far as this wonderful work is from historical accuracy, 
and from truly artistic ideals, so far are the opponents of 
women's advancement from comprehending the true mean- 
ing and intent of this movement. They charge us with 
usurpation of men's prerogatives, with repudiation, and 
with nullification. 

By our participation in the municipal government of 
Kansas we have shown that we are not nuUifiers, but that 
those who would deprive us of suffrage are nullifiers of 
the decrees of the Almighty. The Almighty has decreed 
that each human being shall be responsible for himself. 
They charge us with repudiation because we are mothers ; 
because we are home-makers and home-keepers, because 
we have special duties ; this is to say that we are repudiators 
because we would make youth safe, because we would 

Secretary of the World's Congrress Auxiliary of th« World's Columbian Exposition 


make the city streets clean, and because we would make the 
girls safe. We have repudiated no special duty of women ; 
we believe in those duties, and we urge the further exten- 
sion of them to women. They say we are usurpers of their 
prerogatives. To me it is very silly that women and men 
should talk about women being usurpers of the preroga- 
tives of man. The right has been ours as long as we have 
lived in this country ; as long as we have brought up chil- 
dren ; as long as we have paid our taxes. I say this right 
has been ours, and that we have been deprived of the exer- 
cise" thereof ; and now we are demanding that we shall be 
permitted to exercise all the rights which are ours. But 
these people say we are too conservative to make useful 
voters ; our work shows that we are not too conservative to be 
useful as voters. Our conservatism is not of the sort to 
shrink from duty and right. Whenever a measure requires 
courage we have not been found wanting. A Congressman 
said to me not long ago that we have not a clearly defined 
idea of what we would do with the ballot. I said, " I wish 
you might visit us and satisfy yourself of the worth of the 
women voters in the State of Kansas, and you would see that 
they have very clearly defined ideas, and have carried those 
ideas through and brought their work to a success. The 
men say we are the despair of the parties. We often do 
work at cross-purposes with them, and we arouse antag- 
onism against our sex, but we usually gain our point in 
securing the sort of government we desire. You ask why 
the women of Kansas have voted so largely with the 
Republican party ? I answer, for several strong reasons ; 
one of these is gratitude of the women of the State of 
Kansas to the party which extended to them the municipal 
suffrage. Here is a lesson for all parties, especially in 
those States in which woman suffrage bills are now pend- 
ing. • We have now come to the time of urging the sub- 
mission of a constitutional amendment which provides for 
the full enfranchisement of the women of the State of 
Kansas. It is apparent to all those who stand in the 



suffrage watchtower that the conditions are peculiarly 
favorable for the adoption of this amendment. We are 
hopeful that within eighteen months we shall have full 
citizenship and exercise all the powers of citizens in the 
State of Kansas, and we entreat all friends of this nation to 
bear these things in mind. Consider our situation, remem- 
ber our needs, and come to our aid. While the conditions 
are peculiarly favorable, the difficulties are tremendous. 
The work will be gigantic. We are preparing for the most 
vigorous woman suffrage campaign that has ever been 
conducted in this nation. To do this we must have money. 
All our work will be gratuitous, but we ask that you shall 
help us financially and send us workers, and let each State 
take upon itself the burden of sending to us a speaker, for 
we shall organize in every school district, and every little 
village, and every town. We do not propose to leave a foot 
of the great State unworked. It is a great State, the State of 
Kansas. It is four hundred miles long, two hundred miles 
wide, a thousand miles deep, and as high as the sky. There 
are many people who are coming there who must be con- 
verted. There is a constant immigration, and we can not 
leave a single thing undone. These people are constantly 
coming in, and they must be met. We must teach them 
what the full citizenship of women means. We must 
answer all their opposing arguments, and at last lead them 
triumphantly to the ballot-box to vote for the amendment 
which shall make us politically free. 


" We Kansas women were partially enfranchised in the 
winter of 1 887, and in April came our spring electiorf. In 
our State, as in others, the election is preceded by caucuses 
or primaries. The women were curious to know what 
share they would have in the primaries. About one-half 


of the representatives elected to the nominating convention 
were women." 

Doctor Hall was herself a member of the nominating con- 
vention. She gave an amusing account of the rapid growth 
in the importance attached to her opinions after her election 
to this position. Numerous callers visited her to obtain her 
influence in the convention for themselves or for their 
friends ; all, whatever their opinion concerning woman 
suffrage before that time, expressed their pleasure that 
women were to assist in the nomination of municipal offi- 
cers. These facts were stated to show that the possession 
of political equality by them would increase the respect 
entertained for women in the average mind. 

Organization among Women as an Instrument in Pro- 
moting THE Interests of Political Liberty — Ad- 
dress BY Susan B. Anthony of New York. 

During the week of the presentation of the work of the 
various organizations that have been represented in this 
Congress, organizations from the Old World and the New, 
I have been curious to learn that " all roads lead to Rome." 
That is to say, it doesn*t matter whether an organization is 
called the King's Daughters, the partisan, or non-partisan 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union ; whether it is called 
a Portia club, a sorosis, or a federation of clubs; a mis- 
sionary society to reclaim the heathen of the Fiji Islands 
or an educational association ; whether it is of the Jewish, 
of the Catholic, of the Protestant, of the Liberal, or the 
other sort of religion ; somehow or other, everybody and 
every association that has spoken or reported has closed up 
with the statement that what they are waiting for is the 

Another curious thing I have noted as I have listened to 
their reports is, that one association, the Federation of Clubs, 
which is only three years old — not old enough to vote yet — 


can count forty thousand members ; that the Relief Associa- 
tions of Utah, which is perhaps a quarter of a century 
old, reports thirty thousand members ; that the Christian 
Temperance Union, which is yet but a little past its 
second decade, can report a half-million members; that 
the King's Daughters, only seven years old, can report 
two hundred thousand members; and so I might run 
through with all the organizations of the Old and the New 
worlds that have reported here, and I will venture to say 
that there is scarcely one of them that does not report a 
larger number than the Woman's Suffrage Association of 
the United States. Now why is it ? I will tell you frankly 
and honestly that all we number is seven thousand. This 
is the number that reported this year to the national 
organization, which is an association composed of all the 
State societies and local societies that are united and that 
pay a little money. These other societies have a fee, or 
I suppose they do. But I want to say that all this great 
national suffrage movement that has made this immense 
revolution in this country, has done the work of agitation, 
and has kept up what Daniel Webster called it, " this rum- 
pus of agitation,** probably represents a smaller number of 
women, and especially represents a smaller amount of 
money to carry on its work than any other organization 
under the shadow of the American flag. We have known 
how to make the noise, you see, and how to bring the 
whole world to our organization in spirit, if not in person. 
I would philosophize on the reason why. It is because 
women have been taught always to work for something else 
than their own personal freedom ; and the hardest thing in 
the world is to organize women for the one purpose of 
securing their political liberty and political equality. It is 
easy to congregate thousands and hundreds of thousands 
of women to try to stay the tide of intemperance ; to try to 
elevate the morals of a community ; to try to educate the 
masses of the people ; to try to relieve the poverty of the mis- 
erable ; but it is a very difficult thing to make the masses of 


women, any more than the masses of men, congregate in 
great numbers to study the cause of all the ills of which 
they complain, and to organize for the removal of that 
cause ; to organize for the establishment of great principles 
that will be sure to bring about the results which they so 
much desire. 

Now, friends, I can tell you a great deal about what the 
lack of organization means, and what a hindrance this lack 
has been in the great movement with which I have been 
associated. If we could have gone to our State legislatures 
saying that we had numbered in our association the vast 
masses of the women; five millions of women in these 
United States who sympathize with us in spirit, and who wish 
we might gain the end ; if we could have demonstrated to 
the Congress of the United States, and to the legislatures of 
the respective States, that we had a thorough organization 
back of our demand, we should have had all our demands 
granted long ago, and each one of the organizations which 
have come up here to talk at this great congress of women 
would not have been compelled to climax its report with 
the statement that they are without the ballot, and with the 
assertion that they need only the ballot to help them carry 
their work on to greater success. I want every single 
woman of every single organization of the Old World and 
the New that has thus reported, and that does feel that 
enfranchisement, that political equality is the underlying 
need to carry forward all the great enterprises of the world — 
I want each one to register herself, so that I can report them 
all at Washington next winter, and we will carry every 
demand which you want. 

I want you to remember that Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery 
is to make the closing speech, and that this meeting is not 
adjourned ; and I want all of you to bear in mind that the 
two young women who have made this Congress possible 
are my children. They were educated in this very small 
company, this small organization of which I am a member ; 
and I am proud to say that that organization has gradu- 


ated a great many first-class students, and among them 
none so near to my heart as May Wright Sewall and 
Rachel Foster Avery. 



I am going to call your attention to two gjeat reasons 
why we ought to have the right to vote. The primary 
reason is because we ought to have industrial equality with 
men. What is the reason that so many women are asking 
for the privilege of the ballot ? It has been said that no 
women except a few unhappy wives and disappointed old 
maids want to vote. Who, then, are the people that have 
been occupying the platforms of this Congress? What does 
political liberty mean for woman? It has been bitterly 
said that in the markets of the world there is nothing so 
cheap as womanhood, and it is literally true. Place that 
saying beside this other, that woman is to-day paid for her 
dishonor better than for anything else. Now we are asking 
for these privileges in order that the humblest and the 
highest workers may have equal pay with men for equal 
work. Not better, but the same. You ask, ** What good 
will the ballot do ? " We have in the State of New York 
thirty thousand women teachers, paid only about two-thirds 
as much as the men who work beside them, who are as 
good teachers, if not better than the men. Suppose these 
women were voters ; they would then control every assem- 
bly district in the State. You will see then why these 
women want to have the right to vote. 

One other point is that women ought to have equality 
before the law in all respects, and protection under it. 
There is an infamous law which still prevails through the 
length and breadth of the United States, with only a few 
exceptions, which gives the father the absolute control of 
the child. Now in New York, within a few weeks past, the 


law has been changed so that the father and the mother are 
joint guardians of the child. How long are we going to 
have the protection of this law? In i860 a liberal law was 
passed, and it stood for more than eleven years on the 
statute books, and then an infamous legislator, for the 
benefit of a friend, had the law repealed, and for twenty 
years we had to endure that awful law. We have now 
had the law amended, but how long can we keep it? I 
tell you without the ballot, without the protection it gives, 
we are not secure in any right. The ballot is the founda- 
tion of political liberty. 

On the dome of the Capitol of the United States there 
is the Statue of Liberty. All of you who have ever seen it 
recollect how she is represented. When that statue was to 
be designed a committee of Congress was appointed to 
determine upon the design, and upon that committee was 
Jefferson Davis, then a Senator of the United States. One 
of the members proposed to represent the Goddess of Lib- 
erty with an ordinary Phrygian cap. Jeflferson Davis said, 
"No, that cap was worn by a slave; Liberty has always 
been free. Put upon her a helmet.'* And that is the way 
that Liberty stands, helmeted, and with sword and shield. 
If women were made free to-day, the Phrygian cap would 
be appropriate, because we have so long been slaves. We 
hope the time will come when emancipated woman will 
stand with the helmet on her head, with the shield of purity 
on her arm, and the sword of truth in her hand. 

Woman's Position and Influence in the Civil Law — 
Address by Martha Strickland of Michigan. 

A consideration of woman's position in the civil law — 
that is, in our present system of jurisprudence, more prop- 
erly called " municipal law" — necessarily involves a con- 
sideration of our earliest English ancestors, of their mental 
and physical qualities, the climate and material environ- 


inent in which they lived, their origin and growth as a 
people, and their development into a nation — all, in short, 
which goes to make up the character of a government. 

M. Taine, in his " History of English Literature," says : 
*' At the basis of the present, as of the past, ever reappears 
an inner and persistent cause, the character of a race." 
This is as true of the jurisprudence as of the religion and 
literature of a people. The law under which we live to-day 
in this country is made up of common law and sicatute law, 
the unwritten and the written law, and much the greater 
part of our rights and duties is found in that body of legal 
principles which became established through the usage of 
the English people to the time of the American Revolu- 
tion. This is the source, primarily, of all the rights and 
disabilities, the privileges and duties of the American 
woman of the present. To find our status in the law we 
necessarily turn to this vast body of precedents, and we 
find that the English common law bears the stamp of the 
early Anglo-Saxon character. The Saxons were a warlike 
and a brawny race ; they loved freedom, but it was the 
freedom of a semi-savage state; they maintained rights, 
but such rights as military minds conceive; they fought 
for equality, and the fighters were the ones who obtained 
it ; they established institutions bearing the stamp of their 
own character, and that these institutions were in the like- 
ness of sturdy and material natures may be traced in the 
Constitution of England and in the principles of the com- 
mon law. Notwithstanding the occupation of the British 
Island by the Romans, their mental development and 
esthetical culture found no congenial home in the rude 
time and among the rude inhabitants of the northern 
island, by whom it could not be assimilated; when, there- 
fore, the Southern conquerors withdrew, the British nature 
reasserted itself. 

The Normans carried to England the pride of conquest 
and feudal learning. They fettered the people with the 
most rigorous of feudal governments and held the bold and 


fearless Saxon spirit in subjection ; still the hardy norf hem 
stock made its influence felt, and stamped with its charac- 
ter the institutions which became established in England. 
Vital through the oppressions and suppressions of the 
conquest, the Anglo-Saxon rights became the rights of 
Norman England. For centuries in the south of Europe 
there had existed a civilization — the Romaa — in which the 
idea of freedom included the freedom of wife and mother to 
a considerable degfree ; but to the northward was developed 
a semi-civilization where freedom, equally cherished, per- 
tained to the only recognized force in society — the man. 
In a wilderness, and among warlike tribes, it takes mascu- 
line force and masculine courage to maintain life for self 
and family ; and to these qualities would naturally attach 
the rights and duties of social government. Hence, while 
Southern Europe, in the Roman civilization, presents to the 
historian a society made up of individuals where the war- 
like and the peaceful, the muscular and the nervous, the 
masculine and the feminine natures have almost equal free- 
dom — a society where the individual is the unit of govern- 
ment — Northern Europe, and especially the British Islands, 
presents to the same observer a society whose fundamental 
principle is that the family is the unit of government. The 
sunny skies of Italy smiled upon the queenly mother, the 
inspirer of youths, but the foggy air of Britain enveloped 
a servant ministering to the physical wants of her house- 
hold. Held close in the protection of the master the Saxon 
mother reared her family and labored for the future, as she 
could not have done in a sphere forbidden to her alike by 
natural and human law ; the muscular, the material rep- 
resentatives of the human race ruled the civilization 
which founded the British Government, and, as already 
said, their rights, their legal privileges are the ones embod- 
ied in the common law. To the time of the American 
Revolution this common law is our law. Since then it has 
been modified in two ways — by a subtle, almost impercept- 
ible and gradual change, caused by the development of the 


minds of our jurists to a broader perception of the rights 
and needs of humanity; and by statutory enactments 
which directly and positively change the law from time to 
time in certain particulars. It is the province of the courts 
not to make law but to expound it, and were it not for the 
inevitable change in the perceptions of mankind as to the 
principles of right and justice there would be no modifi- 
cation of the common law ; but it is impossible for many 
judges of varied experiences always to expound the same 
principles in the same way, and it therefore follows that a 
minimum amount of change does take place in the unwrit- 
ten law of a people. To this fact woman owes in a slight 
degree an improved position in the law ; that which is held 
in one period by one court to be justifiable, in accord with 
the rights of a husband and father, is held in a later period 
by another court to be extreme cruelty and violative of the 
right and privilege of the wife and mother ; and thus in 
respect to physical coercion, to domicile, and to the nurt- 
ure and control of children, the law of husband and wife, 
and therefore the status of woman, has been modified. 

It is, however, in the statute law of America, and particu- 
larly in that of the more western States, that we find the 
real innovations which have removed the common law 
disabilities of woman, so far as yet they have been re- 
moved. The statute law, however, never applied to the 
whole body of the common law, but only to certain par- 
ticular features of it, as the specific matters were brought 
from time to time to the attention of our legislators. It 
follows that the changes are fragmentary, and to a con- 
siderable extent inconsistent and inharmonious with the 
common law, so that the real status of woman to-day is 
based only upon the old common-law disability growing 
out of the theory of the unity of the family, while at the 
same time here and there she holds a position of con- 
siderable freedom and power. She still is, if married, 
only a part of an entity. She lives in a state of covert- 
ure ; that is, a subject condition in which she is covered, 


or held, or protected by the stronger member of the family 
— her husband. Therefore, he represents her ; therefore, 
her domicile follows his; therefore, his judgment as to 
the care, nurture, and control of her children is authori- 
tative. As a matter of law, in nearly all of the States of 
the Union the man possesses by virtue of his fatherhood 
the right to the custody and control of the children ; but 
by statutory changes in most of the States he does not 
now, as formerly, upon marriage, become possessed of such 
property as his wife may then own ; still, he has the right 
to-day (in spite of the statutes giving to a married woman 
the right to own and hold property hers before marriage, 
and that acquired by gift or purchase afterward) to collect 
her wages in the most liberal and enlightened States of 
the Union. 

No longer than one year ago the Supreme Court of the 
State of Michigan directly held this doctrine, thereby merely 
announcing a familiar principle of the common law which 
had never in that State been repealed. The case is an 
interesting one from the illustration it presents of the fact 
that the most enlightened judgment of to-day may be 
wholly in advance of the existing law. The circumstances 
were these : 

An elderly gentleman of property becoming ill was taken 
into the home of a neighbor and by the woman of the house 
kindly nursed until his death. When his estate was being 
administered in the Probate Court the woman presented 
her claim for services ; it was denied. There was no dispute 
of her having performed them, nor of their value, but the 
court held that the woman, being a wife, had no right of 
action ; that her services belonged to her husband, and must 
be considered as rendered for him ; that the claim being made 
in her name, and there being no evidence of an assignment 
to her of the claim from her husband, she had no right of 
action and could not recover. The case was carried 
through the circuit to the Supreme Court of the State, 
where the doctrine of the Probate Court was reaffirmed. 


In another case passed upon by the same court at the same 
term a similar affirmation of a common-law disability was 
made, although, owing to the nature of the case, it operated 
to the immediate benefit of the wife. A married woman 
owning certain real estate neglected to pay her taxes, 
whereupon the marshal, with a tax-warrant for their collec- 
tion, levied upon her personal property, consisting of cloth- 
ing and other personal possessions. A part of the property 
levied upon had belonged to her before marriage, but most 
of it consisted of clothing purchased and made in the 
" ordinary course of married life," as the court stated in 
rendering the decision. The husband thereupon brought 
replevin for the property from the marshal, setting up, as 
of course he must, his personal ownership of the property, 
being careful to replevin only that which had been pur- 
chased during marriage. This case also found its way to 
the Supreme Court, and the right of action in the husband 
was maintained and he recovered the property ; thus, you 
see, by a curious anomaly, wresting the common-law disa- 
bility of the wife to the purpose supposed by some to be 
inimical to the common-law unity of the family, that of a 
wife's wearing her husband's clothes. 

Perhaps in no one feature of the law has there been 
greater change by statutory enactment than in that of dis- 
solution of the marriage bond in case of ill-doing of one of 
the parties. The statutes of the States are too various for 
presentation here, but in a general way certain principles 
characterizing the innovations may be given. In spite of 
the popular belief to the contrary, fostered by the sensual 
and sometimes incomplete newspaper reports of the pro- 
ceedings in divorce cases, it is a principle of universal 
application that dissolution can not be had where both 
parties are at fault. It is only for evil-doing on the part 
of one, with right-doing on the part of the other that 
divorce is legally granted. Again, contrary also to a some- 
what prevalent opinion, divorce is not granted for incom- 
patibility, and never is it granted from the standpoint of the 


law when desired by both parties. The one must have done 
wrong, contrary to the wish of the. other, and that other 
have sought redress against the desire of the one, if relief 
is to be obtained. Should the knowledge of an agreement 
between the parties for the obtaining of the divorce come 
to the court before decree the case is lost ; should it come 
after decree the divorce is held invalid. This wrong-doing 
must be that specified by the statute of the particular State 
in which relief is sought, and that "State must be the State 
in which the one seeking relief has bona fide residence. 
Over and over again divorces have been held invalid by the 
courts of the State in which the applicant really resided, 
though granted by a sister State in which residence had 
been falsely claimed. It may be said that, as a matter of 
fact, divorces are frequently granted where mutually 
desired. This is very true, but the mutal desire does not, 
and must not, appear in the proceedings. Should it do so 
it would be fatal to the case. What appears in these 
cases is that the defendant does not defend, obviously 
because he is guilty and therefore has no defense, so argues 
the law ; but even then the complainant must make his or 
her case. Decree for divorce can not be taken upon the 
confession of judgment. True, it is not necessary to make 
so strong a case against one not defending, but it must be 
made by proof establishing clearly the commission of the 
wrong-doing prescribed by the statute as a cause for disso- 
lution. The self-respecting lawyer takes infinitely more 
care in his preparation and presentation of a divorce case 
when it is defended than in any other, for his chances of 
success are at the minimum, the number of victories in 
contested divorce cases averaging less than in any other 
kind of litigation, with the possible exception of litigation 
between a person friendless and in poverty and a powerful 
corporation. The theory of the law of divorce is that it is 
granted to the innocent party as a relief from the statutory 
wrong-doing of the other, and as a punishment to the guilty 
one. The grounds of divorce provided by the laws of the 


more liberal States are, generally speaking, adultery, impo- 
tency, extreme and inhuman cruelty, gross and wanton 
nonsupport of wife with ability to support, and desertion. 
In the case of desertion especially there must be unwilling- 
ness on the part of the innocent party. It is not desertion 
if the one deserted is willing the other shall go. The 
statutes in this case provide the period for which the deser- 
tion shall have continued before constituting' a ground for 

These are in the main the principles underlying the 
present divorce laws. As before said, the statutes are not 
uniform, many of the States permitting divorce for the sole 
cause, adultery ; others prescribing more than the one cause, 
but not all of those given above. There is, too, a great dif- 
ference in the holdings of the court as to what constitutes 
gross and wanton non-support and extreme cruelty. I know 
of a case in which a learned judge writing a dissenting 
opinion, and holding that a decree of divorce should not 
be granted, intimated that the evidence showed the hus- 
band had choked his wife, and had given her physical blows, 
but notwithstanding, gathering from the testimony that she 
had married her husband with a view of support, held, to 
quote his language, that " she should be prepared to abide 
by the ordinary inconveniences of married life." On the 
other hand, it is not uncommon for the judicial mind to see 
that certain phases of conduct wholly apart from physical 
abuse and indignity may constitute more extreme cruelty 
than any amount of physical violence. Thus there is great 
latitude for different administration of the same statute by 
the exercise of discretion by the various courts. Especially 
do we find this variance in the administration of the law 
relating to the custody and control of children in cases of 
separation of the parents. Where they do not separate, 
there is, as we have already seen, no question as to this, for 
the guardianship vests in the father by virtue of his father- 
hood. In case of separation he formerly took the child. 
Now some of the most liberal statutes provide that the 


children below a specified age shall be put in the custody 
and control of the mother, and that those over that age 
shall remain under the control of the father; but these 
statutes are themselves subject to the discretion of the 
judge upon the point of the welfare of the child, and no 
judge is required to make other disposition upon this point 
than that which he deems desirable. It follows, therefore, 
that in some Courts children are frequently confided to the 
mother, while in other courts, under the same statute, and 
upon the same state of facts, they are retained by the 

As a consequence of the father's legal guardianship of 
the child, he has the right to appoint the testamentary 
guardian, and formerly he could do so without regard to 
the wishes of the mother. In certain States this right has 
been modified ; in others it remains unchanged. In Michi- 
gan, although he may appoint the testamentary guardian, 
the Probate Court, before confirming the appointment, on 
the probating of the will, is required to cite the mother to 
appear before it and g^ve her view of the appointment. 
There is nothing, however, which binds the judge to 
regard the mother's view, so that really the law is not 
greatly improved. 

The legal unity of husband and wife has perhaps been 
more strenuously retained in the matter of their testifying 
for or against each other in the courts, and also in regard 
to an action by the wife for the tort of the husband, than in 
any other particular. In some States if the consent of the 
husband or wife is given the testimony of the other may be 
taken. In other States not even this is allowed. Until 
very recently the wife has been supposed to be incompetent 
to bring an action of tort against her husband. In so far as 
the statutes of the various States have removed common- 
law disabilities and secured positive rights to women, they 
have done so by departing from the common-law theory 
of the family as the unit of society and recognizing the 
distinctive individuality of the married woman. It must 


ever be that partial changes, not affecting the underlying 
principles of law, can give but incomplete relief. 

So far the law has been considered with regard to the 
status or position of the married woman. The changes 
relating to woman irrespective of marriage are chiefly 
those gfranting the franchise and relating to her right to 
office. In many of the States woman has modified suffrage. 
This is granted generally upon matters relating to schools. 
In a few of the States she has municipal suffrage, and in 
one full suffrage. 

Her right to office is more extended. She has a common- 
law right to the offices called ministerial as distinguished 
from judicial. To the former, the English decisions from 
James I. down establish her right. This right was first 
recognized as a consequence of her inheritance of property. 
In early times in England she could not inherit the estates 
of her ancestors; but later improper feuds came to be 
recognized in the law, and these, it was held, might descend 
to a woman. Finally her right to the offices attached to her 
estate was recognized, and from this beginning is to be 
traced her common-law right to office. The question fre- 
quently came before the courts in those early days, and the 
right was sustained upon the theory that the offices being 
ministerial their functions were susceptible of exercise 
through a deputy, and therefore woman, being able to 
appoint a deputy, might hold the title to the office. In such 
offices as require discretion deputies can not act, and these 
she could not hold. Curiously enough, this distinction has 
led to the anomaly that under it woman to-day is eligible 
to offices for which she is perhaps by nature least fitted; 
while many, regarding her fitness for which there can be 
no question, can not be occupied by her unless through 
statutory provisions. She may hold those in which a 
deputy may be appointed, though it be of so uncongenial a 
nature as that of constable or sheriff ; she may not hold 
such as require the exercise of discretion, though it be one 
so congenial as that of legislator, governor, or judge. 


Leaving the subject of woman's status in the law and 
approaching that of her influence, we come from a field 
rich with realities to one almost barren, unless it be in the 
promises of future possibilities. Woman*s direct influence 
in the law can scarcely be said to exist, except in the few 
localities, already mentioned, where she has the franchise. 
Neither in the making of the law nor in administering it 
has she any direct influence ; the most she can be said to 
have is the right of petition, and this right she is every- 
where claiming. In many States this indirect influence has 
been felt in legislation relating to education, temperance, 
and sexual morality. There can be no question but that 
the sentiment of women in this direction has had a power- 
ful indirect influence, and that our laws are from year to 
year becoming more and more (by fragments, of course) in 
harmony with their views. 

It is in the administration of the law that her influence 
is least felt. So recently and so limitedly has she been 
received in the courts as an attorney, and so wholly is 
the entire personnel of the courts, with this single excep- 
tion, made up of men, that her influence there can scarcely 
be claimed as available. This, in my judgment, is one of 
the most lamentable features of woman*s position and in- 
fluence in the law. The differences between man's nature 
and woman's nature are a bar, eternal as are nature's laws, 
to the equitable administration of justice by men alone. 
Men can not know all the subtle springs of feeling and 
action hidden within woman's complex organization. They 
can not measure her needs by their own, nor mark for her 
the path which her own nature and her nature's God traces 
through the wilderness of human thought and action. 
And yet from the paved market-place in ancient Rome, 
where sat the magistrates for the transaction of their busi- 
ness, to the wider forum of civilized America, woman's 
legal rights have been brought to the bar of masculine 
knowledge and manly chivalry. The result is that women 
have suffered, and through women all humanity. For 



broad as is man's outlook upon the world of knowledge, 
and deep as are the well-springs of his love and tenderness 
for woman, that complete appreciation of needs and innate 
sympathy with wants which members of one sex alone can 
have for one another, and which is the golden heart of 
justice, has been wanting to his adjudications. It is some- 
times claimed that men are better friends to women than 
women are to one another. All womanly, worldly expe- 
rience denies this. Men are, it is true, generous lovers; 
but when it comes to a matter of simple, true, appreciative 
friendship, that of women for women can not be surpassed, 
and is equaled only by that of men for men. There is an 
innate knowledge that comes from sameness of organiza- 
tion, which seizes upon the difficulties of life and solves the 
problem for weal or woe without delay or difficulty. This 
innate knowledge women have of women, and men of men ; 
but the distinct individuality of the sexes forbids it to one 
sex of the other, and so we find that the administration of 
law involving women's interests to-day wants the complete 
justice which the advanced thought of the time demands. 
Not only must women, for the establishment of their com- 
plete rights, be represented at the bar by those of legal 
knowledge who are capable of viewing their interests from 
the standpoint of perfect sympathy, but they should be able 
to take their rights and wrongs to courts capable of the 
same perfect understanding, and submit their causes to 
juries of their fellow-women — to juries of their unques- 
tioned peers. Perhaps among all the innovations in 
Edward Bellamy's wonderful book, ** Looking Backward," 
the most important is the one answering this need. He 
pictures to us a system in which causes where both parties 
are women are tried before women judges, while those 
where the litigants are a man and a woman are tried before 
judges of either sex. This is what we need now ; and it is 
as well adapted to our own time as to the year 2000 — at 
least it is as well adapted as any scheme for the advance- 
ment of women can be under our present industrial system. 


It may not be necessary that in every case where women 
are litigants only women should be upon the bench and 
jury. It probably would be better that both sexes be rep- 
resented even then. There can not be as rounded, com- 
plete, harmonious action in any department of life by men 
or women alone as there can be by both. 

Humanity is dual in its nature, and the masculine and 
feminine qualities gain additional strength and perfection 
through union with each other. Possibly, nay, I would 
say certainly, woman's judgment upon woman might well 
be tempered by that mercy toward women which is the 
proverbial quality of man. But the knowledge each sex 
has of its own needs is, after all, the chief requisite in 
judge and jury ; and if the qualities of both sexes are not to 
be brought into play, then by all means let women's inter- 
ests be the especial care of women, and men's interests be 
the especial care of men. In the practice of the law the 
opinion has been forced upon me that not only is there 
need of women lawyers, but of women in all parts of our 
judicial system. Now it is a mother asking for the 
custody of her child, and that too in a State where the 
laws are so liberal that in case of separation of father and 
mother the mother 'v& prima facie entitled to its custody, and 
the burden of proof is upon the father to show the mother's 
unfitness; but the judge, admitting the mother's perfect 
competency, gives the custody of a little deaf and dumb 
girl of nine years to the father, because, as stated by him, 
" the father appears to love the child, and I think would 
suffer very much in giving it up." Again, when an un- 
happy wife and mother wins relief from bonds not longer 
to be endured because of the fault of the husband and 
father, and is given, as she should be, the custody of her 
children, it is of almost universal practice for the judge, in 
dividing the property acquired during the marriage, to give 
the wife often less, but never more, than one-third of the 
estate. From this third she must support and rear her 
children and maintain herself, handicapped as she is both 


by her sex and her guardianship of her little ones ; while 
their father, with none but himself to support, and better 
equipped by nature and social economic conditions for a 
struggle with the world, is permitted to retain two-thirds 
of the whole. The judge is familiar with the wants of 
men in the business world ; he knows the needs of the man 
for capital, and he reasons, ** If I take from him more 
than a third of his property he will be crippled, and perhaps 
can not keep his business standing," etc.; and so, without 
meaning to be heartless or unfair, he, because of his incom- 
petency to view the situation of the woman from the stand- 
point ^of experience, fails in complete equity. A woman 
would know full well the difficulties to be met by a mother 
thus thrown upon her own resources, and would add the 
weight of her knowledge to the decision. There is, per- 
haps, in the whole range of our daily experience no more 
glaring inconsistency than the failure to give women their 
full property rights, while at the same time deprecating 
their entering various new fields for their own and their 
children's support. " Women should remain in the home : 
they have higher and holier duties to perform than that of 
bread-winning," is cried from every side ; and then straight- 
way, if their rightful protector fails in his duty, instead of 
giving his substance to the woman so that she may remain 
in the home and fill her " proper sphere," the court gives 
her a paltry part, and she is left to perish in that home, or 
to go out into the world and compete with man for daily 

But space does not admit of relating the cases which have 
demonstrated to me the truth of my position. I must con- 
tent myself with showing its antecedent probability from 
propositions admitted by all, and the assertion that my expe- 
rience confirms it. In the relations of husband and wife, 
parent and child, guardian and ward — all the domestic rela- 
tions, in short — a little thought will show that woman's 
knowledge — woman's instinct, if so you please to call it — 
should find play in their adjustment. What can the man 


and father know of the vital interests of the woman and 
mother? He can learn something from what he sees as, 
standing upon the eminence of fatherhood, he looks up to 
the summit of motherhood towering beyond him. But, ah ! 
who shall say what verdant depths, what crystal springs of 
thought and feeling are hidden beyond his ken ! Do not 
misunderstand me. I am not arraigning man's wisdom, 
man's love of justice, or that attribute which gives the charm 
of poesy to life's prosaic details — man's chivalry; I am 
merely saying that there are some things men do not know, 
that men can not learn, and that women do know. Neither 
do I arraign the past, nor fail to see how natural it is that 
we to-day are suffering the necessary results of having out- 
grown our environment. Our civilization had its birth in a 
crude and barbarous age ; and especially, as we have seen, 
did our common law spring from a condition far (different 
from the present. It had its origin and early development 
when the material interests of life were uppermost ; when 
the muscular, the aggressive qualities of human nature 
were the ones required for the establishment of human 
rights and the maintenance of human government. And 
so man, by nature endowed with the ability to cope 
with the necessities of those times, was the active element 
in society and government, and naturally gave the color- 
ing of his nature to the jurisprudence which developed. 
In this jurisprudence woman, the member of the human 
race representing by her weaker physical organization and 
her peculiar qualities of mind the more esthetic and ethical 
interests of the race, held the place of ward, so to speak, 
to the dominant sex. It was sought to protect her, that 
her high mission of motherhood might not be jeopardized 
by contact with the crude and incongruous influences of 
outer life in a material age. And it is well. Who shall say 
what development the race may not have reached from 
this very protection ; from the seclusion incident to the con- 
dition of coverture and dependence ! We can not know. 
The most that we can say is that whatever of greatness and 


glory womanhood has reached has been achieved under the 
conditions men have imposed. That other conditions would 
have produced better results is not known, and does not to 
me seem probable. Now, however, all is changed, or at 
least is changing. The material world is well-nigh subdued. 
Man's dominion over the earth is accomplished. There is 
developing a desire for a more esthetic and ethical era 
among mankind. After a little, upon the world of human 
life there will burst the full day of woman's emancipation. 
In that day will be recognized the distinct individuality of 
her nature, and the need for full and perfect justice, that 
her qualities of head and heart may be brought into play. 
Then in the forum she will take her place by the side of 
her brother man, endowed with full powers to administer 
justice. The two shall form a perfect whole, each part 
supplementing the other, and each giving to the other 
the benefit of a different organization and a different 

From this view of woman's position and influence in the 
civil law let us gather hope for the future of humanity. 
Gradual as the change from her condition of dependence 
to her present anomalous position of semi-independence 
has been, we can see that it is in the logic of human 
progress for her to attain equality. 

The Ethics of Suffrage — Address by Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton of New York. 

The basic idea of the republic is the right of self-govern- 
ment ; the right of every citizen to choose his own repre- 
sentatives and to make the laws under which he lives ; and 
as this right can be secured only by the exercise of the 
right of suffrage, the ballot in the hands of every qualified 
person indicates his true political status as a citizen in a 

The right of suffrage is simply the right to govern one's 


self. Every human being is bom into the world with this 
right, and the desire to exercise it comes naturally with the 
responsibilities of life. " The highest earthly desire of a 
ripened mind," says Thomas Arnold, " is the desire to 
take an active share in the great work of government." 
Those only who are capable of appreciating this dignity 
can measure the extent to which women are defrauded as 
citizens of this great republic ; neither can others measure 
the loss to the councils of the nation of the wisdom of rep- 
resentative women. 

When men say that women do not desire the right of 
suffrage, but prefer masculine domination to self-govern- 
ment, they falsify every page of history, every fact of 
human nature. The chronic condition of rebellion, even of 
children against the control of nurses, elder brothers, sisters, 
parents, and teachers, is a protest in favor of the right of 
self-government. Boys in schools and colleges find their 
happiness in disobeying rules, in circumventing and defy- 
ing teachers and professors ; and their youthful pranks are 
so many protests against a government in which they have 
no voice, and afford one of the most pleasing topics of 
conversation in after life. 

The general unrest of the subjects of kings, emperors, 
and czars, expressed in secret plottings or open defiance 
against self-constituted authorities, shows the settled hatred 
of all people for governments to which they have not 
consented. But it is said that on this point women are 
peculiar, that they differ from all other classes, that being 
dependent they naturally prefer being governed by others. 
The facts of history contradict the assertion. These show 
that women have always been, as far as they dared, in a 
state of half -concealed resistance to fathers, husbands, and 
all self -constituted authorities ; as far as good policy per- 
mitted them to manifest their real feelings they have done 
so. It has taken the whole power of the civil and canon 
law to hold woman in the subordinate position which it is 
said she willingly accepts. If woman had no will, no self- 


assertion, no opinions of her own to start with, what mean 
the terrible persecutions of the sex in the past ? 

So persistent and merciless has been the effort to dominate 
the feminine element in humanity, that we may well won- 
der at the steady resistance maintained by woman through 
the centuries. She has shown all along her love of individ- 
ual freedom, her desire for self-government; while her 
achievements in practical affairs and her courage in the 
great emergencies of life have vindicated her capacity to 
exercise this right. 

These, one and all, are so many protests against absolute 
authority and so many testimonials in favor of self-govern- 
ment ; and yet this is the only form of government that has 
never been fairly tried. 

The few experiments that have been made here and 
there in some exceptional homes, schools, and territories 
have been only partially successful, because the surround- 
ing influences have been adverse. When we awake to the 
fact that our schools are places for training citizens of a 
republic, the rights and duties involved in self-government 
will fill a larger place in the curriculum of our universities. 

Woman suffrage means a complete revolution in our gov- 
ernment, religion, and social life ; a revision of our Constitu- 
tion, an expurgated edition of our statute laws and codes, civil 
and criminal. It means equal representation in the halls of 
legislation and in the courts of justice ; that woman may be 
tried by her own peers, by judges and advocates of her 
own choosing. It means light and sunshine, mercy and 
peace in our dungeons, jails, and prisons ; the barbarous 
idea of punishment superseded by the divine idea of refor- 
mation. It means police matrons in all our station-houses, 
that young girls when arrested during the night, intoxi- 
cated and otherwise helpless, may be under the watchful 
eye of judicious women, and not left wholly to the mercy 
of a male police. 

In religion it means. the worship of humanity rather than 
of an unknown God ; a church in which the feminine ele- 


ment in Christianity will be recognized, in which the 
mother of the race shall be more sacred than symbols, sac- 
raments, and altars ; more worthy of reverence than bishops 
and priests. 

A government and a religion that do not recognize the 
complete equality of woman are unworthy our intelligent 
support. And what does woman suffrage mean in social 
life ? Health and happiness for women and children ; one 
code of morals for men and women; love and liberty, 
peace and purity in the home ; cleanliness and order in the 
streets and alleys; good sanitary arrangements in the 
homes of the poor ; good morals and manners taught in 
the schools; the crippling influence of fear of an angry 
God, a cunning devil, censorious teachers, severe parents, 
all lifted from the minds of children, so long oppressed 
with apprehensions of danger on every side. We can not 
estimate the loss to the world in this repression of indi- 
vidual freedom and development through childhood and 

Woman suffrage means a new and nobler type of men 
and women, with mutual love and respect for each other ; 
it means equal authority in the home ; equal place in the 
trades and professions ; equal honor and credit in the world 
of work. 

Our civilization to^ay is simply masculine. Everjrthing 
is carried by force, and violence, and war, and will be until 
the feminine element is fully recognized and has equal 
power in the regulation of human affairs. Then we shall 
substitute cooperation for competition, persuasion for coer- 
cion ; then we shall have everywhere 

Two heads in council, two beside the hearth. 

Two in the tangled business of the world, 

Two in the liberal offices of life, 

Two plummets dropped for one to sound the abyss 

Of science and the secrets of the mind. 


If woman suffrage means all this, surely it is the greatest 
question ever before any nation for consideration, and 
imperatively demands the prompt attention of the leading 
minds of our day ; and women themselves must make this 
the primal question in their own estimation. 

The enfranchisement of women in England and America 
would give new dignity, self-respect, and hope to the women 
of every nation in the uttermost isles of the sea. 

It is a singular fact that we have never been able to enlist 
any large number of women to labor with enthusiasm for 
their own emancipation. They will work with the utmost 
self-sacrifice for temperance, political parties, churches, 
foreign missions, charity fairs, monuments, anything and 
everything but their own emancipation. I heard a young 
clergyman say that the ladies of his congregation had given 
him in one year thirteen pairs of embroidered slippers and 
twenty dressing-gowns, and probably not one of them would 
give a dollar a year for a woman suffrage paper ; and yet 
this is the most momentous reform that has yet been 
launched on the world — the first organized protest against 
the injustice which has brooded over the character and 
destiny of one-half the human race. 

A tariff for revenue, a silver currency, the annexation of 
Hawaii, our fisheries in Bering Straits, the comparative 
merits of the Republican and Democratic parties, or even 
the success of the World's Fair — important as these all 
are — sink into utter insignificance when compared with the 
emancipation of one-half the human race, involving as it 
does the higher development of the whole race. 

The protracted struggle through which we have passed, 
and our labors not yet crowned with victory, seems to me 
sometimes like a painful dream, in which one strives to run 
and yet stands still, incapable alike of escaping or meeting 
the impending danger. 

But I would not pain your ears with a rehearsal of the 
hopes ofttimes deferred and shadowed with fear; of the 
brightest anticipations again and again dimmed with dis- 


appointment. I will leave it to your imagination to picture 
to yourselves how you would feel if any one of you had had 
a case in court, or a bill before some legislative body, or a 
political aspiration, for nearly half a century, with a con- 
tinued succession of adverse decisions ; and yet the future 
is so full of bright promises for us that we still hope and 
labor while we wait. 

Woman suffrage means a free use of all the opportunities 
for higher education, and that physical training necessary 
for abstruse thinking. Schools are already being estab- 
lished in many countries for the physical training of girls 
by every variety of gymnastics, by fencing, boxing, swim- 
ming, military drill, and by all sorts of outdoor amusements, 
hunting, shooting, riding on horseback, on bicycles and 
tricycles, playing foot-ball, base-ball, and tennis. 

All that remains to secure our complete emancipation is 
to arouse women themselves from their apathy and indiffer- 
ence. Some one has suggested that women are too generous 
and unselfish to work for themselves. John Stuart Mill 
says that " woman's pet virtue is self-sacrifice." If this be 
so, I would suggest that in this reform there is still abun- 
dant opportunity for self-sacrifice, as perchance none of the 
blessings of our present labors may be enjoyed by our- • 
selves. We have lived to see the principle of woman 
suffrage conceded in many civilized countries, but the full 
fruition of the experiment is still in the future. Our work 
is preeminently unselfish ; we still have persecution, ostra- 
cism, ridicule, but the blessings may be for other genera- 
tions. We have the satisfaction, however, to know that we 
have done our duty in a holy cause, and laid the foundation 
for the highest civilization the world has ever witnessed, 
though we may not live to enjoy its full benefits. 

Enough for us to see the day dawning, the coming glory ' 
on every side, enough for us to know that our daughters 
to the third and fourth generation will enjoy the fruits of 
our labors, reap the harvests we have sown, and sing the 
glad songs of victory in every latitude and longitude, from 


pole to pole, when we have passed to other spheres of 

Woman as an Annex — Address by Helen H. Gardener 
OF New York. 

If it were not often tragic and always humiliating, it 
would be exceedingly amusing to observe the results of a 
method of thought and a civilization that has proceeded 
always upon the idea that man is the race and that woman 
is merely an annex to him, and exists because of his desires, 
needs, and dictum. 

Strangely enough, the bigotry of sex bias and pride 
does not carry this theory below the human animal. Ac- 
cording to scientists and evolutionists, and indeed even 
according to the religious explanations of the source and 
cause of things, the male and female of all species of ani- 
mals, birds, and insects come into life and tread its path 
together as equals. The male tiger does not assume to 
teach his mate what her " sphere " is, and the female hippo- 
potamus is supposed to have sufficient brain-power of her 
own to enable her to live her own life and plan her own 
occupations ; to decide upon her own needs, and generally 
regulate her own existence without being compelled to call 
upon the gentlemen of her family in particular and all of 
the gentlemen of her species in general to decide for her 
when she is doing the proper thing. The laws of their 
species are not made and executed by one sex for the other, 
and the same food, sun, covering, education, and general 
conduct and opportunities of life which open to the one sex 
are equally open to the other. No protective tariff is put 
upon masculine prerogative to enable him to control all the 
necessaries of life for both sexes, to assure him all the best 
opportunities, occupations, education, and results of achieve- 
ment which are the common need of their kind. In short, 
the female is in no way his subordinate. 


In captivity it is the female which has been as a rule most 
prized, best cared for and preserved. In the barnyard, field, 
and stable alike it is deemed wise to kill most of the males. 
They are looked upon as good food, so to speak, but not as 
useful citizens. What they add to the world is not thought 
so much of — their capacities for future services are less 
valued than are those of the other sex. Even the man- 
made religious legends bring all these animals into life in 
pairs. Neither has precedence of the other ; neither is sub- 
ject to the other. 

But when it comes to the human animal, ** the final blos- 
som of creative thought," as religionists word it, or of uni- 
versal energy, as scientists put it, the male for the first time 
becomes the whole idea. A helpmeet for him is an after- 
thought, and according to man's teaching up to the present 
time an after-thought only half-matured and very badly 

In spite of all the practice on other pairs, one of each sex, 
it. remained for the Almighty, or Nature, to make the mis- 
take, for the first time, of creating a race with one of its 
halves a mere " annex " to the other — a subject, a subordi- 
nate, without brains to do its own thinking, without judg- 
ment to be its own guide. 

In the case of all other animals each sex has its own 
brain-power, with which it directs its own affairs, makes 
its own laws of conduct, and so preserves its own individu- 
ality, its personal liberty, its freedom of action and of 

I am not ignorant of the scientific facts that in nature 
among ants, birds, and beasts, there are tribes and com- 
munities where some are slaves, or are subject to others ; 
but what I do assert is this, that this is not a sex distinction 
or degradation. It is not infrequently the males who are 
the subjects in those communities where liberty is not 
equal, and where, therefore, the very basic principle of 
equality is impossible or unknown. 

Nowhere in all nature is the mere fact of sex made a 


reason for fixed inequality of liberty ; for subjugation, for 
subordination, and for determined inferiority of oppor- 
tunity in education, in acquirement, in position — in a 
word, in freedom. Nowhere until we reach man ! 

Here, for the first time in nature, there enter artificial 
social conditions and needs. These artificial demands, 
coupled with the great fact of maternity under sex sub- 
jugation, linked with financial dependence upon the one 
not so burdened, have fixed this subordinate status upon 
that part of the race which is the producer of the race. 

This fact alone is enough to account for the slow, the 
distorted, the diseased, and the criminal progress of hu- 
manity. Subordinates can not give lofty character. Servile 
temperaments can not blossom into liberty- loving, liberty- 
breathing, liberty-giving descendants. 

Many of the lower animals destroy their young if they 
are bom in captivity. They demand that their offspring 
shall be free ; free from man's conditions or captivity, as 
it always has been free from the tyranny of sex control in 
their own species. 

It is the fashion in this country nowadays to say that 
women are treated as equals. Some of the most progress- 
ive and best of men truly believe what they say in this 

One of our leading daily papers, which insists that this is 
true, and even goes so far as to say that American gentlemen 
believe in and act upon the theory that their mothers and 
daughters are of a superior quality, and are always of 
the first consideration to men, recently had an editorial 
headlined "UNIVERSAL suffrage the birthright of the 
FREE-BORN.*' I read it through, and, would you believe it, 
the writer has so large a bump of sex arrogance that he 
never once thought of one-half of humanity in the entire 
course of an elaborate and eloquent two-column article! 
"Universal*' suffrage touched but one sex. There was 
but one sex "free-born." There was but one born with 
'* rights." The words, "persons," " citizens," "residents of 


the State," and all similar terms were used quite freely, but 
not once did it dawn upon the mind of the writer that every 
one of those words, every argument for freedom, every plea 
for liberty and justice, equality and right applied to the 
human race, and not merely to one-half of that race. 

Sex bias, sex arrogance, sex pride, sex assumption is so 
ingrained that it simply does not occur to the male logician, 
scientist, philosopher, and politician that there is a human- 
ity ! They see, think of, and argue for and about only a sex 
of man, with an annex to him — woman. They call this the 
race, but they do not mean the race ; they mean men. They 
write and talk of " human beings "; of their needs, their edu- 
cation, their capacities, and development ; but they are not 
thinking of humanity at all. They are planning for and 
executing plans which subordinate the race — the human 
entity — to a subdivision, the mark and sign of which is the 
low^est and most universal possession of male nature — the 
mere procreative instinct and possibility. This has grown 
to be the habit of thought until in science, in philosophy, 
in religion, in law, in politics — one and all — we must 
translate all language into other terms than those used. 
For the word " universal " -we must read — male ; for the 
" people," the " nation," we must read — men. The " will 
of the majority — majority rule "really means the larger 
number of masculine citizens. And so with all our com- 
mon language. It is mere democratic, verbal gj^mnastics, 
clothing the same old monarchical, aristocratic, mental 
beliefs with ** the divine right " of man, and making woman 
his subject and perquisite. 

It does not mean what it says, and it does not say what it 
means. Our thoughts are adjusted to false forms, and so 
the thoughts do not ring true. They are mere hereditary 
forms of speech. All masculine thought and expression up 
to the present time have been in the language of sex and 
not in the language of race ; and so it has come about that 
the music of humanity has been set in one key and played 
on one chord. 


It has been well said that an Englishman can not speak 
French correctly until he has learned to think in French. 
It is far more true that no one can speak or write the 
language of human liberty and equality until he has learned 
to think in the language, and to feel without stopping to 
argue with himself that right is not masculine ouly and 
that justice knows no sex. 

Were the claim to superior opportunity, status, and posi- 
tion based upon capacity, character, or wealth, upon per- 
fection of form or grace of bearing, one could understand 
if not accept the reasonableness of the position; for it would 
then rest upon some sort of recognized superiority; but 
while it is based upon sex, a mere accident of form, carry- 
ing with it a brute instinct, which is not even glorified by 
the capacity and willingness to produce, surely no lower^ 
less vital, or more degraded basis could possibly be chosen. 
Not long ago a heated argument arose here in Chicago 
over the teaching of German in the public schools. This 
argument was used by one of the leading contestants in one 
of the leading journals : 

** The whole amount of education that ninety-five per 
cent of our public school pupils receive is lamentably small. 
It is far less than we could wish it to be. Most of these 
children, who are to be the citizens and by their ballots the 
nilers of this nation, can often remain but a few years in 
the school-room. For the average American citizen who is 
not a professional man, or who is not destined for diplo- 
matic service abroad, English can afford all the mental and 
intellectual pabulum needed." 

Now here is an amusing, and also a humiliating, illustra- 
tion of the way these matters are always handled, and it is 
for that reason only that I have introduced a local question 
here. ** Ninety-five per cent of our public school pupils," 
etc., ** by their ballots are to be the rulers of the nation," 
etc., '* future citizens," forsooth! Now it simply did not occur 
to the gentleman who wrote that, and to the hundreds who 
so write and speak daily, that the most of those ninety-five 


Treasurer World's Congress Auxiliary and ex-President World's Columbian 



per cent have no ballot, do not " rule," are not the " future 
citizens," but that they belong to the proscribed sex — 
have committed the crime of being giris even before they 
entered the public schools, and so have permanently out- 
lawed themselves from citizenship in this glorious republic 
of " equals." But his entire argument, made upon so large 
a per cent, really rests upon a much smaller number; 
but the girls made good ballast for the argument. They 
answered to fill in the " awful example," but they are not 
allowed the justice of real citizenship, nor to be the future 
" rulers " for and because of whom the whole argument is 
made — for whose educational rights and needs alone, 
because of their future ballots^ he cares so tenderly. It will 
not do to attempt to avoid this issue by the hackneyed 
expression, " The hand that rocks the cradle rules the 
world." Every one knows that this is not true in the sense 
in which it is used. It is true, alas, in a sense never dreamed 
of by politician and publicist. 

It is true that the degraded status of maternity has ruled 
and does rule the world, in that it has been, and is, the most 
potent power to keep the race from lofty achievement. 
Subject mothers never did, and subject mothers never will, 
produce a race of free, well-poised, liberty-loving, justice- 
practicing children. 

Maternity is an awful power. It blindly strikes back at 
injustice with a force that is a fearful menace to mankind. 
And the race which is bom of mothers who are harassed, 
bullied, subordinated, and made the victims of blind passion 
or power, or of mothers who are simply too petty and self- 
debased to feel their subject status, can not fail to continue 
to give us the horrible spectacles we have always had of war, 
of crime, of vice, of trickery, of double-dealing, of pretense, 
of lying, of arrogance, of subserviency, of incompetence, of 
brutality, and, alas, of insanity, idiocy, and disease, added to 
a fearful and unnecessary mortality. To a student of 
anthropology and heredity it requires no great brain-power 
to trace results to causes. 


We need only remember that the mental as well as the 
physical conditions, capacities, and potentialities are inher- 
ited to understand how the dead level of hopeless medioc- 
rity must be preserved as the rule of the race, so long as 
the potentialities of that race must be filtered always 
through and take its impetus from a mere annex to man's 
power, ambition, desires, and opinions. 

Let me respond right here to those who will, who always 
do, insist that woman is not so held to-day, at least in Eng- 
land and America ; that her present status is a dignified, an 
equal, or even superior one. 

I will illustrate. In a recent speech by the Hon. William 
Ewart Gladstone he pleaded most eloquently and earnestly 
for the right of Irishmen to rule and govern themselves. 
Among many other things he said : 

" The principal weapons of the opposition are bold asser- 
tion, persistent exaggeration, constant misconstruction, and 
copious, arbitrary, and baseless prophecies. True, there are 
conflicting financial arrangements to be dealt with, but 
among the difficulties nothing exists which ought to abash 
or terrify men desirous to accomplish a great object. For 
the first time in ninety years the bill will secure the suprem- 
acy of Parliament as founded upon right as well as backed 
by power." 

Had these remarks been made with an eye single to the 
" woman question," they could not have been more exactly 
descriptive of the facts in the case ; but with Irishmen only 
on his mind he continued thus : 

**The persistent distrust of the Irish people despite all 
they can do comes simply to this, that they are to be pressed 
below the level of civilized mankind. When the boon of 
self-government is given to the British colonies is Ireland 
alone to be excepted from its blessings ? To deny Ireland 
home rule is to say that she lacks the ordinary faculties of 

He said " Irish people," but he meant Irish men only. 
But see to what his argument leads ! He says it is " press- 


ing them below the level of civilized mankind " to deny 
them the right to stand erect, to use their own brains and 
wills in their own government ; and a great party in his 
own country, and a great party in this country, echo with 
mad enthusiasm his opinions. They call it mankind ; they 
mean one-half of mankind only, for not even Mr. Gladstone 
is able to rise high enough above his sex bias to see that 
the denial of all self-government, all representation in the 
making of the laws she is to obey, " presses woman below 
the level of civilized mankind." 

Words cease to have par value, even with^the stickler for 
verbal accuracy, the instant their own arguments are applied 
to the other sex. Eloquently men can and do portray the 
wrongs, the outrages, the abuses which always have arisen, 
which always must arise, from class legislation — from that 
condition which makes it impossible for one class or condi- 
tion of citizens of a country to make their needs, desires, 
preferences, and opinions felt in the organic and statute 
law of their country on an equal and level footing with their 
fellows. Men have needed no great ability to enable them 
to prove that tyranny unspeakable always did and always 
will follow unlimited power over others — so long as their 
arguments applied between man and man ; but the instant 
the identical arguments are used to apply between man and 
woman, that instant their whole attitude changes. That 
instant words lose all par value. That instant all men, 
including those who have just waxed eloquent over the 
injustice and the real danger of permitting inequality 
before the law, become aristocrats. Claiming to be the 
logical sex, man throws logic to the winds ! Claiming to 
have fought and bled to enthrone "liberty," he forgets its 
very name! Asserting that in his hand alone can the 
scales of justice be held level, he makes of justice, of 
liberty, of equality, a mockery and a pretense. He has so far 
read all of those words in the masculine form only. He 
has not yet learned to think them in a universal language. 
He stultifies his every utterance and makes of his mind a 


jailer, and of his laws slave-drivers for all who can not by 
physical force wrench from him the right to their own 
liberty and to the human status of equality of opportunity. 
Men have everywhere grown to believe that they rule 
women by divine right. Woman is a mere annex to and 
for man's glory. She exists for him to rule, to think for, to 
adore, to tolerate, or fo abuse as he sees fit, according to his 
type of nature. Her appeal must not be to an equal stand- 
ard of justice which she has helped to frame, administer, 
and live by, but it must be to his generosity, his tenderness, 
his toleration, or his chivalry — in short, to his absolute 
power over her. " No people can be free without an equal 
legal footing for all of its citizens !" exclaims the states- 
man ; and drums beat, and trumpets blare, and men march 
and countermarch in enthusiastic response to the senti- 
ment. ** We must have a government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people " is cheered to the echo wherever 
heard, and nobody realizes that what is meant always is a 
government by men, for men, and of men, with woman as 
an annex. Only three weeks ago all of our papers had 
leaders, editorials, and cablegrams to announce that ** Uni- 
versal suffrage has been granted in Belgium.'* They all 
grew enthusiastic over it. One of our leading New York 
editors said (and I use his editorial simply because it is a 
very good example of what almost all of our important 
journals said), " The triumph of the Belgium democracy is 
an event of the first significance. The masses had long 
appealed in vain for a removal of the property qualification 
which restricted the right of suffrage to one hundred and 
forty thousand persons out of a population of over six mill- 
ions, but the Chambers, dominated by the wealthy classes, 
resolutely refused to comply with the demand until a dan- 
gerous revolution was inaugurated. Even now the change 
in the constitution granting universal suffrage is coupled 
with the right of plural voting by the property owners ; but 
it is quite certain this obnoxious feature will be soon aban- 
doned by the Chambers, and universal suffrage will prevail, 


as in the adjoining nations of France and Germany. When 
these newly enfranchised electors choose the next Legisla- 
ture, important changes may be expected in the laws appli- 
cable to the emplojrment of labor, which have hitherto been 
framed solely in the interest of the mine-owners and the 

" Fortunately for the king, he seems to be in sympathy 
with this effort of the masses to acquire a fair representation 
in the government. In the recent riots the hostility of the 
people was directed against the Assembly rather than 
against the crown. 

" It is very evident that the democratic spirit is gaining 
ground throughout Europe. Its influence is manifest in 
the home rule movement in England, in the hostility to 
the army bill in Germany, and in the rapid changes in the 
ministries of France. It steadily advances in every direc- 
tion, and never loses ground once acquired. It progp-esses 
peacefully if it can, but forcibly if it must. Its triumph in 
Belgium is one of the signs of the times in the Old World." 

** The people " are all male in Belgium, in France, Ger- 
many, and America, or else all of these statements are mere 
figures of speech — are wholly untrue — for the women of 
Belgium, of France, of Germany, and, alas, of democratic 
America, were not even thought of when the words 
" people," " citizen," " masses," " laborers," etc., were used. 

They are counted in the estimates of the population as all 
of these. They are used to fill vacancies, to swell estimates, 
to round out statistics ; but in the result of these arguments 
and statistics, in the victories won for liberty to the indi\ad- 
ual, woman has no part. She is the one outlaw in human 
progress. In a recent magazine this passage occurs : 

"Austria. — On April 2d, Dr. Victor Adler, a Socialist 
leader, spoke to about four thousand working-men in favor 
of universal suffrage. He said that two-thirds of the adult 
men had not the suffrage. Only half-civilized countries 
like Russia and Spain now placed their citizens in such 
inequality before the law. The working-man of Austria 


had never before this winter suffered such hardships, and 
now in Vienna twenty-six thousand workmen were without 

Yet there is no report that Doctor Adler, or the editor 
of the magazine, who waxed eloquent over it, saw any 
special ** hardship " or ** inequality " in a degraded status for 
all women. " Universal suffrage " indeed ! And has Aus- 
tria no women citizens? Were the working-women who 
have not the ballot better sheltered than the men ? Or do 
they need no shelter ? Another editor says : 

" Don't talk about a free ballot while the bread of the 
masses is in the giving of the classes." Yet had a venture- 
some girl type-setter made it read, " Don*t talk about a free 
ballot, a democracy, or freedom while the bread of women 
is in the giving of men," the editor would have said, ** She 
is insane — and besides that, she is talking unwomanly 

It is the same in science, in literature, in religion. All 
estimates are made on and for the " human race," " the peo- 
ple of a country," etc. The " will of the people " is spoken 
of; we are told all about the size, capacity, convolutions, 
etc., of the brain of the different peoples ; we hear learned 
discussions about it all, and when you sift them, woman — 
one-half of the race talked about — is used always simply 
and only as ballast, as filling, to make a point in man's 
favor. She does not figure in the benefits. He is the race 
— she is his annex. 

Not long ago an amusing illustration of this came to 
my knowledge. In life insurance there is more money 
invested than in any other financial enterprise. This is the 
way insurance experts look at the woman question. The 
estimates of longevity, desirability of risk, etc., are based 
upon male standards. This is not in itself unnatural nor 
unreasonable, since men have been the chief insurers ; but 
few companies, indeed, being willing to insure women at 
all. But not long ago a woman applied for a policy on her 
life in a first-class company. She had three little children 


for whom she wished to provide in case of her death. She 
believed that she could properly support them so long as 
she lived. To her surprise she was told that the rate at 
which she must pay was five dollars on each one thousand 
dollars more than her brother had to pay at the same age. 
She asked the actuary — a verj'' profound man — why this 
was so. He told her that women had been found to be not 
so good risks as men, since they were subject to more dan- 
gers of death than were men, and to make the companies 
safe it had been found necessary to charge women a higher 
rate. She had heard much her life long of the dangers to 
men s lives, of the shielded, sheltered state of feminine 
humanity, and she had never dreamed that it was, from a 
mortuary point of view, ** extra hazardous " to be a woman. 
She assumed, however, that it must be so, and paid her 
"extra hazardous" premium — just as if she belonged to 
the army, or was a blaster, or miner, or "contemplated 
going up in a balloon.** A short time afterward her mother, 
an elderly lady, had some money to invest. She did not 
wish to care for it herself, as she had never had the least 
business experience. She applied to the same actuary to 
know how much of an annual income, or annuity, she could 
buy for the sum she had. He figured on it for awhile, and 
told her. It was a good deal less than a man could get for 
the same amount. She had the temerity to ask why. 
" Well,** said the actuary, gazing benignly over his glasses 
at her in a congratulatory fashion, " you see, women live 
longer than men do, and — *' 

" But you told my daughter that they did not live so long ; 
and so she pays at a higher rate on insurance to make you 
safe, lest she should die too young. Now you charge me 
more for an annuity on the theory that a woman lives 
longer than a man.** 

" Well,** said he, readjusting his glasses and going care- 
fully over the mortuary tables again, " that does seem to 
be the fact. If a woman assures her life she beats the 
company by dying sooner than a man, and if she takes an 


annuity she beats us by living longer than he would. Don't 
know how it happens, but we charge extra to cover the 
facts as we find 'em.'* 

Such is male logic upon female perversity even in death. 
Yet men say that they understand us and our needs so much 
better than we do ourselves, that they abandon all of their 
reasoning, logic, enthusiasm, and belief, on the great fun- 
damental principles of justice, equality, liberty, and law 
the moment their own arguments are applied to women 
instead of to " labor," the ** Irish question," or to any phase 
of class legislation as applied between man and man. 

The fact is simply and only this : The arrogance of sex- 
power and perversion is now so thoroughly ingrained that 
man really believes himself to be, by divine right, the 
human race, and that woman is his perquisite. He has 
no universal language. He thinks in the language of sex. 
But more than this, and worse than this, he insists upon no 
one being allowed to think in the language of humanity, 
and to translate that thought into action. 

The Value of the Eastern Star as a Factor in Giv- 
ing Women a Better Understanding of Business 
Affairs, and Especially Those Relating to Legis- 
lative Matters — Address by Mary A. Flint of 

The primary object of the Order of the Eastern Star, as 
expounded by its founder, Robert Morris, was " to associate in 
one common bond the worthy wives, widows, daughters, and 
sisters of Freemasons so as to make their adoptive privileges 
available for all the purposes contemplated in Masonry ; to 
secure to them the advantages of their claim in a moral, 
social, and charitable point of view, and from them learn the 
performance of corresponding duties." 

It can hardly be possible that those who laid the corner- 
stone and began the erection of this superstructure that has 


attained such fair and lofty proportions could have had any 
adequate conception of the work they inaugurated. 

It is not only fulfilling its mission from a moral, social, 
and charitable point of view, — and much might be said, and 
probably will be well said, to show its growth and influence 
in all directions, — but as an educator of women the order is 
entitled to ** high rank," Especially to women has it been 
a revelation of power and ability, developing and bringing 
into use talents hitherto unsuspected, by whose exercise in 
its ceremonial observances and business transactions confi- 
dence has been gained that has made it possible for many 
women to fill positions of trust and to obtain employment. 

This brings us to the special topic of this paper, the 
value of the Eastern Star as a factor in giving women a 
better understanding of business affairs, and especially 
those relating to legislative matters. To a thoughtful mind 
the first steps toward admission to the order are fraught 
with interest, which is increased by each succeeding stage 
of the initiating ceremonies. 

. Lessons of fidelity, constancy, loyalty, purity, uprightness 
of character, hope and charity are taught by a symbolism 
of exceeding beauty and fitness, while the spirit of the 
fraternity shines like a silver thread through all the routine 

To give all these lessons their full meaning requires 
careful study, exactness, and promptitude, combined with 
dignity of demeanor on the part of the officers to whom they 
are assigned, that the impression made upon the candidate 
may be of permanent value ; hence the regular routine of 
these duties becomes of value as an educational factor, giv- 
ing by frequent repetition confidence in one's ability to 
speak acceptably, and with proper appreciation of the 
beauties contained in the different lectures, as well as 
being a means of strengthening the memory. 

With membership gained, and fraternal relations estab- 
lished, a knowledge of business details becomes necessary, 
which is acquired only by observation and experience, as 


from time to time different subjects are presented for 
immediate consideration or referred to committees, to be 
examined, reported upon, and discussed before final action 
is taken. 

To do all these things correctly and intelligently involves 
careful attention to details ; the faculty of comparing and 
condensing facts so as to present them in concise and suit- 
able language ; and a knowledge of business forms and 
established rules and regulations. It is important also to 
know how to listen intelligently to propositions presented 
for discussion, to know whether they are properly stated 
by the presiding officer, and what effect their approval or 
rejection will have on existing conditions, to discuss them 
with fairness and impartiality, putting aside personal pref- 
erences, and exercising a charitable consideration for the 
prejudices and preferences of others ; conceding matters of 
small importance, but never losing sight of the principle 
involved, and allowing no deviation from the straight and 
narrow path of justice and right through any sophistries, 
however plausible or ingeniously presented ; to keep con- 
stantly in view the greatest good of all concerned, and 
to accept the will of the majority with cheerfulness even 
though the result be contrary to preconceived ideas. 

Familiarity with all the details of business will prove of 
inestimable value, and a careful study of them, with fre- 
quent practice, will be full of interest and afford an excel- 
lent opportunity for women to qualify themselves for 
legislative positions by teaching them not only how to 
make laws, but to obey them strictly. 

The various official positions of the order necessitate 
special preparation to render them available for the highest 
development of one's capacities, as step by step they lead 
to higher planes of usefulness. 

To safely guard the portals, that no one enter unless 
entitled to do so, and to permit no interruption to cere- 
monial observances, requires watchfulness, discretion, tact, 
readiness of resource in preventing anything that might 


lead to unpleasant complications, and also implicit obedi- 
ence to constituted authority; important qualities in any 
sphere of action. 

So much depends upon the secretary of any organization, 
that to perform correctly the duties of that position is no 
easy task, and careful attention needs to be given to its 
requirements by those who would fill it intelligently and 

It is the duty of a secretary to make a proper record of 
the proceedings of each meeting, to conduct the corre- 
spondence, to receive all the moneys and give credit for 

Quickness of observation and readiness of understand- 
ing, clearness of perception as to what is proper to be 
recorded, precision of language and accuracy of statement, 
facility of expression, suavity of manner, good penman- 
ship, neatness and orderliness, unquestioned integrity, obe- 
dience to the requests of the presiding officer, all these 
and more which might be enumerated are necessary quali- 
fications of a secretary who seeks to obtain the highest 
standard of excellence. 

"The proper preservation of our funds demands honesty 
and carefulness on the part of our treasurer." What is 
true of one organization applies with equal force to all. 

The many instances constantly occurring of misappro- 
priation of funds, dishonesty in every form, and criminal 
carelessness on the part of those to whom have been 
intrusted moneys belonging to societies and private indi- 
viduals, come to emphasize with ever-increasing distrust- 
fulness the necessity of the strictest fidelity and the most 
undeviating integrity in the discharge of every important 
trust ; and there is no better school in which to learn this 
lesson than in our order, founded upon the sublime princi- 
ples of truth and fidelity to all moral obligations. 

Without further reference to those in official stations 
who have to do with the initiatory ceremonies, I will 
refer briefly to the duties of a presiding officer and the 


requisites for one who is ambitious to become proficient in 
the work. 

A dignified, courteous demeanor, close attention to 
details, quickness of apprehension in grasping the true 
meaning of questions brought forward for consideration 
and the strictest impartiality in deciding them ; a thorough 
knowledge of parliamentary rules and the laws governing 
the organization, and firmness in exacting obedience to 
them, and maintaining discipline while carefully refrain- 
ing from an infringement of others' rights ; a subordination 
of personal consideration to the general welfare ; all these 
are component parts of a harmonious whole, demanding 
serious thought and study on the part of those who aspire 
to the honor of presiding officer over any assembly. 

In the Order of the Eastern Star the duty of presiding 
devolves upon the sisters. The matron is brought into 
close relations with the associate head of the chapter, 
who, as a Master Mason, should be well informed on all 

Though not the chief officer, he is required to be con- 
versant with the laws of the order ; and as the consti- 
tutional adviser of the worthy matron shares with her the 
cares and responsibilities of the position. 

By temperament and from lack of previous training in 
public matters women are probably more sensitive to criti- 
cism and censure than men, whose experience in the man- 
agement of public affairs has been so much greater, but 
honest criticism assists rather than hinders the develop- 
ment of qualities necessarj'' for success, and censure, if 
undeserved, can be ignored; but a wise discrimination 
is often needed to determine how much of either is best 
adapted to serve the purpose of improvement. Here also 
she may derive great benefit from the safe counsel and 
thoughtful consideration of her associate officer, so that 
with mutual helpfulness and harmony of interest, each con- 
scientiously striving for the best results, they may success- 
fully administer the trust committed to their charge. 


In conclusion, a well-conducted chapter of the Eastern Star 
is a school wherein an earnest woman of ordinary ability 
may acquire a sufficient knowledge of business to enable her 
not only to fill positions in which she may earn a livelihood 
merely, but also to manage public trusts connected with 
the government of the State, in which may be greater 
responsibilities and increased remuneration. 

If in addition to the training here received there is a 
broad underlying foundation of previous mental discipline, 
combined with capacity of a high order, to what may she 
not aspire ? 

If in the providence of Gk)d, by future legal enactment, 
women shall stand shoulder to shoulder with men in mat- 
ters political, as they do now socially and intellectually, the 
influence of this factor in education and experience will 
be entitled to recognition. 

The Relation of Woman to Our Present Political 
Problems — Address by Abbie A. C. Peaslie of 
Maine, Representative of the Loyal Women of 
American Liberty. 

Handicapped as is woman — twenty-five States and Terri- 
tories only giving her authority at the polls — in what way 
can she be related to the present political problems now 
agitating our country ? 

This subject should be treated from both a practical and 
a theoretical standpoint. 

In Wyoming, where women have the supreme privilege 
of an unrestricted ballot, in Kansas, where they have the 
municipal ballot, and in other States and Territories where 
suffrage is granted in one form or another, one may reason 
from practice, while in States not so favored one must 

In the rising of this new Star that has settled so grace- 
fully on our national banner we have much of hope in 


the lessons to be learned from her struggles and victorious 
emancipation from political bondage. By this progress 
much is made possible toward the development of the ideal 
government ; verifying the truth " that woman has appeared 
in American politics, and the home has become the unit of 
American politics, and the power of the home is going to 
be more and more potential in American affairs.** 

However indifferent woman may have been in the past, 
as she considers the issues that now confront us as a nation, 
if the instinct of motherhood still reigns supreme in her 
bosom, she can remain indifferent no longer. 

Optimistic as she may be for America's future, she can 
but note in the municipal elections of her own city the par- 
tisan motives that prompt the placing upon the electoral 
ticket men whom, morally, she can not indorse ; and yet her 
son, in the proud flush of young manhood, is called to cast 
his yote for them, thus stultifying his sense of justice at the 
very beginning of his political career. 

Too long have politics been considered a demoralizing 
agency, when, next to the law of the love of God, should be 
love of country and the laws that govern it. 

It may be asked, What can woman do to guard the temple 
of American liberty against the political animosities that 
bedim the public mind, or against the menace of open 
assault or secret machination ? 

I would cite, in answer, the noble example of the women 
of Boston, who, in the municipal election of December, 
1888, so gloriously defended the public schools from secta- 
rian despotism. 

Our countrymen, in the eager pursuit for the gold that 
perisheth, have become lax in giving attention to the ques- 
tions that pertain to the moral welfare of our loved country 
and to the perpetuation of the principles of its founders. 
In so doing they have ignored a constituency which they 
declare needs no other representation than that which the 
identity of interests between the sexes imparts, yet whose 
claims in the interests of the home are willfully set aside. 


Though preferring the quiet of the domestic fireside, 
there is ingrained in woman's nature that love of liberty 
and equity which characterized the men who, with their 
little families, braved the dangers of an unknown sea; 
from whom she has inherited the courage that makes her 
bold to plead her cause in legislative halls, to the end that 
her rights may be respected. 

" No longer are women doubtful as to the advantages to 
be gained by the franchise," though this evolution has 
cost the sacrifice and ridicule of the noble pioneers whom 
this World s Congress of Representative Women to-day so 
proudly honors. 

The great industrial world, in which so large a proportion 
of the wage-earners are women, is beginning to realize what 
the power of their ballot would be in economic reforms. 

Woman's ballot is needed to emphasize the demand of 
Congress for the passage of a bill making more stringent 
immigration laws, and the adoption of measures for their 

We of New England, through the open door of our Cana- 
dian border, are threatened by the invasion of a people 
hostile to our free institutions and clannish in their customs. 
Our population in all large cities is becoming more and 
more heterogeneous. Yet we have cause to fear "only 
those who will not affiliate with us after they get here." 

As loyal women, we believe in popular education ; we 
believe that the character of our country is to be determined 
by the enlightenment of the masses. Hence we consider 
compulsory education a necessity, agreeing with Lyman 
Beecher when he says: "We must educate! we must 
educate ! or we must perish by our own prosperity." 

The educational test amendment, enacted in the fall of 
1892, has reaped good results the past winter, as the evening 
schools have had exceptionally large numbers in attend- 
ance ; and through the adoption of this amendment Maine 
hopes to offset in part the denationalizing influence of the 
" Cahensly " plan in her French- parochial schools. 


Would that I might, with the poetic genius of the 
lamented author of " Snow Bound," paint upon the tablets 
of your memory " the little red school-house " of your youth- 
ful days, and thereby touch a chord of sympathy that would 
respond to the efforts of this organization to preserve this 
landmark of Christian civilization, this bulwark of American 
liberty — the public school, and the retention of the Bible 
in the same ; and serve to stimulate to greater activity and 
responsibility those who have the school suffrage, and to 
incite the women of those States not thus favored to work 
more earnestly for the measure. 

With eloquent and persuasive flattery to the American 
sense of justice, we are asked for the appropriation of public 
moneys and the division of the school fund for sectarian 
purposes. To submit would be treason, in the light of what 
history has revealed regarding the results of a sectarian 
school system. 

Father McGlynn gives utterance to the sentiment of all 
loyal citizens when he says : ** The American people have 
very justly looked upon the public school as the palladium 
of their liberties and one of the most necessary safeguards 
for the preservation of the republic." And in his scathing 
criticism on ecclesiasticarinterference in the free institu- 
tions of our country, he touches a responsive chord in the 
heart of all who have enjoyed the benefits of the public 

Through an influence hostile to our. schools, more than 
four hundred thousand pupils who are to become American 
citizens have been withdrawn from them ; and the question 
is under discussion as to how the remaining six hundred 
thousand shall receive instruction that accords with the 
teaching of a particular sect. 

The words of one of your Western women ring in my 
ears, "What you would put into your nation's life, you 
must put into your schools." 

I would so impress this truth upon the minds of the 
mothers of this land as to lead them not only to realize 


Director World's Columbian Exposition; Chairman of the Finance Committee. 


their responsibility, but to insist, "as the right of the 
State is identical with her right to preserve herself," that 
when sects establish methods detrimental to our republican 
form of government, stringent laws be passed forbid- 
ding the same, and requiring that all schools in which our 
children are instructed shall be under the supervision of 
the State authorities. For the accomplishment of this 
work, I would urge the passage of the amendment sug- 
gested by the National League for the Protection of Ameri- 
can Institutions. 

With great solicitude should we guard the Bible from the 
ruthless hands that would exclude it from the school-room. 
In the defense of those who desire the retention of the 
Bible in the school as a guide to the higher moral develop- 
ment of our youth, I can do no better than to quote words 
spoken in protest against its expulsion by a distinguished 
divine, " The Bible is the only unsectarian book and system. 
The Bible is religious instruction, all-pervading, pure, per- 
fect, but not distinctive or sectarian, as opposed to this or 
that sect; just as the atmosphere is omnipresent, translu- 
cent, vital, but neither as oxygen nor as nitrogen. 

" The BiWle is used as God's word, our guide to everlast- 
ing life, and not as a book of Protestantism. There is no 
such a thing as a Protestant version ; there never has been. 
There is an English version for all who read English. The 
work was beg^n by WickliflFe in the Romish church, before 
the art of printing. . It was renewed and continued by 
Tyndale and others, in the same Romish church, before the 
public protestation against the errors of that church. It 
was printed, published, and circulated by the authority of a 
Romish king, King Henry VIIL, with a license procured 
by Cranmer and the vicar-general Cromwell of the Romish 
church. This very translation, which, in the main, was 
that of Tyndale, was substantially taken as the basis of 
the translation issued under King James: and it was 
so free from anything sectarian, as between Romanism 
and other sects, that the learned Dr. Alexander Geddes, an 



ecclesiastic of the Romish church himself, called it * of all 
versions the most excellent, for accuracy, fidelity, and the 
strictest attention to the letter of the text/ " 

Loyalty to the star-spangled banner is one of our most 
cherished tenets; and we trust the custom may become 
universal of floating it over every school-house in the land, 
and that our children may be taught to salute it with 
becoming reverence. 

WoMEN*s National Indian Association — Address by 
Mrs. William E. Burke of New York, Read by Mrs. 
Herrick Johnson of Illinois. 

•* Every man who is bom within the territory of the 
United States is amenable to the authority of the United 
States, by law of nature, that is, by divine decree ; and the 
United States Government must, whether it will or no, 
assume the responsibility of exercising legitimate and 
just government over him, and answer for its trust to the 
God of nations, the God of the poor and the unprotected." 
These words of a well-known divine might, without demur, 
be accepted as an axiom in social ethics, and yet there was 
a time, not many years ago, when the original inhabitant 
of our country, the native Indian, had within our borders 
no legal or political rights. Neither citizen nor foreigner, 
he occupied a position anomalous and strange ; although 
the lands he held were recognized as his own in the treaties 
made with him by the Government, he was subject to 
enforced removals from them. The agent under whom he 
was placed was clothed with power as despotic as that of 
any potentate. He could at his pleasure suspend the Indian 
chief holding the tribal authority, and arrest or drive 
away any visitor to the reservation. Under such circum- 
stances the Indian was robbed continually. He had no 
power to make contracts, nor could he sell the product of 
his labor to any one but the trader appointed by Govern- 


ment. Often placed upon a tract of barren, unproductive 
land, he was required to cultivate it under conditions which 
would paralyze the efforts of an expert farmer. He was 
deprived of arms and ammunition with which he could live 
by huAting, and he could not leave the reservation without 
permission. He had no power to protect himself or his 
family from outrage. Indeed, to kill an Indian was not a 
crime in law ; and regarding the long list of minor wrongs 
he was wholly at the mercy of his white neighbor. It 
would be difficult to imagine a condition more oppressed 
and helpless than was that of the Indian at that time. 

It was the discovery of facts like these which led to the 
efforts resulting in the organized work of the Women's 
National Indian Association. The sole object of the origi- 
nators • of this work was to gain more just legislation 
regarding Indians. For five years no other labor on Indian 
behalf was done by them, or those whose help they obtained. 

The 'first method adopted was that of popular appeal. 
This was made in undoubting confidence that the Christian 
men of the nation needed but to be informed of these great 
wrongs to demand that they should be righted. A petition 
was formulated entreating the Government to observe its 
covenants with the Indians, to prevent encroachments upon 
their territory, and to guard all the rights guaranteed to 
them by treaty. This petition was signed by thousands of 
citizens in fifteen States, and was presented to Congress in 
February, 1880. The memorial of the next year went fur- 
ther, and added to its expressions regarding treaty-keeping 
the prayer that all obligations might be observed " until 
changed by the mutual and free consent of both parties." 
This petition, presented in Januarj'', 1881, bore the signa- 
tures of over fifty thousand citizens, more than double the 
number appended to the first memorial. With it, as with the 
first, leaflets portraying the Indian situation were widely 

Careful study of the Indian question by the officer of 
the association whose researches formed the plans and 


shaped the policy of the society had revealed the fact that 
the treaties themselves were often frauds, and that of all 
the evils afflicting the Indian, the greatest was the reserva- 
tion system. Here he was indeed "reserved," and was 
being reserved from personal liberty, from instruction in 
practical work, from education, from the opportunity for 
self-support, and therefore from self-respect ; in every way 
he was " reserved '* from everything that would best develop 
his mental and physical powers, and as a rule he was practi- 
cally "reserved" from the possibility of Christian faith. 
Knowledge of what such a system must entail upon the 
unfortunate victims of it naturally led to a revolt against 
it. and the following year the petition to Congress bore 
proof of the radical change of views on the part of the 
leaders of this movement. The memorial circulated during 
the closing months of 1881, in addition to its prayer for 
treaty-keeping " until both parties to the covenant agreed 
to its abrogation," distinctly asked for universal Indian 
education, for land in severalty, and for the " recognition 
of Indian personality and rights under the law." Almost 
wholly by the work of women, this petition was brought to 
Congress from all the States in the Union, and it repre- 
sented more than a hundred thousand citizens. Accompany- 
ing it was a memorial letter stating had the votes of 
hundreds of churches and of various public meetings, while 
the roll contained the names of members of legislative 
bodies, of governors, judges, and lawyers ; names of bishops 
and other clergy, including the entire ministry of three 
denominations in Philadelphia ; of the professors and stu- 
dents of theological seminaries, colleges, and universities ; 
of members of missionary and philanthropical societies, 
national in extent, with many names from literary, art, and 
social clubs. Besides all these, the paper was signed by 
many business and manufacturing firms controlling capital 
to the amount of many millions of dollars, and employing 
thousands of operatives. Such signatures show the rapid 
growth of sentiment in behalf of justice for our native 


races, and prove that the classes who lead public opinion 
and shape intellectual and religious thought were demand- 
ing a just and speedy settlement of the Indian question. 

This great petition, " as large as a sheep," as was face- 
tiously remarked by a Senator when it appeared in the 
United States Senate Chamber, in January, 1882, received 
respectful attention, but, as was to be expected, it stirred to 
nnrighteous wrath the minds of those who were willing 
that the Indians should remain apart, " reserved," as con- 
venient game for politicians and moral marauders to prey 

The work of the association had spread over sixteen States 
and was still rapidly extending ; now it counts its officers, 
branches, or members in forty States of the Union. 

Still another memorial was circulated in the closing 
months of 1882, which was even more warmly greeted, and 
adopted. The public press had very generally awakened 
to the importance of the subject, and the Indian question 
had become one of the prominent topics of the day. 
Schemes and plans involving the future of the Indian were 
occupying the minds of the law-makers at Washington. 
From the beginning, the devoted women who were striving 
for a reform in Indian legislation had received the most 
cordial sympathy and support from the Hon. H. L. Dawes, 
chairman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, who 
himself presented their successive petitions to the Senate, 
and always with earnest words of commendation. This 
noble man publicly declared that the new Indian policy 
which decreed the enfranchisement of the race, giving them 
universal education, lands in severalty, law, and citizenship, 
" was bom of and nursed by the women of this association." 

After the petition for lands in severalty had twice been 
presented to Congfress by the Women's National Indian 
Association, a plan of work along the same lines and involv- 
ing the same methods was adopted by the Indian Rights 
Association, then just organized. The women who for four 
years had toiled alone, without the aid of any other organ- 


ization devoted to the legal help of Indians, hailed with joy 
the advent of this new society. It proved an able ally in 
the great reform, and the combined work of these two 
organizations, with the help of missionary societies and 
individual friends of the Indian, successfully carried on the 
movement to its final victory in March, 1887, when, by the 
passage of the Dawes severalty bill, our native Indian tribes 
were granted the status of citizens of this republic. 

But the legislative work of the Women*s National Indian 
Association did not end with the passage of the Dawes bill, 
nor has it been lessened by the adoption since that date of 
missionary, home building, and eight other lines of work. 
This growing society has continued its appeals to the Chris- 
tian church and ministry, and to the public press, and, with 
increasing effect, to Congress. Prayers for the many things 
which justice still demands for Indians have constantly been 
addressed personally to our law-makers and executive offi- 
cers ; but the form of the work has changed. Pleas, per- 
sonal and direct, have proved to be more effective than the 
great rolls of formal petitions previously sent to Govern- 
ment. The laws and policy of a nation will not rise above 
the level of public sentiment, and only by educating the 
popular conscience can any lasting reform be accomplished. 
The wider appeal to the people through the public press has 
been most efficacious, for, after all, that is the final and sure 
resort. Many tribal wrongs have been righted, many acts 
of governmental justice have been done, since 1 887, and in 
all the women of this association have been an influential, 
if not always a visible, factor. Many proofs could be 
adduced that their prayers, though not always audible to the 
public, have reached the ears of those who control the affairs 
of the nation, and that their high purpose and thought have 
helped to mold the laws. As the years go on, the deep con- 
secrated patriotism of womanhood more and more asserts 
itself. Good women everywhere are waking to a moral con- 
sciousness that we have yet within our borders aboriginal 
tribes still in their native savagery, and that this results not 


SO much from difference of nature as from lack of oppor- 
tunity for civilization ; still helpless and ignorant, not from 
physical, mental, or moral incapability, but from the en- 
forced lack of instruction ; still nomads and marauders, not 
because there are no aspiring and noble natures among 
them, but because no people can develop a settled and 
upright mode of life without a solid basis of law on which 
to build. 

All thoughtful women, and notably the active members of 
this association, realize that just legislation for the Indian, 
abolishing the paradox of remaining legal wrongs, legisla- 
tion which shall practically place him upon an equal footing 
with men of every race upon our soil, is the immediate and 
paramount work to be done for the Indian within these. 
United States ; and these workers clearly appreciate the fact 
that the most difficult and the most important legislative 
work of the Women's National Indi'an Association is yet 
before them. 

The Women's Liberal Federation of Scotland — Ad- 
dress BY THE Countess of Aberdeen of Scotland. 

It was not until the beginning of the year 1889 that 
liberal Scotchwomen first combined for political work. That 
they were behind their English sisters may be accounted 
for by the better system of laws prevailing in Scotland, 
especially those dealing with women and children ; or it 
may be that, liberalism being stronger in Scotland, there 
was less antagonism of party, and less need for women's 
help ; perhaps, also, Scotchwomen had later realized their 
duties and responsibilities as independent members of the 
community, or with their national reticence were shyer of 
new movements involving public work. Naturally Glasgow 
and Edinburgh were the first centers of political activity.* 

♦ The women of both cities were represented by the Countess of Aber- 
deen, the most representative Scotch woman.— [The Editor.] 


woman. From these centers other associations sprang, 
until it became necessary, in order to preserve some kind 
of unity, to combine these into one federation. 

In May, 1890, the Glasgow and West of Scotland societies 
first took action toward this, as is shown by the following 
extract from the minutes : 

"The question of affiliation between the Woman's Lib- 
eral Association for Glasgow and the West of Scotland and 
the Woman's Liberal Federation of England was consid- 
ered, and after discussion it was agreed : that federation of 
the Scottish Women's Liberal Associations is immediately 
desirable ; that the nationality of our association should be 
maintained in consideration of the distinctive position of 
Scotland relative to the leading political questions of the 
day. The committee recommends to the executive that 
arrangements be made as soon as possible for forming a 
Scottish Women's Liberal Federation ; that the Edinburgh 
General Council be communicated with on the subject ; that 
a conference be held in the autumn of all branch associations 
of the Women's Liberal Association for Glasgow and West 
of Scotland ; and that a circular be sent to all these associa- 
tions requesting them to consider certain subjects to be 
brought forward at the conference, of which the relation 
between the Scottish association and the English Women's 
Liberal Federation be one." 

The conference was held on October 20, 1890, when the 
principle of home rule was accepted, and a Scotch federa- 
tion agreed to, a committee being formed to draw up the 
constitution and rules. 

The following is a copy of the printed objects : 

1 . To promote and extend the knowledge of sound liberal principles. 

2. To promote the formation of women's liberal associations in Scot- 
land, and to afford to them a center from which information and assistance 
on political matters can at any time be obtained. 

3. To promote intercourse and united action between the women's 
liberal associations of Scotland, without compromising their independ- 
ence, or in any way interfering with their constitution, rules, or local 


4. To secure just and equal legislation and representation for women, 
and the removal of all legal disabilities, especially with reference to the 
parliamentary franchise, and to protect the interests of children. 

5. To communicate information and arouse interest among women on 
political, social, and moral questions, bo th of g:ep«? rf^l a"i1 1' m rtl i 1 1 1 1'l r ^1 , and 
to advance these objects by meetings,'1€etures, and individual effort. 

The first meeting of the Council of the Federation was 
held on April 6, 1891, in Edinburgh, when Lady Aberdeen, 
as president, delivered an address, briefly stating the aims 
and objects of the federation. 

At the same time the work of the associations and their 
relations to the federation were explained by Mrs. Gilbert 
Beith, who said that the object and design of the Scottish 
Women s Liberal Federation is to organize the women of 
Scotland as a social and political force. 

Woman has her place alongside of man, not only within 
the hallowed circle of the family, but also on the larger 
platform of national and universal affairs. Her sphere is 
not antagonistic, but auxiliary ; and she has responsibilities 
peculiar to herself, concurrent with his. Her influence, 
when properly exercised, in the larger field should yield 
results similar to those in the smaller. As she strengthens 
and gives completeness to the other sex in the home 
life, so likewise her quicker perceptions and higher moral 
instincts should modify asperities and contribute sympa- 
thy and comprehensiveness in framing and administering 
laws for the millions of families which make up the nation. 
But the women of our country have hitherto failed to rec- 
ognize their full responsibility, and it is not too much to 
say that their ignorance and lack of interest in the great 
questions of the day, which so closely affect the social 
well-being of the people, are simply deplorable. These 
questions can only be handled practically by political action, 
and if women are to become real social reformers, and 
undertake to do earnestly with the betterment of the people, 
they must become intelligent politicians. The women of 
the Scottish Liberal Federation rejoice in recognizing that 
power now rests with the people. Wc have trust in the people y 


and believing that government by the people, for the people, 
is the true source from which social betterment must pro- 
ceed, we design to educate and inform the women of our 
country on all questions exercising the public mind and 
conscience; that, by their influence, they may stimulate 
those who possess the privilege of the franchise to a con- 
scientious and resolute exercise of their rights. The hor- 
rors of the liquor trafiic, of underpaid labor and the sweating 
systems, the better housing of the working-classes, and 
the struggles of labor with capital are questions closely 
affecting every home in the land ; but these are all on the 
political platform, and surely the women of our country, 
who are so deeply interested, are called upon to form and 
express opinions, and to do all that possibly can be done to 
bring about a just solution. Let me say that it is not 
required that women should possess the franchise before 
beginning to make their influence felt in this way. In- 
deed, the case would seem to be the other way about, and 
it may be questioned if they ever will succeed in acquiring 
franchise rights until they first become a political force in 
the country. 

The federation through its bills committee has considered 
and supported all measures dealing with the social and 
political amelioration of the people. In the session of 1892, 
among the bills considered was the " Factory Act Amend- 
ment " bill, on which the following amendments were drawn 
up and submitted to members of Parliament: (i) The 
providing better sanitary arrangements in factories. (2) 
The removal of restrictions on women's labor. (3) The 
insertion of provisions dealing with the sweating system. 
(4) Raising the age at which children enter the factories. 

Although by the passing of the ** Factory Amendment 
Act'* the worker has received greater protection, nothing 
has been done to reduce the evils of " sweating "; while the 
entrance age for children has only been raised to eleven 
years. One clause provides that no woman shall engage in 
factory work until one month after child-birth. 


Doctor Hunter's " Divorce Amendment " bill for England 
was heartily supported by the committee. The conveners 
sent an appeal to each Scottish member of Parliament ask- 
ing him to be in the House, and to support the second 
reading, which was set down for the 1 5th of March. Unfort- 
unately, the bill was crowded out. This was also the fate 
of Mr. Stuart's " Women as County Councillors " bill ; and 
Mr. Woodairs bill for ** Extending the Franchise to Women '* 
had to give place to other public business. The committee 
petitioned in favor of these bills. 

Another bill brought in at the beginning of that session 
aflFecting the conditions of women's work was Mr. Provand's 
" Shop Hours " bill. After consideration by the committee, 
the following resolution and amendment to the bill were 
adopted and recommended for discussion at the meeting of 
the council : 

**That, while in favor of a reduction in the excessive 
hours of labor of shop assistants, both in the case of men 
and women, the Scottish Women's Liberal Federation con- 
siders that Mr. Provand's bill, by fixing a maximum number 
of hours for shop-women only, will place them at a disad- 
vantage with men in that kind of work, but approves of the 
principle of the bill in regard to young persons. 

"The federation is of the opinion that Section lo of Mr. 
Provand's bill, which exempts the employer's family from 
the provisions of the bill, is inequitable, and ought not to be 
passed into law." 

The following bills dealing with temperance were also 
supported : '* Grocers* License " bill, " Local Veto " bill, 
** Early Closing Act Amendment " bill, " Sale of Intoxicat- 
ing Liquors to Children " bill. The committee petitioned 
in favor of Mr. Buchanan's " Right of Way " bill. The 
** Married Women's (Artisans' Wives) " bill was considered, 
as also Sir J. Lubbock's "Shops Weekly Half-Holiday" 
bill, and Mr. Burt's " Employers' Liability " bill. 

On the recommendation of the bills committee, the 
executive submitted several resolutions to the University 


Commissioners appointed under the University Act of 1889, 
as amendments on the draft ordinance dealing with the 
graduation of women and their instruction in the universi- 

It is gratifying to learn that the final ordinances empower 
the University Court to open all the faculties to women ; 
that the museums and libraries may be used by women, 
although no provision is made for women*s sharing in the 
bursaries ; and that the ordinances with certain restrictions 
are retrospective — allowing women to graduate who have 
already attended regular courses and obtained certificates 
in examinations of the same character and standard as those 
for the M. A. degree. 

On account of the general election which took place last 
summer there was no proposed legislation for the bills com- 
mittee to discuss until after the opening of Parliament in 
the end of January of this year 1893. 

Among the government measures which the committee 
recommended the executive of the federation to support, 
without binding itself to approval of all details, are the 
Government of Ireland bill and the Liquor Traffic Local 
Control bill. 

The literature committee has also published and distrib- 
uted leaflets dealing with the questions of the day, such 
as, " Why Am I a Liberal ? " ** Can People be Made Sober by 
Act of Parliament ? " ** Why Should Women Desire Relig- 
ious Equality?" "Trades Unions for Working- Women," 
** Woman's Suffrage." 

During the last year several municipal bodies were asked 
to consider the advisability of appointing women inspectors 
under the Shop Hours Act ; and the Countess of Aberdeen 
represented the Scottish Women's Liberal Federation on a 
deputation to the home secretary desiring that women be 
appointed factory inspectors. 

In answer to this request two women factory inspectors 
have been appointed, and if the experiment succeeds the 
number will be increased. 


At present the federation embraces thirty associations, 
with a membership of four thousand nine hundred and 
eighty-three, and these under the organizing secretary, Miss 
Kellie, are being gradually added to. 

The work of the federation is carried on by the office- 
bearers and executive committee of twenty members, rep- 
resenting eastern and western constituencies of Scotland. 

The general result of the movement has been, so far, the 
development of women's interest and zeal for all questions 
affecting the public welfare. It may also be said that the 
indirect influence of the movement has been to hasten 
women's emancipation from the old bonds of custom and 
prejudice, stronger often than statutes. 


ciATiON — Address by Baroness Gripenberg of Fin- 
land, Read by Meri Toppelius of Finland. 

Far away, beyond the seas, unknown and forgotten, there 
is one of civilization's most northern outposts, Finland, like 
a reflex in the snow, of European culture. In America 
the spring has entered long ago, with warm winds, and 
dressed nature in fresh verdure. In Finland at this time 
the ice has but just gone from the thousand lonely lakes, 
and the birch begins cautiously to put forth small, tender 
leaves. In the same way the woman's cause in America 
has long ago had its spring, while in Finland it now first 
develops the leaves. One of those leaves is the association 
which I have the honor to represent, Finsk Qvinnoforening, 
the Finnish women's association, the first organization for 
women's rights in Finland. Its name in the Finnish lan- 
guage is Suomen Neisyhdistys. Some of you have heard of it 
before, as it was represented also at the first international 
council of women in Washington, 1888, by Alexandra 
Gripenberg. Finsk Qvinnoforening is one of the most north- 
em outposts of women's work, a reflex high in the north of 


the movement which is going on in the large countries for 
the enfranchisement of women. I will in a few words 
touch upon the causes for its organization. History shows 
us that in countries which have had to struggle for their 
existence women through this struggle have received strong 
impulses in their own causes. It has been so in Finland. 
We are a little nation, which belonged to Sweden for more 
than six hundred years, until we, in 1809, were united to 
Russia. Our chief endeavor now became to maintain our 
national individuality. Perhaps you who belong to the 
great American people find it ridiculous that we, a hand- 
ful of men and women, did not prefer to be assimilated by 
a greater nation, but obstinately kept to our existence as a 
separate one. Perhaps such an endeavor is chimerical, 
nevertheless many small nations before us have struggled 
successfully for the same Utopia. We had meanwhile great 
and serious obstacles to conquer. Since our long union 
with Sweden, the Swedish language had grown to be the 
predominant one in the schools, the offices, the law courts, 
and among the educated classes. The people's own lan- 
guage, the Finnish tongue, was entirely different from the 
Swedish, and though it was spoken by six-sevenths of the 
population, it had no rights whatever. It was uncultivated 
and despised, and every one who wished to participate in 
western culture had as a first step to give up his native 

The depreciation following this neglect was most danger- 
ous, because if our nationality was to be maintained, the 
language, which is the expression of that nationality, must 
be preserved and cultivated. It must be the medium of 
education and government or national self-respect can not 
be sustained. A great reform movement now arose whose 
aim was to gain for the Finnish language its natural rights. 
I can not here dwell upon the fact that there were many 
who in these efforts saw a danger for our people. The 
main thing is, that the Finnish nationality movement broke 
forth with irresistible power. The whole people became 


seized by this idea, which swept through the country like 
a mighty spring storm. The leading men appealed to the 
mothers, through whom the idea was to go to the coming 
generation by the education of the children in their native 
tongue. The women did not remain indifferent, and for 
them this movement became the plow which prepared the 
field for another great idea — that of their own rights. 
Their activity in the nationality movement awoke them to 
their duties by the possibility of their usefulness in other 
public reforms. Women participated in the work for the 
improvement of the language and the starting of schools 
and newspapers. Women managed large sales of their 
work and gave the money to the national party. Side by 
side with men women worked for the nationality idea, and 
many sacrificed their best years, their youthful enthusiasm, 
their wealth to this movement. 

The homes of the more prominent women became head- 
quarters for many of the leaders, and women learned 
through their discussions the value and importance of 
organized work and associated powers. 

This happened at the same time that our country was 
reached by the echoes of the great movement for the 
enfranchisement of women which was going on in Eng- 
land and Sweden in the sixties. Thus it is natural that the 
nationality work became an important means of develop- 
ment for the women of Finland. Even those who did not 
approve of the language movement were forced to become 
acquainted with its attendant social questions, with which 
our press resounded, and which in greater or less degree 
had been called forth through the awakened self-conscious- 
ness of the nation. Thus the language movement became 
also an indirect means of awakening the women to a sepse 
of their rights and responsibilities. I can not here dwell 
upon the work done by the individual women at this time. 
I want only to tell about the Finnish women's first attempt 
to organize their effort to raise the position of their sex. In 
the spring of 1883 a number of ladies in Helsingfors, our 


capital, assembled to read and discuss John Stuart Mill's 
" The Subjection of Women." The following year, in the 
May of 1 884, this little circle constituted itself into Finsk 
Qvinnoforening, whose first president was Mrs. Elizabeth 
Its platform ran thus : 

1. The same right for women as for men to higher and professional 

2. Right for women to pass the examinations in the university. 

3. Right to same salary without regard to sex. 

4. Right of married as well as unmarried women to majority at twenty- 
one years of age. 

5. Right of married women to hold property. 


7. Right of women who have the municipal vote to hold municipal 

8. Right of women to political suffrage on the same principles as men. 

9. The legal age of marriage raised to beyond fifteen years, which is 
the prevailing custom in Finland. 

10. Unfaithfulness, ill-treatment, or a high degree of drunkenness con- 
stituted by law a cause for divorce. 

1 1 . The same moral restrictions in law and custom for men as those 
which now prevail for women. Also, as a part of the platform, the meeting 
passed resolutions in support of the federation. 

The platform is almost literally the same as that accepted 
by the first women's rights meeting in Seneca Falls, 1848, 
although this was not known by the founders of our little 
association. Thus great ideas scatter their seeds in diffei^ 
ent countries, as the summer wind scatters the pollen of 
fiowers. I will not detain you by an account of the diffi- 
culties which met our young association. They have most 
truly been about the same everywhere. I will say only a 
few words about the work done by Finsk Qvinnoforening. 

Of course it has a different character from that of the 
women's associations in America. Where freedom is the 
foundation for the development of the people, there the 
work for the enfranchisement of women usually is concen- 
trated upon suffrage work. But in countries which do not 
enjoy political liberty, and where even men's suffrage is 


limited, one must concentrate the work upon questions con- 
cerning higher education, professional training, and general 
enlightenment for women. Thus Finsk Qvinnoforening 
has been able to show its sympathies for women's suffrage 
rather than to work for it. We have, on the other hand, 
taken initiative petitions to the Diet, which in Finland as- 
sembles every third year, asking that women may enter 
the university without special permission ; that married 
women's majority, as well as that of unmarried women, be 
fixed at twenty-one years of age, without special request ; 
that women may be elected poor law guardians ; and that 
regulated vice shall be abolished. 

We have in lectures and newspaper articles urged mar- 
ried women's right to hold property; and by circulars to 
women who have the municipal vote, suggested to them to 
use this right. But the association has worked chiefly for 
the information and education of women of the so-called 
lower classes, by lectures, elementary classes, summer 
homes, by a cooking-school and an office for promoting the 
employment of women. In connection with this I must 
mention a circumstance peculiar to our association. Besides 
the central association, we have six branch unions, of which 
three are in the country, counting chiefly peasant women 
as their members. This, I think, is rather exceptional. I 
believe that you, ladies and gentlemen, would feel it a reve- 
lation if you could be present at a meeting some chilly 
winter evening in one of those little country associations^ 
and see the rows of simple women in the Finnish peasant- 
woman's coarse, dark-blue dress — wSome of them having,, 
perhaps, walked several miles in the snow to come to the 
meeting — see their tough, resigned faces lightened by in- 
terest and their eyes expectantly fastened on the speaker's 
lips. These branch unions mostly work for the instruction 
of poor girls in needlework and trades; they also have 
lectures, reading-circles, and meetings for their own mem- 
bers; some of them have started cooking and weaving 



It is interesting to see how simply and naturally many of 
these unlearned women embrace an idea which many of 
their educated sisters in all countries still regard only as a 
whim or a passing freak of our time. Finsk Qvinnoforen- 
ing can not do much for the improvement of women's legal 
position in Finland; but the leading thought, the red 
thread in our work, is our effort to raise the women of the 
working-classes. We believe, and nothing can make us 
alter our belief, that only in this way will our cause get 
firmly rooted and have a future in our country. In January, 
1892, Finsk Qvinnoforening had its first meeting with its 
branch unions. This meeting was called to discuss ques- 
tions concerning the position of our sex. At present we 
are preparing for an exhibition of women's work in the 
spring of 1894, when our association will celebrate the first 
decade of its existence. Finsk Qvinnoforening has a stipen- 
dium, called ** Elizabeth Lofgren's stipendium,** in honor of 
its first president. The association, including its branch 
unions, counts at present four hundred members. 

As you see, the life of Finsk Qvinnoforening has not 
been long. She is a baby compared with the National 
American Woman's Suffrage Association. Still, you must 
follow this baby with kindness. She is, with her feeble 
forces, as attached to our common cause as large associa- 
tions; and then, she is one of your extreme outguards in 
the north. Our great national poet, Zacharias Toppelius, 
says about Finland, that its culture exhibits one of hu- 
manity's most patient and most energetic victories over 
the natural powers, and its history is an evidence of what 
a people is able to endure without losing itself. 

** This country can not be buried in the snow ; this people 
can not be blotted out from the list of nations without 
leaving an empty place in the north of Europe and a 
vacancy in the reflexes of its civilization." I venture in a 
certain way to apply these words to us, your little sister 
association. If we yield to the difficulties, if we cease to be 
— then, in spite of our insignificance, there will be a 


vacancy, here in the far north, in the reflexes of the work 
done in the great countries for the enfranchisement of 

The Association for Married Women's Property 
Rights — Apdress by Baroness Thorborg-Rappe of 

Numerous legislative reforms were effected in the middle 
of this century, and particularly during the sixties and the 
early part of the seventies, with a view to improve the 
position of woman socially and intellectually. Thus in 
1858 it was by several enactments fixed that unmarried 
women should be of age at twenty-five years, if making an 
application, and later (1863), without such an application; 
in 1872 she was, if of age, released from the requirements 
of having the consent of her nearest kinsman to her mar- 
riage; in 1859 colleges were established for the education 
of lady teachers in rudimentary schools, and women were 
admitted as teachers in the public schools, and in i860 
into high schools for educating lady teachers of a higher 
grade; in 1863 women were employed in post ofl[ices, in 
the telegraphic service, and as clerks in the administrative 
bureaus of the railways; in 1870 women were admitted 
to the universities and allowed to become practicing phy- 

However, all of these reforms tended to benefit only the 
unmarried woman. For the married woman nothing had 
been done since the royal statute of 1845 had granted a 
wife equal matrimonial rights with her husband. She was 
still ruled by the unaltered provisions of the statutes of 
1734, investing her husband with a right of full guardian- 
ship and a full management over herself and whatever 
property she might have inherited or obtained before or 
after her marriage, with the exception of landed estate, 
wherein the husband had no share, and which he was not 


allowed to sell, to mortgage, or to transfer without the con- 
sent of his wife. 

Ever since L. J. Hierta, in the Riksdag of 1862, intro- 
duced a bill relative to the rights of married people, the 
attention of the legislators had from time to time been 
drawn to the position of the married woman ; and bills ask- 
ing that she should have protection against the unbounded 
sovereignty of her husband were introduced by the same 
mover in the Riksdag every year, but without success. 

A daughter of Mr. L. J. Hierta, Miss A. Hierta, in consort 
with some other persons living in the capital, and warmly 
interested in the movement, decided in the early part of the 
seventies to form a society, the chief aim of which was to 
make known the injustice of the laws concerning the mar- 
ried woman, and to enlist sympathy for reform on this sub- 
ject in and out of the Riksdag. 

Their efforts were regarded favorably, and February 6, 
1873, the "Association for the Married Woman's Property 
Rights " was founded, the earliest society in Sweden for the 
support of woman's rights. The invitation to join the 
society was signed by Mr. L. J. Hierta, the director-general, 
G. Fr. Almquist, Mrs. E. Anharsuard, Miss A. Hierta, Mr. and 
Mrs. Limnell, Mrs. H. Sohlman, and Mrs. A. Wallenberg. 
Before the first meeting of the association, however, Mr. L. 
J. Hierta had died. All the other signers of the invitation 
were elected members of the board of directors, and also 
Mrs. E. Lind of Hageby (bom Hierta), and Baron O. Stack- 
elberg. Mr. Almquist was elected president and Mrs. 
Anharsuard secretary of the association. 

The first paragraph of the rules of the association con- 
tained : ** The aim of the association will be to effect such 
legislative measures that a married woman shall be recog- 
nized as possessing the right to have the management of 
the property she may have inherited or obtained before or 
after marriage, and consequently also of the income she may 
derive from her work." 

The newly formed association commenced very actively, 


and with an energy apparent in various directions, such as 
numerous meetings, public discourses, the publication of 
pamphlets, etc. Moreover, arduous efforts were made to 
cause bills to be introduced in the Riksdag relative to the 
proprietary rights of the husband and wife. Mr. W. Wallden 
introduced a bill on the subject in the Riksdag as early 
as 1873, but it met with no more encouragement than its 
predecessors, and was rejected. 

In the Riksdag of the ensuing year the question was 
again debated. Bills were then introduced in the First 
Chamber by Mr. Nordenfelt and in the Second Chamber 
by Mr. Philipson. The Legislative Committee of the Riks- 
dag of that year had prepared and offered for consideration 
a proposition by which a wife was to have the right of 
management of such of her property as by marriage settle- 
ment had been exempted from the management of her hus- 
band, or such property as she had obtained by gift or by 
testament, and in regard to which it had been specially 
stipulated that it was to be her private property. A mar- 
ried woman should, besides, have the privilege of exclu- 
sively disposing of her own earnings. This proposition was 
approved by both the Chambers, and sanctioned by a royal 
decree on the i ith of December, 1874. 

In this way the first step was taken on the road to 
reform. The association now considered that the means 
most efficacious to further the progress of the question 
would be to get a treatise written demanding legislative 
measures to secure a married woman the privilege of hav- 
ing the control of her private property without the neces- 
sity of previous stipulations; it offered three prizes (of 
two thousand, seven hundred, and three hundred crowns 
respectively), to be awarded the authors of the most effective 
essays, and the ones most in correspondence with the aims 
of the association. 

Nine competitors appeared, but their papers, examined 
by a commission of experts appointed by the association, 
were not considered worthy of the first prize ; the two other 


prizes were distributed, and also an extra prize of one thou- 
sand crowns, rewarding a third paper that was made the 
basis for a bill introduced by Mr. C. J. Suens6n in the Riks- 
dag in 1 877, but which was rejected by the Chambers. 

Baron O. Stackelberg then introduced a bill in the Riks- 
dag of 1883, demanding great amendments in the marriage 
law, and the repeal of the provision making the husband 
the legal guardian of the wife, and also the abolition of the 
community of property of a husband and his wife. This 
bill being disapproved, not less than four other bills relative 
to the possession in common of the property owned by a 
married couple were introduced in the next Riksdag, 1884. 
The Riksdag now made a representation on the subject to 
his Royal Majesty, requesting the preparation of a plan for 
the alteration of the enactments regarding the property 
owned in common by a married couple, with the special 
object of increasing the rights of the married woman. 

On account of this request his royal majesty directed the 
Legislative Chamber to prepare a bill embracing the ends 
in view. 

As the question concerning the property rights of the 
married woman could for the present be considered in abey- 
ance, while the Legislative Chamber was preparing the bill, 
it was proposed, within the association, that its programme 
should include other subjects also, with the aim of advanc- 
ing the cause of the unmarried woman, as well as that of 
the married one, socially and politically. The project was 
adopted in March, 1886, and the first paragraph of the rules 
of the association, when altered, read : 

" The foremost object of the association is to accomplish 
such amendments in the Swedish laws that a married 
woman shall be recognized as having the right of control 
over such property as she may have inherited, or obtained 
previous to her marriage or afterward. The efforts of the 
association will at the same time aim to bring about all such 
enactments and other measures as may serve to improve 
the social position of woman.*' 


Among the objects which the association added to its 
programme were: "That women, oftener than hitherto 
had been the case, should use their right of voting at 
municipal elections; that women should be elected on 
school boards and on the boards of guardians of the poor. 

In consequence of the bill which Mr. A. Hedin pre- 
sented in the Riksdag that very year, the association had 
immediate occasion to take up the question of co-education, 
as the bill asked that the instruction in the higher forms of 
the state's elementary colleges should, when space per- 
mitted, be open also to girls. A well attended meeting for 
discussion of the topic was arranged, where, in a lively de- 
bate, co-education was critically examined from different 
points. A statement taken down in shorthand of the 
instructive discourses was subsequently published as a 

Professor C. Wallis, one of the directors of the association, 
while traveling in the United States the following year, 
made co-education his special study, and upon his return 
the association arranged public discussions on the sub- 
ject. Professor Wallis told of co-education in the United 
States, and projects for its introduction in Sweden were 

A commission having been appointed by the government 
to investigate the education of girls, and having submitted 
their report January 19, 1888, the association arranged a 
large meeting to argxie on the question, the education of 
g^rls, with special regard to co-education. About six hun- 
dred persons attended this meeting, and co-education proved 
to have warm sympathizers in vastly diflferent social spheres, 
not fewest among teachers, men as well as women. 

The plan prepared by the Legislative Chamber for amend- 
ing the enactments with regard to the property owned by a 
married couple was published in October, 1888, and the 
association endeavored to have the public made cognizant 
of its purpose by means of lectures, discourses, articles in 
the newspapers, etc. 


By the communal regulations of 1862 a woman fulfilling 
the established prescriptions was granted the right to vote 
at municipal elections, but very few had availed themselves 
of this privilege; thus in the city of Stockholm in 1887, 
where the women entitled to vote numbered four thousand 
eight hundred and forty-four, with sixty-two thousand three 
hundred and sixty-three votes at their command, only a 
very small number made use of their rights of suffrage. 
Antagonists were always ready with this argument when 
the extension of woman's civil privileges was demanded ; 
and most particularly when her right as to political suffrage 
was concerned, it was constantly represented that it was of 
no avail to allow her more privileges when she hardly 
profited by those already granted. 

To enjoin on woman more generally to make use of her 
right to vote for the municipal council, the vestry board, 
etc., therefore became the most imperative concern of the 

Prior to the election of councilmen in the city of Stock- 
holm in March, 1877, a largely attended meeting was held. 
The discussion commenced with a stirring and instructive 
address delivered by Count Hamilton, and treated of the 
participation of women in municipal elections. 

To work for this cause in a still more effective manner, 
the association appointed a committee of ladies, who took 
the following practical measures : 

The names of all women in the Capital entitled to vote 
were copied from the list of electors, as well as the number 
of votes at the disposal of each. An election bureau cen- 
trally located was instituted, and there the members of the 
commission attended by turns, furnishing required informa- 
tion Also there were distributed more than four thousand 
circulars, urging women having the right to vote not to 
shrink from their duty, and supplying the necessary infor- 
mation as to what was to be observed by the voters. The 
result was a lively participation in the election on the part 
of women. At the elections to the municipal council in the 


following years the same measures were taken by the asso- 
ciation, and always with a favorable result. 

On account of a bill introduced in the Riksdag by Mr. S. 
S. Borg in 1887, asking for women the right to be elected 
members on school boards and on boards of guardians for 
the poor, meetings for public discussion were arranged by 
the association, addressed among others by Mr. A. Hedin, 
a member of the Riksdag. 

The resolution of the Legislature in 1889, declaring 
women to be eligible to the school boards and to boards 
of guardians of the poor, was brought about chiefly by the 
energetic exertions of the association ; and in the autumn 
of 1889, in one of the largest parishes in the capital, a 
woman was for the first time elected a member on a school 
board, this lady being Miss Lily Engstrom, a teacher in the 
State's Normal School for Girls. In the ensuing year the 
association continued in the same direction, with the result 
that women were elected members on school boards in three 
other parishes in the capital. In other parts of the country 
the same charge has also been intrusted to women. 

Moreover, a great many other bills touching on questions 
coming within the domain of the activity of the association 
have been strongly supported, as, for instance, the bill intro- 
duced by Mr. Borg demanding that the age when women 
are marriageable should be raised from fifteen to twenty-one 
years. The bill passed in the Riksdag in 1 889, though with a 
modification, it being established that a woman under 
seventeen is not allowed to marry. By the same mover was 
further asked an enlarged right for women in regard to 
divorce, and by Mr. P. Waldenstrom enactments for civil 
marriage were demanded. 

The plan for amendments concerning the property owned 
in common by husband and wife, prepared by the Legislat- 
ive Chamber, and sharply criticised by the Supreme Court, 
was not, according to the decision of his Royal Majesty, to 
be taken as the basis for a proposition to be laid before 
the Riksdag, the Legislative Chamber having instead been 


directed to prepare amendatory enactments as to the sep- 
aration of property and corresponding ordinances. The 
association consequently now judged the moment suitable 
for recommencing the agitation in the Riksdag for the 
proprietary rights of the married woman. 

Two of the directors of the association introduced bills on 
this matter in the Riksdag of 1892. Count H. Hamilton 
moved for the repeal of the matrimonial right in respect to 
such landed estate in cities and towns as either the husband 
or the wife had inherited during the marriage, or had ob- 
tained previous to their marriage, and moved that a husband 
should not have the power to transfer, mortgage, or dispose 
of any real estate owned by the couple in common without 
having the consent of the wife. Mr. M. Hojer moved 
for the abolition of a husband's guardianship over his wife, 
as well as the revocation of the community of property of a 
married couple. Count Hamilton's proposition passed in 
the Second Chamber, but was defeated in the First, while 
Mr. H5jer's bill was rejected in both Chambers. 

Simultaneously with the proceedings in the Riksdag, the 
association had caused a pamphlet to be published, entitled 
" The Main Points in Swedish Statutes Regarding Women," 
written by Mr. Karl Straff, a young lawyer. It is a popular 
exposition of the enactments relative to women, and pro- 
claims the injustices and disparities still in existence. 
Besides this pamphlet already mentioned, the association 
has published fifteen essays, under the title, ** Concerning the 
Proprietary Rights of the Married Woman,** discussing the 
methods followed by the association, and setting forth the 
bills introduced in the Riksdag, the debates concerning 
them, and the enactments made by the Legislature, the 
memorials submitted by committees, the competitory papers 
on plans for legislative measures, the addresses made at the 
meetings of the association, etc. 

In addition, the association has caused a form for wills 
to be prepared and published for the guidance of parents 
who might wish that the fortune inherited by their daugh- 


ters should remain entirely or partially under their own 
control, even after they are married. 

The board of directors appointed by the association has 
nine regular and three supplementary members. The 
president is elected from among the members of the board, 
as well as the vice-president and the secretary and treasurer. 
These offices have since the organization of the association 
been held by the following persons : 

Presidents: Mr. T. G. Almquist (1873-78), Professor H. 
Gylden (1878-86), Baron B. O. Stackelberg (1886-88), and 
Count Hamilton (1888). Vice-presidents: Mrs. T. Limnell 
(1873-86) and Mrs. A. Retzius (1886). Secretaries and treas- 
urers: Mrs. E. Anharsuard (1873-86), Mrs. E. Lind of 
Hageby (1886-89), Miss C. Nauman (1891), Miss M. Cedus- 
chiald (1892). 

At present the other members of the board are : Mrs. E. 
Anharsuard ; Mr. E. Beckman, member of the Second Cham- 
ber of the Riksdag ; Mr. H. Sohlman, editor ; Mr. M. Hojer, 
member of the Second Chamber of the Riksdag ; Mrs. A. 
Berfstedt ; Mr. C. Lindhagen, accessor of the high court of 
law ; and the supplementary members, Miss Ellen Fries and 
the Misses G. Hjelmecrus and A. Lindhagen. 

It is nearly twenty years since the association was 
formed, and many are the obstacles which it has had to 
surmoitnt, such as the repugnance natural in man to resign 
any of his privileges, the women's indifference, and the 
conservatism of legislators, and still the chief object of the 
association remains unattained, namely, the revocation of a 
husband's gxiardianship over his wife. 

The association can nevertheless with satisfaction con- 
sider what has been accomplished by means of its activity : 
many prejudices are undermined by it ; the righteousness 
of its aims is being more widely acknowledged ; men and 
women conspicuous for ability and discernment have joined 
the association, and given it their support; by an act of 
1874 the married woman is allowed to be mistress of her 


own earnings ; and other reforms have also been brought 
about by the association. 

The association has then every reason to look hopefully 
to the future, assured one day, sooner or later, df seeing 
the completion of its proposed task : woman declared equal 
to man judicially as well as socially, as a citizen and as a 
human being. 


Prefatory Comment by the Editor — Extracts from Addresses Deuv- 
ered in the general congress and from discussions of these 
Addresses by Augusta Cooper Bristol, Lin a Morgenstern, Euzabet 
Kaselowsky, Juan a A. Neal, Karla Machova, Florence Elizabeth 
Cory, Emily Sartain, M. B. Alling, Luetta E. Braumuller, M. 
Louise McLaughlin, Alice M. Hart, Helena T. Goessmann, Kaethe 
Schirmacher, Alice Timmons Toomy, Rev. Anna H. Shaw, Emily 
Marshall Wadsworth, Kate Bond, and Harriette A. Keyser — Brief 
Extracts from a Paper Prepared for the Report Congress by E. E. 
Anderson — Brief Extracts from an Address Delivered in the 
Department Congress op the National Columbian Household Eco- 
nomic Association by Mary Coleman Stuckert — Address Delivered 


THE idea is still current that as a rule women are " sup- 
ported " by men. Upon this popular delusion the 
following pages throw much light. The speakers 
cited in this chapter regard the general theme from a 
marked variety of standpoints. The views presented re- 
flect to a degree the nationality, the actual and the relative 
social positions, of their respective authors ; but the variety 
in method of approaching and treating the industrial posi- 
tion of women, and the diversity of occupations from which 
the illustrations are drawn, only emphasize certain central 

No class of people entertains higher ideals of family life, 
or has a clearer and nobler conception of the reciprocal obli- 
gations of men and women in the home, than the class 
usually referred to as ** women of advanced ideas." It is 
also in the homes of this class of women that the highest 
average of domestic happiness, and of all that properly may 
be included in the phrase domestic success, is unquestion- 
ably found. The literature bearing upon domestic problems 



which has been produced by women proves that the class of 
women called "advanced** anticipates the time when the 
value of human life will be appreciated more highly, and 
the influence of prenatal conditions and of early training 
will be understood better. Women then will do no work 
outside of the home during the years when they are bearing 
and rearing children, and then fathers will cease to be 
merely family banks, and will regard an active share in the 
training, education, and personal care of their children as 
the inevitable result of paternity. Doubtless, in general, a 
mother alone can "bring up " children better than a father 
alone can ; but sometime the race will have reached a stage 
in its development when it will not rest satisfied with a 
choice between evils; when, instead of accepting the better 
of two defects, it will demand a positive good ; then it will 
demand and obtain for infancy the combined personal 
attention of both fathers and mothers. 

Before this state can be reached the whole industrial situ- 
ation must undergo a change. One element in this change 
is a recognition of the pecuniary value of woman's time, of 
woman's labor. The pecuniary value of the time and labor 
spent by women in their homes, in the care of their children, 
and in establishing the social relations of the family and 
directing its social life, will never be understood and 
admitted until woman has demonstrated to the average 
mind the pecuniary value of her services in all outside 
occupations, industries, trades, and professions. 

The present state of the industrial world as exhibited 
in this chapter affords such a demonstration. The dem- 
onstration involves statements from which may be 
inferred the degree to which women actually contribute 
to carrying on the labor and business of the world. It 
exhibits a nearly universal consciousness in women of 
their right to do any work they can do, unhampered by 
abstract considerations of original divine intention or of 
ultimate divine purpose. It shows a growing inclination to 
demand that pay shall be determined by the quantity and 


the quality of the work done independent of the sex of 
the worker ; a shrewd comprehension of the circumstances 
that hinder the application of this rule in the industrial 
world, and a perception of the value of organization as a 
means of controlling these hindering circumstances. 

It is also clear that women are questioning whether it be 
not possible to enroll among the professions that odd med- 
ley of duties commonly lumped under the word "house- 
keeping/* which, proceeding from the affections, must be 
performed under the guidance of the judgment; whether 
this complicated labor can not be simplified and managed 
by the application of the same principles of division and 
cooperation which control in other fields. 

Finally, this chapter reveals a recognition of the fact that 
the law of solidarity has no exceptions, and that wealth, 
rank, talents, and culture, separately or all combined, do 
not exempt the woman possessing them from the effects of 
any injustice suffered by the poorest, the lowest, feeblest, 
and most ignorant of women, if suffered in consequence of 
her sex.— [The Editor.] 

Woman the New Factor in Economics — Address by 
Augusta Cooper Bristol of New Jersey. 

When a speaker or writer is assigned a theme for eluci- 
dation it is important at the outset to have a clear under- 
standing of the terms of that theme. " He shall be as a 
god to me who can rightly divide and define,** said Plato ; and 
as the world gets older it subscribes more and more to Plato. 
A definition of the terms of my theme, as presented in dic- 
tionary and encyclopedia, arrays it as a paradox ; establishes 
woman as the oldest as well as the newest factor in 
economics ; the earliest and latest, according to the area to 
which the term " economics '* is applied. It is important to 
note all that this fact involves. 

We find that economics in its primary application signi- 


fied the science of household aflfairs; the adjustment of 
domestic expenditures to the income. We may rationally 
conclude that in early forms of society the responsibility of 
the then narrow domain of economics fell almost entirely 
upon woman, inasmuch as we find it illustrated at the pres- 
ent day among races that have not yet risen out of primi- 
tive social phases. A recent writer upon the customs of 
Central Africa states that the work in an African village is 
done chiefly by the women ; they hoe the fields, sow the 
seed, and reap the harvest. To them too falls all the labor 
of building the houses, grinding the com, brewing the beer, 
cooking, washing, and caring for almost all the material 
interests of the community. 

It is from this primitive social outlook that we find 
woman to be the principal factor in economics ; the initiator 
at least of the whole system which follows, whether its area 
be the family, the community, or the nation ; the original 
source from which all world-wide economics are evolved. 
For although as defined, political economy ** is a science of 
the laws which providence has established for the regula- 
tion of supply and demand in communities," yet the same 
authority affirms that the disposition to adapt the expendi- 
ture of a household to its income is one of the phenomena 
which make up those laws of nature. 

From this point of view woman is the origfinal factor in 
all systems of economics, the demure goddess at the fount- 
ain-head, determining the quantity and quality of the 
waters that flow therefrom. As an organic body g^ows 
only through the cells which compose it, and as the house- 
hold is the cell of the social organism, so domestic economy 
is the original unfolding principle of all larger economics. 

I am desirous that this truth should become established 
in the consciousness of woman, here, now, and evermore, 
that she may have a just estimate of her place and power 
in the evolutionary scheme of life, when it reached the 
point of the social beginnings of the race ; that she may 
perceive that neither from the present nor the future does 


she receive her credentials as an economic factor, but from 
the primal constitution of society itself, as the originator of 
the vast scheme of economics which introduces and links 
the nations to each other, of which man alone has been the 
recognized exponent and director. Although, man has cast 
a blind eye on this truth, yet if woman perceives it clearly, 
she can well afford to smile serenely on his self-gratulation 
as umpire of economics. For the woman soul, in the dis- 
covery and realization of its high place in the scheme of 
things, will find that power of equanimity which sooner or 
later converts every obstacle into an auxiliary, all hin- 
drances into means of advance. This interior ascension of 
the spirit into an imperturbable equanimity is our great 
need as women. If we would make all external advantage 
more swiftly our own, we must abolish all interior sense of 
bondage and disadvantage, and sailing info externals on 
the fullness of that strength, believe and take the whole 
arena of affairs as our native domain. Emancipate the 
thought from the ever-present cramping sense of personal 
disadvantage, and internal wrong, and a miracle follows. 
The spirit at once assumes its proper majesty, and gathers 
up the reins of directing power. A few individual examples, 
here and there, among women demonstrate my statement, 
and we call them the World's Representative Women. 
Their persevering and telling efforts for woman's advance- 
ment are not from the standpoint of woman as woman, but 
from the standpoint of the unity and solidarity of the race ; 
the proper balance of the social forces. 

Woman has been, and forever will be, a hero-worshiper, 
but the hero enlarges. It is neither man nor woman, but 
humanity. To her, the woman cause means the ** righting 
up" of this deformed hero, humanity. She labors for 
justice to woman as a means to an end, and that end the 
conformity of civilization to the perfecting organic principle 
which Spencer styles " a moving equilibrium." The women 
invested with largest power to bring about this state of 
social equity are women who in their spiritual forces have 



attained this condition of " a moving equilibrium/* There 
is perhaps nothing else that will bring the rank and file of 
women so quickly and surely into this state of spiritual 
balance and power as a realization of the magnitude of 
woman's relations to the entire system of economics. 

The lad who believed himself to be the child of a peasant, 
expressed in his personality and bearing only the common 
nature and manner of the peasant life ; but learning one 
day from a stranger that he was the child of a king, he was 
transformed, by his consciousness of the fact, from the peas- 
ant weakling to the dignity and power of spirit native to 
his true relation. 

Woman then being the oldest factor in economics, under 
what aspect of truth do we now regard her as the new 
factor? Looking at her economic relationships to-day, and 
•comparing them with those of the past, the contrast is as 
marked as that of day with night. It is the recognition of 
this contrast that fixes her as the new element in industrial 
development. The light of morning is new to one who 
wakens, but that same light was on its way through the 
darkness, and it is old with travel. What engineer has ever 
laid out the line where darkness terminates and dawn 
begins? So with woman's industrial advance. She attains 
new areas, but the attaining is old with continuity of un- 
flinching struggle. 

The new economic area to which woman has attained in 
this latter half of the nineteenth century is that of the 
creation of wealth. Her economic responsibilities are no 
longer limited to the application and distribution of supplies ; 
she is a wealth-producer in the broadest meaning of the 
term — not indirectly, but directly; and this it is which 
constitutes her new relation as an economic fact. What is 
it to be a creator of wealth ? What is wealth ? No one has 
furnished us with a better definition than Henry George. 
*' Wealth,'* he says, " consists of natural products modified 
by human exertion so as to fit them for the gratification of 
human desires ; it is labor impressed upon matter in such a 


way as to store it up. When a country increases in wealth, 
it increases in certain tangible things, such as agricultural 
and mineral products, manufactured goods of all kinds, 
buildings, cattle, tools, machinery, ships, wagons, furniture, 
etc." Into this spacious wealth-producing domain, the auton- 
omy of which determines a nation's place among nations, 
woman has found entrance as an active agent among its 
complex forces. Still further does she illustrate Henry 
George's definition of a producer of wealth, as he adds, ** Nor 
should it be forgotten that the investigator, the philosopher, 
the teacher, the artist, the priest, the poet, though not engaged 
in the production of wealth, are not only engaged in the 
production of utilities and satisfactions to which the produc- 
tion of wealth is only a means, but by acquiring and diffus- 
ing knowledge, stimulating mental power, and elevating the 
moral sense they may greatly increase the ability to pro- 
duce wealth ; for * man does not live by bread alone.* " 

Into this higher atmosphere of wealth production, where 
professions are ranked and ideas generated, woman has 
seemingly compelled her own ascent; for whenever and 
wherever we lift our eyes to these intellectual ramparts, she 
passes before our vision. I state this advisedly, for the 
number of industries and professions now open to woman 
runs into the hundreds ; and one authority states that all 
occupations and callings are now open to her, if she have the 
courage to enter them. If a general should say to his sol- 
diers, " My boys, the enemy's intrenchments are ours if you 
have the courage to take them," it would not mean that the 
intrenchments were thrown open for possession. So far as 
women have hitherto made headway into the promised 
land, even from the first step upon its boundaries, they 
have cast up this highway of courage every inch of the 
route. So I dare not claim large comfort from this author- 
ity, certainly none that justifies us in laying aside our 
armor or stacking our arms. The hopefulness of the out- 
look arises from the fact that the area yet to conquer 
narrows, the line of struggle shortens, the intrenchments 


of opponents weaken and diminish. This fact is due, not 
simply to the persistent courage of women, not to their 
tireless importunities, but to many causes inherent in the 
increasing complexity of our civilization. Society being an 
organization, it experiences all the expansions and transfor- 
mations of any cell or egg. There is a time in the history 
of an egg when the limitation of the shell is a protection 
to the homogeneous, inchoate substance within ; but differ- 
entiations beginning in this life substance, functions being 
specialized, and the whole individualized, that which was 
protection becomes imprisonment. The organism wrenches 
and struggles, the walls gradually yield, and the organism 
walks forth into the light and responsibility of freedom. If 
the beak of the hatched eagle could speak for itself, it 
would claim that the weakening of its prison-walls was due 
to its own persistent knocking and battering ; and the wing 
and talon would put in a similar claim of merit for them- 
selves. But it was the increasing complexity of the entire 
organism, the one differentiating life within, that compelled 
the beak to knock, the talon to scratch, and the wing to 
push and struggle. 

There is a seed in Southern California (I think it is a 
variety of clover) that if it had consciousness would surely 
claim that it planted itself. It lies upon the surface of the 
packed soil during the dry season, but when the rain of 
winter comes it takes a notion to bore a little depression in 
the softened earth and put forth roots. "Behold my 
efficiency,** it might well say. "Yet mine made yours 
available," the rain might reply. But the incubating 
genius of life brooding over mountain, cailon, and mesa 
could say, " I am the awakener and supply of all your 
forces." A like interdependence of progressive forces per- 
meates the entire structure of modern society. Simulta- 
neous transformations, seemingly foreign to each other, are 
occurring in the body politic, the genius of evolution burn- 
ing at its center, having the providence to initiate all normal 
expansion in radii, thus preserving the equilibrium of 


growth. Impartially breathing her quickenings through- 
out the entire structure, she thereby secures balance with 
movement, and links progress to order. A long-headed 
deviser does this genius of evolution prove herself to be, in 
that she puts in the heart of each separate reform a feeling 
that the true welfare of society depends almost wholly on 
its own special success. It is this feeling which secures the 
most remarkable concentration of effort, and leads each 
reform to battle victoriously, step by step, with the obstacles 
of progress. In, the vantage-ground of industrial emanci- 
pation which woman has already gained, I would in no wise 
divest her of the feeling of the superimportance of the 
woman cause. For I believe Spencer affirms it is feeling 
and not opinion that moves the world. But I speak rather 
to establish scientifically and philosophically in woman's 
comprehension the fact that her special movement has the 
backing of the universal movement ; that the divine mania 
which has taken possession of her for culture, independence, 
complete freedom, and full responsibility holds even cosmic 
relations. Woman will not abate her zeal, but give larger 
possession to the ideas which compel her to do battle for 
them, when she understands that they emanate not from 
woman in the interest of woman, but from the one life in 
the interest of life. This is the true basis of our faith, the 
genuine ** substance of things hoped for." " Attractions are 
proportioned to destinies.'* The line of movement is for- 
ward and upward, and the destiny of the woman is above, 
not below, the present outlook. It is the inevitable. The 
urgent fire in the woman-soul, forever impelling her to 
larger enterprise and venture in every department of 
human action, that leads a Mrs. Sheldon into the heart of 
Africa, is the Pentecostal flame of this same destiny. It is 
well to keep in remembrance the interrelation of the entire 
output of social reforms to which I have referred, and the 
fact that the permanent success of each and all of them 
depends upon this relationship. It is not difl&cult to per- 
ceive that the woman cause is allied to temperance reform. 


It requires closer scrutiny to perceive its relation to tariff, 
ballot, and tax reform, to government ownership of rail- 
ways, and a financial system less open to individual and 
class manipulation. Nevertheless the fact is there; for 
woman being industrially emancipated, a recognized inde- 
pendent factor in the production of a nation's wealth, every 
reform that affects the production and distribution of that 
wealth touches the woman cause. After this manner and 
direction has been the movement of freedom for any class 
or people from the beginning. 

The interrelationship of .all economic factors to which I 
have referred always reveals itself along the lines of justice 
and injustice. For example, it is preeminently a matter of 
equity that woman should receive equal wages with man 
for like quantity and quality of work. When this is with- 
held the standard of wages which working-men combine to 
maintain in their own interest inevitably lowers. There is 
no real security for man's good fortune except through 
equity to woman. The want of this has really been the 
source of all his woes. For the race is one, and " a house 
divided against itself shall not stand." Observe the social 
scourges that follow in the train of the unequal wage. How 
it bears direct relation to the dark problem of poverty, and 
how that darkness widens and merges into the sloughs and 
slums of immorality! How it broadens the margin of 
unemployed men who constitute the industrial reserve 
which enables capital to dictate its own terms to labor! 
How it compels the latter to array itself against its own 
kith and kin and do battle for its enemies ! How it necessi- 
tates in the names of sympathy and pity the effort and 
expense of organized charities to eke out the earnings 
which are either not sufficient for maintenance or not suffi- 
cient to meet the exigencies of misfortune! Surely a 
knowledge of the one fact that the average yearly income 
of the working-woman of Boston exceeds her yearly 
expenses for positive needs only about eight dollars might 
well fill the consciousness of every man who is normally 


bright and apprehensive with a sense of impending doom. 
Yet this is but one illustration of the evils which follow a 
special line of injustice, afflicting the wrong-doer even 
more than it does the wronged. And were we to follow 
out all the social iniquities in which woman has been 
involved, we should surely find that there is a certain point 
in these entanglements where the same disastrous lesson 
and result for man is revealed. 

" Every benefactor," says Emerson, ** becomes a malefactor 
by continuation of his activity in places where it is not due." 
From the hour when woman was sufficiently awakened 
through intellectual quickening to board deliberately the 
car of progress, every obstacle that man puts in the way of 
her advance reveals him as a malefactor ; that is, a train- 
wrecker. All the constabulary of the universe are after 
him, and the law of equity or equilibrium has dealt and 
will deal out punishment to him proportionate to his crime. 

Yet what better evidence can there be of a concession 
and recognition on the part of man, which must ultimate in 
the fulfillment of our largest hope, than the place so cor- 
dially assigned to women in this Columbian Exposition? 
It is no less than a world-wide announcement of her coming 
on in every form of art, literature, and industry. No nig- 
gardly dole is this to us, but the greatest privilege of all 
history, dating in myriad forms of art and mechanical skill, 
the fullness of time for woman's economic d^but. Permit 
me to direct your attention to the wonderful significance of 
this sentence, ** the fullness of time." There is no sentence 
in all Scripture so crowded with philosophic meaning. It 
solves for us the vexing problem of delay and procrastina- 
tion which seemingly attends woman's advancement. If 
hope deferred has heretofore made the heart grow sick, 
this sentence from henceforward should preserve us from 
all such abnormal lapses. We must learn and remember 
that nature delights in appropriateness, and will have all 
things in keeping. She will not vary one hair\s-breadth 
from this principle, though humanity, frantic with desire 


and wild with importunity, should go down on its knees to 
her. As a woman of good taste will seek to have the 
details of her costume present that equalness of grade 
and quality which establishes harmony and unity of value, 
so nature, with faultless and exquisite judgment, arranges 
in like manner her evolutionary series through all the 
realms of matter and mind, proceeding always from the 
simple to the complex, from sameness to variety, from the 
coarse to the fine, from the crude to the finished. And 
though an aeon should be necessary to each grade in the 
series, yet shall the details of this grade be held in perfect 
relation and keeping. For nature is congruous, whatever 
else she may be. There is due preparation for the proper 
advent of her successive creations or becomings, each of 
which waits on her fullness of time, and the longer the 
period of preparation the higher the outcome ranks in the 
scale of her series. 

Who can guess how long vegetable life waited on chaos, 
and the perturbations of protoplasm, before cosmic propriety 
permitted the first lichen to drape the earth's nudity ? How 
long did the vegetable kingdom creepingly unfold as the 
expression of organic life before it was appropriate for the 
world to put in an appearance and accept all that had pre- 
ceded as a gratuitous offering to the animal economy? 
How long before man ** capped the climax of the vertebrate 
series in mathematical concurrence with the fullness of 
time ? " And if at the era of his appearance on this planet 
he possessed even tolerably good sense and understanding, 
he must have congratulated himself on the minutiae and 
perfecting of detail which delayed his coming. For it is 
ever the last result which utilizes preceding effects. 

And for woman the logic of events has transformed 
obstacle and hindrance into those necessary equipments of 
character which belong not to partial but to complete citi- 
zenship. What does this equipment for the responsibilities 
of complete citizenship indicate ? It is no superfluous trick 
of historic evolution. Desired or dreaded, woman is pro- 


ceeding straight to the inevitable goal of largest social and 
political responsibility. We might as well endeavor to avert 
the fact that we were born as this fact ; and we are under 
equal necessity to utilize resignedly these two facts. Indus- 
trial emancipation broadens by an inevitable principle into 
social and political equality ; and as the combined forces of 
the stone, iron, press, and steam ages were engaged in 
shaping and molding civilization into fitness for woman's 
economic co5peration, so the genius of religion and govern- 
ment far back in the mist of ages began the preparatory 
work for her ultimate d^but as the full complement of man. 
In connection and parallel with the changes in religious 
and moral ideas, which antedated woman's advent as an 
economic factor, are the transformations which have 
occurred in forms of government and social institutions. 
A beast of prey, the primitive man rose to nomadic forms 
of society, patriarchs gave place to kings and emperors, and 
these in turn to constitutional monarchy, and this to the 
democratic idea and the rights of man. The bloody track 
of governmental evolution, conspicuous with the panoply 
of war, was built upon fallen thrones and devastated dynas- 
ties, the patriotic sentiment broadening in the red struggle 
from the family to the nation. And woman waited. Not 
yet the fullness of time for her awakening to the world's 
need of her citizenship. Something more of brute crudity 
must be eliminated from the tumultuous powers of civiliza- 
tion. Some larger and more sympathetic conception of 
human life and its universal relations must modify the 
world's ferment ere woman would arise from her world-old 
hypnotic trance, with a new consciousness of her individual 
ability and power, and the necessity of her taking an equal 
hand with man in working out a universal order. The 
ages had thundered from date of chaos, and she had not 
wakened. But there came a noiseless white-winged thought 
into the human atmosphere, and woman rose, and stood 
upon her feet, and knew herself and the world s need. 
And this was the white-winged thought which refined the 


way for her feet : ** There is but one life, and humanity is 
its spiritual image." As the genius of the spring-time sets 
all the forces of nature in sweetest passion for expression, so 
does this truth — the spiritual unity of the race — quicken 
the hearts of men and women into a mania to make the 
material interests of the entire humanity correspond in 
their unity to this spiritual fact. To a no less work than 
this is woman called and awakened : to convert discord into 
harmony, rivalry into emulation, jealousy into magnanimity, 
competition into cooperation, poverty into comfort, and the 
love of money into the love of man. Need I say that such 
transformation of the motives of human action, slow, silent, 
invisible, must sooner or later work out a system of society 
and government in which each shall stand for all and all 
for each ? It is only a question of time. The century plant, 
that waits a hundred years for its life's perfection, is no less 
sure of its final glory than the convolvulus that greets the 
dawn with expanded petals. 

There is no uncertainty in the eternal goodness, and 
woman's inevitable advance into all the lines of free citizen- 
ship is but a part of the ** divine event to which the whole 
creation moves." 


I send you sisterly greeting over land and sea, and regpret 
that I myself can not be present to be a witness of that 
exalted moment when the women of all lands unite to form 
an international bond of union. May this bond help to 
overcome all prejudices of nations, races, and faiths ! May 
it further the welfare of our sex, maintain and protect its 
rights, and secure justice to it for the good of united 
humanity! For the future of the human race lies in the 
hands of women. 

During the past year I have been engaged in compiling a 


work called " Die Frauenarbeit in Deutschland," which will 
give a complete survey of the position and activity of 
women in all departments of domestic and social life, and 
of the institutions already founded in Germany for the edu- 
cation and training of women. 

The accomplishment of the task which I had set before 
me was even more difficult and comprehensive than I had 
anticipated, the statistical aids and the material being 
secured only with the greatest trouble. Nevertheless, since 
I have been requested to give a report concerning the condi- 
tion of women in my native land, I send you the first proof- 
sheets of the book, which gives evidence not only that 
woman is capable of working in all departments of industry, 
but that it is a pressing necessity for her to acquire a calling 
by which she can earn a livelihood, in order that she may 
maintain her self-respect. In the light of these statistics is 
seen also how little appropriate is the formerly universal 
observation, " Woman belongs in the house, and her only 
natural calling is to be housekeeper and mother.** 

Aside from the fact that there are in Germany two mill- 
ion seven hundred thousand more women than men who 
are unmarried, and who thus do not come to fill the office of 
housewife, statistics show that at least ten per cent of the 
married women are compelled to work outside of the home 
in order to support their families. There are in all two 
million five hundred and thirty-four thousand nine hun- 
dred and nine women who work outside of their homes, as 
opposed to five million seven hundred and one thousand 
five hundred and eighty-seven men workers ; and each year 
shows an increase in the number of women engaged in 
business of thirty-five per cent, against an increase in the 
number of men of sixty-one per cent. Two million one 
hundred and sixty-four thousand two hundred and four 
self-sustaining women are engaged in domestic service, as 
against one hundred and seventy-five thousand four hun- 
dred and forty men. 

According to the statistics of 1882, two hundred and 


seventy-six thousand eight hundred and seventeen women 
are engaged in independent farming. There are two mill- 
ion two hundred and forty-eight thousand nine hundred 
and nine women working as farm-helpers, of which num- 
ber, nine hundred and twenty-two thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty-eight are members of the family, while 
six hundred and nineteen thousand eight hundred and fifty* 
eight are servants and seven hundred and six thousand 
two hundred and thirteen day laborers. 

In all the industries combined are found one million five 
hundred and nine thousand one hundred and sixty-seven 
women workers. They are distributed as follows : 

Mining and building 54.522 

Shopkeeping, trading, and restaurants I44i3 77 

Clothing and laundry 551.301 

Handelsgewerbe 184,537 

Textilindustrie 362,138 

Innkeeping 141.407 

Cooking and catering 96,724 

Paper-making 3I1256 

Hardware and metal-working 27,660 

Wood-carving 27,372 

Comparative statistics show that the proportion of women 
to men in the different industries gives the following per 
cents : 

Per cents. 

Spinners 54 to 69 

Weavers 22 to 39 

Lacemakers and embroiderers .. 42 

Crocheters, knitters, and lacemakers 84 

Bleachers, dyers, and pressers 35 

Bookbinders 25 

Passementerie makers 56 

Papermakers 35 

Basket and mat makers 27 

Cigarmakers 43 

Gold and silver embroiderers 66 

Penmakers 63 

Makers of linen goods . 56 

Noodle and macaroni makers 59 

Employment agents 63 


Per cents. 

Market-gardeners i6 

Peat-gatherers 23 

Shell-workers 16 

Shirtmakers 10 

Polygraphists 13 

In several industries the number of women workers pre- 
ponderates even. 

Married women employed in all factories, excepting the 
spinning and brick-making industries, are as follows : In 
Prussia, forty-two thousand seven hundred and sixty-one ; 
in Saxony, twenty-one thousand nine hundred ; in the re- 
maining of the United States of Germany, thirty-nine thou- 
sand one hundred and thirty-nine ; in Baden fifty per cent of 
the workers are married women, and we find a still greater 
number of married women, and especially widows, engaged 
in housework and farming. In the last mentioned there 
are two million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand 
eight hundred and thirty women to three million four hun- 
dred and twenty-seven thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
five men engaged. One-tenth of the entire number of 
women in Germany are domestics. 

In the liberal or higher callings two hundred and forty- 
seven thousand and seventy-eight women earn a livelihood ; 
these are distributed as follows : 

Teachers and instructors 124,000 

Physicians, medical assistants, and nurses 46, 1 77 

Administrators and directors 23,522 

Stewards 9,806 

Church wardens and clerks 8,724 

Musicians and actors 6,032 

Civil and municipal officials 4.793 

Authors 350 

Railroad officials i ,302 

Postal and telegraph clerks 1,012 

The table of statistics on the pay of women workers which 
I have given in my book, with special reference to the 
advancement of the labor union, shows the domestic situa- 
tion of all these women workers. 


From these statistics appears the deplorable fact that the 
work of women is paid from one-half to two-thirds less than 
the work of men ; in the lowest class two marks a week and in 
the highest ten marks. Pay differs in the different German 
States, as the statistics of West Prussia and Silesia show. 
In Berlin the highest wages are paid, but house-rent, taxes, 
and living expenses are dearer. In the individual callings 
women receive monthly salaries as high as one hundred 
and fifty marks, for instance, as directors in laundries and 
confectionery establishments, as bookkeepers, cashiers, and 

Compared with day wages received by men, the pay 
of women is on an average half and two-thirds, and in 
many cases three-fourths less. According to the province 
the pay differs, for g^own women, from seventy-five 
pfennig to two marks ; for girls under sixteen years, forty 
to eighty pfennig — also one mark. 

The condition of the women workers in the factories 
leaves much to be desired, and justifies the organization of 
women workers whose aim it is '* to secure like pay for like 
work." Those women who are better situated are able to 
devote themselves to the material elevation of the great 
masses of their poorer wage-earning sisters through helpful 
organization, and should do so. 


It is with g^eat pleasure that I comply with a request to 
report on the Lette-Verein. I am proud to give you a brief 
history of one of the oldest associations of German women ; 
one of the best, I think ; one I know and love dearly, whose 
secretary I have the honor to be. I pray for your indulg- 
ence. I am a stranger in your country, and not accustomed 
to your language, yet I hope to win your sympathy for an 
undertaking worthy of being known everywhere. The 


American ladies are intelligent and strong ; they have not 
to suffer as we do, or rather, let me say, as we did, from 
social errors and prejudices of an older history. It has not 
been long since German women, poor and with no one to pro- 
tect them, thought it a disgrace to labor for money. Many a 
fine talent withered slowly away, many a widow and elderly 
girl led a miserable life because they feared to use the gifts 
God gave them. Suffering in silence, they had no courage 
to mend the evil. 

It was in 1863 thaf Mr. Lette, president of the central 
institution for the welfare of the laboring classes, wrote at 
the head of its history : " For individuals as well as associa- 
tions it is well to look back, to recognize their deeds and 
efforts, to g^ve account of what they did and what they 
wished to do." In such a review he remembered the poor 
and helpless women, and proposed the founding of a new 
institution in connection with the above-mentioned, which 
should strive to open ways of labor to women in want. It 
was the first time any one thought of those poor women, 
who struggled so hard and did not know what to do or 
where to go for employment or instruction. The proposi- 
tion of this man, known for his benevolence and charity, a 
friend of Schurz and Wesendonk, was most favorably 
received by his hearers, and the best of them, men and 
women, assembled to effect its realization. Even the 
young Princess Victoria, now Empress Frederick, took 
such a warm interest in the undertaking that she promised 
to become the protectress of the new association, Zur For- 
derung der Erwerbs-fdhigkeit des Weiblichen Gesc/i/ecAfSyWhich 
she has remained to the present. 

The first rule was that every prejudice in regard to 
women earning money should be dropped ; that new indus- 
trial and commercial schools should be founded and rela- 
tions established between laborers and employers. It was 
at a most unhappy time, when in 1866 the war between Aus- 
tria and Prussia began, that the institute was opened by a 
bazaar, called " Victoria Bazaar," at which all kinds of 


articles made by women were sold. Women brought paint- 
ings, drawings, or fine needlework, embroideries of every 
kind, which a committee appointed for the purpose sought 
to sell. The bazaar was not merely temporary, but was 
continued in a fixed locality rented for the purpose. The 
eldest daughter of President Lette, Mrs. Annie Schepeler 
Lette, a widow, became its president, which she is to-day. 
The undertaking prospered in a most gratifying manner. 
It was not to be regarded as a work of charity ; the articles 
brought for sale stood business rivalry. A directress, pat- 
tern-cutter, and bookkeeper were engaged, forty women 
found employment in the establishment itself, and more 
than a hundred have been enabled to sell the products of 
their work. 

Soon after she was married to Prince Frederick Wilhelm 
of Prussia, the Princess Victoria founded a home for gov- 
ernesses and young girls, . strangers in Berlin. This 
home, called Victoria-Stift, needed reorganization, and the 
crown princess wished that the bazaar before mentioned 
should take care of it. Two stores were rented in Leip- 
ziger Strasse, in the building in which the bazaar was 
located. The home and bazaar were united, and nineteen 
young g^rls found board and rooms. Its restaurant for 
women is the first establishment of this kind in Berlin. In 
a short time the institution was over-occupied ; an agency 
and inquiry office, which rapidly became popular, was 
opened. Here every sort of information was pven and 
requests and offers were received and answered. 

In the year 1868 President Lette, a most noble, unselfish, 
unanimously beloved man, died, and in 1869, by prop- 
osition of Professor von Holzendorf, chairman of the 
institution, the name of it was changed to Lette- Verein, 
association for the promotion of higher education of women 
and of women's earning a livelihood. Wishing to honor the 
name of Lette, the speaker said, ** Let us do the best we 
can ; let us give an opportunity for a scientific and tech- 
nical education.*' This proposition was unanimously 



Harriet IE A. Keyser. 
M. Louse McLalghlin. 


Ai-iiE M. Hart. 

• • • •/ • 

• • • • • • 


accepted. At the same time a small capital was deposited 
to furnish loans to those who wished to start in business. 

The Lette-Verein was no longer the only institution of 
this kind. In November, 1 869, meetings of different associa- 
tions of women for education and industry were called. 
I only mention the popular kitchens of Mrs. Morgen- 
stem, the Victoria Lyceum, with its noble directress, Miss 
Archer, the Academy of Female Painters and Friends of 
Art, the Laborers' Union for learning and social entertain- 
ment — all these and many others were founded on the same 
principles. In autumn, 1872, the Lette-Verein settled in its 
own home, Konigsgratzer Strasse, ninety ; the Victoria-Stift 
had thirty-eight residents, and a matron who was as a mother 
to the young girls. The commercial and drawing school, 
comprising a large number of classes, occupied two stores. 
Several halls were given to the ladies for restaurants. An 
agency for the registering of pupils was opened, and books 
were started to keep an account of the scholarship and 
development of different classes. The opening ceremony 
was honored by the presence of the Crown Prince Frederick 
Wilhelm, and the Princess Victoria, our high protectress. 
When the secretary, Miss Hirsen, had finished her report, 
the prince said : " Did I understand you well ? You possess 
eight thousand dollars ; you have borrowed twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars ; you bought a house worth ninety-five thousand 
dollars, and you say this as unconcernedly as if everjrthing 
was right. How will you continue ? " " We don't know,'* she 
answered, " but we trust ; the past gives us hope for the 
future." " Your faith will help you," replied the prince, and 
so it was. The words of our beloved emperor, who was him- 
self so great a sufferer and so faithful a believer, were as a 

Twenty-seven years have passed since the Lette-Verein 
was founded. Its schools occupy three buildings ; its pupils, 
now numbering fourteen hundred, come from every part of 
the world, many of them from America and Australia. We 
teach almost every branch of woman's industry — dress- 



making, manual labor, millinery, fine needlework, sewing 
by machine, cutting of linen, hair-dressing, ornamental draw- 
ing, fabrication of artificial flowers, washing, ironing, cook- 
ing, housekeeping, and bookkeeping. The course of study 
is optional. Pupils may choose a single branch or a num- 
ber of branches. Charges are small and the teachers of the 
best. We seek to grant as much free instruction as possible. 
Our pupils are not from the poorer classes alone, but from 
the wealthiest families ; many a bride seeks here to perfect 
herself in the art of housekeeping, that she may be able to 
instruct her servants properly. The house resounds with 
youth and gladness, and delight in work. Order and clean- 
liness are strictly observed, and the relations between pupils 
and teachers are most cordial. The certificates from the 
commercial school enable our pupils to find good situa- 
tions as bookkeepers, those in manual labor open to them 
positions as teachers in manual training schools. 

The agency and inquiry office in 1 892 supplied as many 
as two thousand ladies with positions as teachers in scien- 
tific and technical branches, as kindergartenerinnen, lady 
companions, etc. 

The institution last opened is a photographic school, 
where young girls learn not only the art of photography, but 
every kind of graphic reproduction, retouching, coloring, etc. 

The Lette-Verein has grown until it has come to be one of 
our largest institutions. Its means are small, but its presi- 
dent and chairman, filled with a spirit of love, are working 
bravely and fearlessly ; they try to recognize the needs of 
the time, and of life, and are always willing to exchange the 
good for the better. 

Many similar institutions conducted on the same princi- 
ples have been founded during the past years, and their 
prosperity shows the usefulness of their existence. Many 
tears have been dried, many eyes have grown brighter, 
many a young heart has won new hope ; indeed, much has 
been accomplished, and, gratified with our results, we 
struggle on to mend the evils of the time. 


A New Avenue of Employment and Investment for 
Business Women — Address by Juana A. Neal of 

While in 1836 only six occupations were open for 
women bread-winners, viz., teaching, millinery, sewing, 
tailoring, factory labor, and domestic service, now over 
three hundred are open, and women are successful in all 
these, with new avenues opening every day. Women 
entered four hundred applications for patents last year. 
Women are everywhere, in colleges, banks, stores, and 
counting-houses, as clerks and capitalists, managing with 
distinguished success both small and large affairs. 

An avenue which has only recently been open to women, 
and which promises to her wonderful opportunity, is life 
insurance, which appeals to women as strongly as to men. 
Leading companies are among the greatest institutions of 
finance in the world. Thirty companies possess assets of 
over nine hundred and three million seven hundred and 
thirty-four thousand five hundred and thirty^even dollars, 
and their total income for 1892 was two hundred and thirty- 
two million twenty-four thousand nine hundred and ninety- 
three dollars. The number of policies in force in these 
thirty companies is one million five hundred and thirty-two 
thousand eight hundred and twelve ; of these policies the 
number carried by women is estimated at only seventeen 
thousand. Policy holders were paid in 1 892 one hundred and 
two million six hundred and twenty-one thousand eight 
hundred and twenty-one dollars, and in the last fifty years 
one billion five hundred million dollars has been paid to 
beneficiaries. This provision when realized by women 
must appeal peculiarly to them. What homes this has 
kept unbroken! We must acknowledge life insurance to 
be a safety-bridge that even death can not break. 

The largest insurance carried by a woman in the United 
States is four hundred thousand dollars, one hundred thou- 


sand dollars being taken for charity. Several women cany 
two hundred thousand dollars each, and a number, one hun- 
dred thousand dollars ; many carry from seventy-five thou- 
sand dollars to fifty thousand dollars, and great numbers 
carry policies to the amount of five thousand, ten thousand, 
and twenty thousand dollars. 

The same appeals come to women as to men for protec- 
tion, investment, annuities, and guaranteed incomes. In 
many cases the reasons hold even more strongly, because 
women are more timid and less confident, from lack of 
experience in manipulating money, hence absolute securi- 
ties appeal more strongly to them. 

The wives of to-day are the widows of to-morrow, and a 
few hours make one the head of the family with sudden 
responsibilities and moneyed interests. In New York City 
alone women control five hundred million dollars in money 
and property. For years women were not recognized as de- 
sirable " risks," and only recently have they been permitted 
by companies to carry large amounts. Now the maximum 
of one hundred thousand dollars, in the three large com- 
panies writing that amount, can be carried by women. 

Hitherto women have been sought only in special cases, 
the majority of women knowing nothing of its benefits and 
provisions as applicable to themselves. It must occur to 
the thinking woman that financial investment held in such 
esteem by business men is well worth investigation. Inves- 
tigation will dispel prejudice and doubt. The same business 
principles which apply to men apply equally to women. If 
policies of one thousand dollars and upward were carried 
universally by working-women, seeds of thrift and foresight 
would be sown among a vast part of the population that 
now accumulates nothing. An investment of from twenty- 
five to forty dollars a year, according to age, would carry 
one thousand dollars, and could be afforded by the earners 
of even low wages. This would give a sense of security, and 
would provide in case of sickness better care, which could 
be paid in any case, whether health returned or death 


ensued. Such insurance would also secure the return in 
cash of moneys paid out, with added dividends at the end of 
ten, fifteen, or twenty years, according to contract. 

All insurance companies, recognizing the great possibili- 
ties for the future in insuring women, are seeking to 
engage women as insurance agents, believing that a woman 
can approach people and work in this special field as no man 
can do. Insurance companies give women as agents every 
liberty accorded to men — of writing men as well as women. 

The first women engaged as insurance agents have found 
that pioneer work in this business, as in all others, is beset 
by difficulties, but the success which women have met in 
the business of insurance has opened a new and lucrative 
industry to them. 

The Bohemian Woman as a Factor in Industry and 
Economy — Address by Karla Machova of Bohemia. 

From time immemorial woman has controlled industry 
and economy in the home, but it is not long since she 
stepped from the home circle into the wider field of manu- 
factures and public economy. The life of the woman of 
to-day varies greatly from that of the primitive woman 
protected and supported by husband or father. The work 
of woman has undergone a transformation. The people 
have not noticed this great change, they have grown accus- 
tomed to it ; for day by day it is taking place before their 
very eyes, and is therefore becoming a necessity. This 
transformation has simplified the work of woman in the 
home. In this age of cheap mechanical manufacture it is 
unnecessary for women to make their own candles, soap, 
cloth, and bread, as their great-grandmothers were obliged 
to do. It no longer requires many women to perform the 
duties of one household. The social revolution has been 
and is being evoked by the strife for existence in which 
both married and unmarried women must take part. If 


woman is to conquer in the strife she must use all her 
mental and physical energy. 

The development of manufactures and private economy 
necessitates a woman's supporting herself and her family, 
for a man who is a day laborer is unable to do it alone. It 
has made woman's position in the strife for existence in a 
certain degree characteristic. The question of woman's 
higher education is morally important ; equally important, 
however, is the question of the position which woman shall 
occupy in the field of labor. 

Not only the revolution in manufactures, but her intense 
desire for independence, has greatly modified woman's con- 
dition. These influences have been so powerful that woman 
has occupied an ever-growing department of industry. 

Statistics clearly show that there is not a branch of 
industry in which women are not employed. Besides the 
reasons for this stated above we must take also into consid- 
eration the technical perfection of machinery which makes 
great skill in the workman unnecessary. Manufacturing 
has thus become a mechanical operation easily performed 
by women. 

In Bohemia there are one hundred and thirty-three 
thousand women, seven thousand and seventy-nine girls 
employed in factories ; three and one-half millions in the 
Empire of Austria. 

During 1 890 there were in Prague and vicinity : 

934 women at 139 gulden a year employed in book-binderies. 

•* *' •* millinery establishments. 

•* " •• paper factories. 

•* printing establishments. 

" '* •* laundries. 

'* ** •• working factories. 

'* '* '* powder-mills. 

'* *• •* confectioneries. 

•* ** •• brick-kilns. 

•* •* *' shoe factories. 

*• ** •* tailor-shops. 

** " " leather factories. 

** '• as waitresses. 



400 ** 156 


* 180 




















Judging from these statistics we see that women are 
more and more employed in commerce and manufactories ; 
but they are paid so little for their twelve hours* labor 
that they can not earn even a meager livelihood. Such 
wages, and often less, are paid throughout Bohemia, 
Austria, yea, even Europe. A woman working twelve 
hours in the field earns thirty-five kreutzers a day, if provi- 
dence be kind and the day pleasant, for every rainy hour is 
deducted from her small earnings. These women are em- 
ployed only five or six months of the year for thirty or forty 
kreutzers per day. Glove-makers are paid sixty kreutzers per 
dozen, and they must furnish their own silk and machine. 
Women are paid fifteen kreutzers for thirty-six buttonholes, 
thirty-six, forty, or at most sixty kreutzers for making a dozen 
shirts. Women occupy a very unfortunate position in 
manufactures, for more than seventy per cent are paid 
wretchedly. They are so easily imposed upon that manu- 
facturers prefer to employ them. A further reason for the 
increase of woman's labor is the system of competition exist- 
ing among manufacturers. Women are accustomed to 
doing their housework after working hours, and they are 
prevented, not only in Bohemia but in all Europe, from 
taking an active part in public affairs, and for that reason 
they lack organizing ability, and unorganized they are 
defenseless, and employers can treat and pay them as they 

Woman's work in the home being underestimated by 
men. she is paid less for labor done outside of the home. 
It is not to be wondered at that men look with ill-favor upon 
the employment of women, whom they consider rivals, since 
the work of the latter, being cheaper, if of equal quality, is 
given the preference everywhere. Here we encounter a 
problem. How can this underestimation of the value of 
woman's labor be prevented ? The problem can be solved 
easily by moral suasion when public opinion strives to 
influence the speculator and manufactjirer to increase 
wages according to quantity and quality of labor performed. 


SO that they can no longer profit by the weakness of 
woman (or by the slight demands of women). If woman is 
forced to fight a hard fight for her daily bread, it is the 
duty of all to lighten her burden. Society must become 
interested, aroused; it must endeavor to have working 
hours lessened so that woman may have an opportunity to 
educate herself and to regain physical strength, so that 
she can live the life of a human being. 

These questions of wages and shorter hours involve 
employers as well as employes. Women laborers through- 
out Bohemia and Europe should demand that women be 
employed as their overseers, for women, as more sensitive, 
more finely organized, require gentler treatment than men. 

Apart from the branches of industry already mentioned, 
women employed as field laborers merit special attention ; 
their condition is deplorable. These women wander about 
from place to place in search of employment. From 
spring until autumn they must do without the comforts of 
a home, the pleasures of home ties. The wealthy land- 
owners impose upon these poor unfortunates, let them do 
thirteen or fourteen hours of hard work gathering sugar- 
beets, pay them from two to three gulden a week, and 
lodge them in so-called barracks. 

These women must work even on the Sabbath-day, for 
in these places the commandment, " Remember the Sab- 
bath-day to keep it holy," is not observed. One can con- 
ceive how alarmingly all desire for home life disappears. 

A pitiful life is led by women in restaurants and caf&, 
where they often receive no remuneration whatever for 
twelve, or even fifteen, hours of work, and are dependent 
entirely upon the fees of the guests. In the world-famed 
Karlsbad and Franzenbad waitresses must pay hotel- 
keepers, who are millionaires, one gulden and twenty 
kreutzers for the probability of breaking dishes. 

I could mention many other employments in which men 
profit by underpaying women. One thing is evident; 
women are ruining themselves physically, especially moth- 


ers deprived of the necessities of life, for, according to sta- 
tistics in Bohemia, one child out of thirty-six is still-bom. 
Some people claim that women do not wish to return to the 
idyllic family hearth. Let such help to make it possible 
for women to return, and they will find but a small per 
cent remaining aloof from it. It is not woman herself who 
destroys family life, it is society; it is the employer's 
unscrupulous thirst for gain ; this is the scourge that drives 
woman from the home out into the battle of life. Therefore 
it is the duty of every thoughtful member of society to make 
an eflFort to improve, materially and spiritually, the wretched 
condition of women laborers. Woman can reach a higher 
social status only when she ceases to be an automaton. 
When her labor in the home is justly valued and paid, only 
then will she cease to be man's competitor and become his 

The Contribution of Women to the Applied Arts— 
Address by Florence Elizabeth Cory of New 

Seventeen years ago, at the close of the Centennial Expo- 
sition in Philadelphia, there was no practical woman 
designer for any industrial manufacturing purpose. There 
were women in England, Scotland, France, Belgium, and 
America who assisted male designers, and who occasionally 
put ideas on paper — as suggestions merely, as to what 
:night be pleasing for wall-papers, textiles, jewelry, and 
dainty novelties. These drawings, however, were not prac- 
tical working-designs, and could not be manufactured from 
directly, but were simply sketches which had to be re- 
drawn and recolored by a practical man before they could 
be either woven or printed. 

To-day there are in America alone hundreds of women 
who have learned, or are learning, the arts of practical, 
applied, industrial designs — women whose work can be 


carried to the printing-drum or Jacquard loom and be 
manufactured from at once, without the intervention of a 
practical man. Unskilled labor and incompetent workmen 
have been the bane of the manufacturer, who has found it 
necessary to send abroad for designs made by skilled 
artists. There is no reason why the American woman 
should not prepare to retain some — if not all — of the 
remuneration now awarded the foreign designer. The 
field of industrial art is most interesting to women, and 
they certainly are possessed of a refined taste, a quick per- 
ception of color and form, delicacy of touch, originality of- 
ideas, a sense of the fitness of things, and the patience neces- 
sary to work out their ideas, provided they know the 
mechanical requirements, and the proper way to set forth 
these ideas on paper. 

A few of the results already achieved by American 
women in the applied arts may be summed up as follows : 
Women have designed successfully for jewelry, lace, book- 
covers, stained-glass, oil-cloths, carpets of all grades, rugs, 
wall-paper, silks, table-linen, dress-goods, ribbons, handker- 
chief-borders, and many other things. Miss Emma Hum- 
phreys of Delaware, Ohio, for the past few years has sup- 
ported herself easily by making designs for wall-papers and 
printed silks. Miss Carrie Smith of Smithville, L. L, has 
for the past seven or eight years secured an ample liveli- 
hood by designing rugs. Miss Elsa Bente of New York 
is employed by the Tapestry Brussels Company to make 
designs for woven silks. Miss Clara Woolley of Wilkes- 
barre. Pa., earned in ten weeks over five hundred dollars 
on wall-paper designs. Miss Mary A. Williamson of Indian- 
apolis, Ind., designed the brocades for the inaugural robes of 
Mrs. Harrison and Mrs. McKee. Miss Ina BuUis of Troy, 
and Miss Mary Gazgam of Utica, N. Y., are employed by 
two of our largest and best-known wall-paper manufact- 
urers. Miss Ama Malkin is employed in the designing room 
of Messrs. Cheney Bros, silk-mill of South Manchester, 
Conn. Miss Alice Laus is employed in a silk designing room 


of Paterson, N. J. Miss CeliaCraus of Bath, N. Y., is in the 
designing room of Hilton & Hughes (the old A. T. Stewart 
carpet factory). These few examples will serve to show 
that the position of women in the applied arts is no longer 
problematical, but an assured fact ; that they can and do 
succeed as designers is a certainty, provided their instruc- 
tion is practical, not theoretical. 

As to the payment received by women for their designs, it 
is quite as high as that received by men for the same grade 
of work; and best of all, there is a steadily increasing 
demand for it. New factories are constantly springing 
up, old factories are enlarging their plants ; each man is the 
rival of the other, and tries to produce the greatest variety 
of goods twice a year. American women have also designed 
for foreign manufacturers. The pupils of the School of 
Industrial Art and Technical Design for Women have 
designed ingrain carpets for Leeds and York, England, 
china for Carlsbad, Austria, toweling and table-linen for 
Dundee, Scotland, and embroidery and matting for Japan. 
Therefore let the would-be designer learn how to apply the 
principles of design practically, as well as artistically, let 
the originator herself be a practical designer, and thus 
secure independence. 


It is currently asserted that the goodly city of Philadel- 
phia, whose art I have the honor to represent to-day, is 
very slow, but I must claim for her the credit of having 
founded — fifty years ago — the first school of practical 
design for women. She already had founded the first 
American academy of fine arts, enriched by donations of 
casts from Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French ; 
had established the first illustrated magazines, those far-fly- 
ing messengers bearing art education to widely scattered 


firesides ; and also the first theater, that potent educator for 
good and for evil ; while in the library founded by Benja- 
min Franklin, for the first time in the world, the idea of 
the circulating library was illustrated. 

In these days of revived reminiscences of our Centennial 
Exhibition these words are surely not out of place. 

With all the increased facilities for women's industrial 
art education offered to-day in so many well-equipped insti- 
tutions, let us not be ungrateful to that noble woman, 
daughter of a governor of Ohio, daughter-in-law of a minister 
to England, who, a long half-century ago, divined the im- 
portance of opening this career for women, and whose 
work is still continued. 

Art, applied or pictorial, is a plant of slow growth, and 
does not reach maturity outright. Mrs. Peter originated 
in the United States the movement to bring the taste of 
women, and their inherent love of color and grace of line, 
into touch with commercial demand through a thorough 
training in practical design, a movement which was fol- 
lowed within a few years in New York, Boston, and Balti- 
more. That peculiar disease of the eye called color-blind- 
ness exists among the sterner sex in the fixed proportion 
of four to five in the hundred, while among women the 
ratio is so small as not to amount to a percentage, it being 
only three or four in the thousand ; so in this reunion to 
report progress it is natural that we should have to note 
great development in the applied arts, where sensitiveness 
to color is an essential. I do not narrow the term applied 
arts to mean alone those industrial arts which need a ma- 
chine to translate and to embody the brain's conception, 
great as has been the progress in those branches. 

In the Woman's Building, in the women's rooms of the 
Illinois and the Pennsylvania State buildings, you will see 
stained-glass windows, employing the latest resources of 
the art on its practical side to heighten the effect of color 
and tone qualities ; mural decorations showing the impulse 
of the most recent movement in art thought, which started 


with the story of St. Genevieve on the walls of the Pan- 
theon ; embroidered portiferes, which are full-chorded sym- 
phonies of color, the complementary and contrasting tones 
of warm and cool hues, giving the base and treble clef in 
the shortened scale of light and black. In engraving, both 
on wood and steel, in etching, in book illustration many 
women are now doing work of the highest class ; and at 
least one woman architect, Minerva Parker Nichols, is 
changing the aspect of her city's streets with her many 
creations in brick and in stone, while Miss Hayden's beauti- 
ful building before our eyes here speaks for itself. 

So many women have so long been doing first-class work 
in the applied arts that I think a young woman who is 
thoroughly equipped finds little discrimination against her 
sex ; in fact, she perhaps obtains readier acceptance than her 
brother. For myself I may say that during many years of a 
successful business career as an engraver, my capability 
being once proven, my womanhood has been in nowise a 
disability among business men ; chivalry even taking the 
form of prompt pa3rment. Twice my father and brother have 
lost large amounts through the failure of publishers who had 
settled up my equally large accounts in full, and the only 
time I ever lost a bill was once when my engraved portrait 
of a man's wife did not portray her as handsome as she 
appeared in his eyes. 

But many of the pioneers among our professional women 
were less fortunate, and carried graven on their faces the 
lines of nerve-tire and harassment, revolt against the 
trammels of destiny, and protest against the derision and 
skepticism of environing conservatism. The skepticism 
was sometimes justified by want of thoroughness ; the fault 
not of the woman, but the racial fault of this new nation 
whose tense nervous organization responds readily in the 
all-accomplishing " spurt," and often fails to apppreciate the 
dogged, steady, persistent pull upon the collar possible 
only to the certitude and mastery of thorough training. But 
now that the solid phalanx of competent professional wage- 


earners has closed in about these leaders, who are no longer 
exceptional women to be stared at, their countenances are 
relaxed, the trade-mark of aggressiveness is gone, and the 
** becoming" is studied, the evidence of the photographic 
pass to the Exposition to the contrary notwithstanding. 
We have now in hand to-day*s most powerful business 
lever, cooperation, and with our joint-stock companies of 
women building women's club-houses and temples, we have 
our firms of associated artists ready to cooperate with our 
architects in making a house beautiful. 

It is one of the elements of the progress of the last seven- 
teen years that women do now join together, and are gaining 
an esprit du corps. In the Woman's Building of the Centen- 
nial, the names of the finest women artists were conspicuous 
by their absence ; but those same women have contributed of 
their best toward the Woman's Building of to-day's Exposi- 
tion. I speak with knowledge, for I gave hard service in 
the art collection of the Centennial. 

The most important art lesson of the Centennial, and of 
the exquisitely beautiful buildings in which this Columbian 
Exposition is housed is addressed not so much to the artist 
and to the art student as it is to the public. It is you, the great 
public, who need instruction in art, that you may know 
what is really fine. Our women decorators and designers, 
sculptors and architects are ready to do good work for you. 
As you ask for more harmonious coloring in your homes, 
purer styles, appropriate construction in building and orna- 
ment, you will appreciate understandingly how much they 
have accomplished, and stimulate them to still higher 
attainment. Have faith in them, not the credulity which 
prostrates itself before false gods, but a discerning faith ; 
and as you ask, so shall you receive. 



Charles Elliot says, "A correct knowledge of it may 
now almost be called a liberal education." 

From it we learn the domestic habits, the public amuse- 
ments, and the methods of honoring the dead of nations 
that have long passed out of existence. 

If the remains of Roman pottery had not been found it 
would be impossible definitely to establish the boundaries 
of the ancient Roman Empire ; this is true also of the Mo- 
hammedan and Aztec empires. History is therefore 
greatly indebted to ceramic art. 

" There exists at Athens a feeling of devout admiration, 
and perhaps gratitude, for the ancient art of the potter." 

The portions of Athens occupied by the shops of the pot- 
ter and painter were the first school of taste, the primitive 
sanctuary, where abstract form, unceasingly elaborated and 
studied under the eyes of an inquisitive and free people, 
was revealed to the first architects. It is the ceramic art 
that inspired the authors of those antique structures which, 
renewed at a later date with the marbles of Mount Pentel- 
icus, became temples worthy of the gods to whom they were 
dedicated. Ceramic art and architecture are closely united. 

This art has always been an object of interest to royal 
personages and historical characters. Among celebrated 
women we find the names of Helene de Hangest, to whose 
auspices is due the famous Henri-Deux ware ; Catherine de 
Medici, Marie Theresa, Elizabeth, and Catherine II., to 
whom Russia owes the establishment of her ceramic art; 
Madame Pompadour, who by her influence brought the 
porcelain of Sfevres to perfection and Queen Charlotte of 
England, under whose patronage Wedgewood brought out 
his earthenware. 


I am told that at this Congress there will be a greater 
number of representative women than at any other to be held 
during the season of the Columbian Exposition. You are 
interested in the advancement of " arts and all professions 
and trades underlying the home." I wish to call your atten- 
tion to the fact that there are in this country over twenty- 
five thousand women of all classes who are engaged in 
decorating wares. To many it furnishes a means of liveli- 
hood, while others employ it only to beautify and decorate 
their own homes. 

The fact that work produced by factories or private dec- 
orators, no matter how excellent, can not compete with im- 
ported goods does not tend to improve the art. It has been 
said that public opinion will do more than any other agency 
to remove an existing evil. Where are the American 
women of to-day who are willing to become allies of Amer- 
ican ceramic art, handing down their names to history as 
its patrons ? 

Buy the best American goods; exhibit them to your 
friends with pride. Courage and freshness in design 
should always be recognized. The desire to buy cheap 
goods will prove utter destruction to the art. Beautiful 
forms and compositions are not to be made by chance, nor 
at a small expense. 

It depends entirely upon our American women whether 
our country shall lead the world in this art. Would it not 
be worth the while to see our wonderful clay beds devel- 
oped, factories built, thousands of women finding in them 
an honorable emplo3rment, and the enormous sums of money 
that annually go to enrich foreigners flowing into our own 
coflFers ? 



Il is my object to show my hearers the distinction 
between two very common terms employed in ceramic 
art, viz., china painting and china decorating. It is gen- 
erally believed that china painting is confined to the decora- 
tion of cups, saucers, plates, and other articles of table- 
ware, with vases, placques, jardiniferes, lamps, etc., as occa- 
sional adjuncts, and that high art, in the general acceptance 
of that term, is excluded from or is foreign to ceramic art. 

I would at once state that china painting and china 
decorating must be considered as two distinct branches of 
the art, the first as high art aiming to attain the highest 
possibilities, and the second as applied art, the same as any 
other subservience of art to utility. 

The artist who employs oil or water colors to illustrate 
his conceptions has a meager appreciation of the capabili- 
ties of mineral colors ; in plain words, his ignorance leads 
him to form an erroneous opinion, and to influence the 
opinion of others in the same direction. 

One of the commonest charges made against ceramic art, 
by the artist who styles himself one of the "legitimate 
school," is that our artists must confine themselves to copy- 
ing the works of the masters, and can not themselves create 
a great work. 

This general accusation no one, to my knowledge, has 
ever attempted to substantiate, and probably no one ever 
will. The technique of mineral coloring is the most diffi- 
cult to master of all the various pigments employed by 
artists, requiring not only a knowledge of color, experience 
and skill in manipulation, but a thorough understanding 
of the firing necessary to perfect the colors and make them 
permanent. The firing of china might be termed a science, 
and the assertion that not one of our artists, many of whom 



have spent years in the study of true art, is capable of 
creating a great picture because he chooses to perpetuate 
his work in mineral coloring, is as absurd as it is false. In 
proof, I would refer you to the biographies of some of the 
greatest artists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
who did not find it beneath their dignity to work wnth 
mineral colors. 

Madame Hortense Richards, a well-known Freuch painter, 
an officer of the Academy and pupil of Bouguereau and 
Jules Lefebre, is an enthusiastic china painter. Some of 
her most noted works are on porcelain, and she has been 
awarded twenty-three medals at as many exhibitions held 
on the continent, in Great Britain, and Australia. 

A favorite disparaging comparison made by painters in 
other branches of art points out the relative sizes of the works 
in oil and mineral colors. Paintings are neither valued nor 
sold by the yard, but by merit alone. If any one believes 
china painters are limited in this respect, I would refer her 
to that magnificent painting now on exhibition in the 
German department of the Manufactures Building at the 
World's Fair, entitled '' The Triumph of German Art." Its 
height is sixteen and one-half feet and its width ten feet. 

True, it is not painted on a single piece of porcelain, but 
the majority of the works of the old masters are painted on 
a wood surface formed with narrow strips glued together, 
and this painting is done on tiles skillfully joined to form a 
perfectly smooth surface. There are several other large 
paintings in the same exhibit, which are sufficient proof 
that china painters are not confined to miniature works. 

I will mention some superior qualities of mineral colors. 
In purity, beauty, and brilliancy, no other colors can com- 
pare with them ; and in figure painting, which is conceded 
to be the highest style of art, the exquisite flesh tones 
obtained with mineral colors are absolutely unrivaled. The 
underlying glaze lends a transparency so characteristic in 
life that figure painting on porcelain is undeniably the 
highest degree of perfection attainable in art. Colors 


which depict so faithfully the beauties of the human form 
are not less adequate to copy the grandeurs of nature and 
subjects of lesser importance. 

A second quality of equal value is the durability of min- 
eral colors. The same glorious tints that gladden the heart 
and brighten our surroundings to-day may serve the same 
purpose a thousand years hence. There is practically no 
limit to the duration of porcelain and its decoration. Time 
leaves no trace, and the elements are powerless to mar the 
brilliancy of the glaze or dim the luster and beauty of the 

I will concede that the fragility of porcelains is to be 
regretted, but they require far less care than other treasures, 
such as jewels, laces, etc., and there are porcelains shown 
at our great exposition to-day which, with ordinary care by 
successive possessors, will no doubt endure unchangeable 
when the existence of Chicago and its inhabitants will be a 
circumstance of remote antiquity. 

Since china decoration first attracted the attention of 
American women it has become the most fascinating 
emplo3mient, and in many instances the most lucrative 
means of self-support to the higher classes of women. 

Pottery in the Household — Address by M. Louise 
McLaughlin of Ohio, Read by Katherine Westen- 
DORF OF Ohiq. 

Whether our sex can lay claim to the idea which resulted 
in the addition of household utensils to the home of primi- 
tive man, we do not know. The solution of that question 
is forever lost in the mists of antiquity. We know only 
that since prehistoric ages woman has figured largely as 
the maker and decorator of the vessels in which the food 
provided by her liege lord has been served. Now, when 
her rights and privileges have been increased in a measure 
undreamed of by her aboriginal predecessor, we find her 


Still the conserver, and happily frequently the producer, of 
beauty in the household. 

In the complication of modem life it is not given to 
every woman to devote herself to the pleasing task of pro- 
viding with her own hands, and at the same time rendering 
beautiful, the household utensils. Let not the woman, how- 
ever, who may be engaged in the practice of one of the 
learned professions, or busy in the reformation of the 
abuses which have become ingrained in the polish of this 
old world, look down upon her sister upon whom has 
descended the time-honored profession of her foremothers. 
In our time many a woman finds in the decoration of pot- 
tery, not only the gratification of her sense of beauty, but 
also the wherewithal for the support of her family. While 
from this point of view the practice of the art may be con- 
sidered one of the lucrative occupations for women, it is 
from that of the household that we are to regard it. 
Viewed within the narrow circle of the home, the xnatter 
assumes almost paramount importance. From its more 
practical side, the ceramic art is seen to fill the necessity 
which was probably the first to arise, in furnishing the most 
satisfactory receptacle for food. In this capacity its impor- 
tance in our households can scarcely be overestimated. 
Whatever may be said of the abuses of the table — the 
interference of high living with high thinking — the con- 
sumption of food is a daily necessity, and no substitute by 
which our civilized brains can be kept in good working 
order has been found. No change in the good old custom 
of families meeting around the common table has proved 
desirable, nor is there anything so delightful as the assem- 
bling of kindred spirits round the festal board. 

Many refinements have been added since our forefathers 
gathered around the primitive bowl in which the household 
food was served, and helped themselves without other 
utensils than those which nature had provided them. 
Much of the grossness of the satisfaction of this natural 
appetite has been taken away. How much, we who are 


accustomed only to the manners of the latter part of the 
nineteenth century can scarcely realize. 

Shorn of its grosser aspects, bounded within the limits of 
temperance and common sense, this appetite for food should 
not be considered something which an intelligent being 
can pass over without consideration. Upon its proper grat- 
ification depends life itself, and during life the health of 
body and mind. Considered in this light, the art of the 
cook is the highest, and as an adjunct the ceramic art comes 
not far behind. That the palatableness of food has an 
actual influence upon its digestion and consequent benefit, 
is a fact acknowledged by medical authorities. How much 
of this benefit is derived from the tasteful serving of the 
viands has not been computed, but the effect is some- 
thing of which people of refined tastes are keenly conscious. 
Good food served upon coarse and ugly dishes loses half 
its savor. How much, then, does the art of cooking owe to 
the beautiful china in which its products may be presented! 
As a very essential aid in the serving of our daily food, 
decorated china plays a very important part, and thus may 
be considered a practically useful art. 

Very early was the sense of beauty manifested in the 
decoration of necessary utensils. We, following in the line 
of what should be progress, are inclined sometimes so to 
decorate these articles that the original use is lost sight of. 
In this, to our shame be it said, we fall behind our aborig- 
inal models, who in their simplicity never lost sight of the 
fitness of things, and whose work consequently ranks high 
in true artistic beauty. The principle which underlies all 
good work — the abrogation of self — is applicable to this 
branch of art as well as to all others. The questions which 
must be answered by all decorative art are these. Is it suited 
to its purpose? Does it really beautify the object upon 
which it is applied ? 

To the decoration of household pottery these questions 
appeal with more 'than usual force. Here there is no room 
for the exhibition of skill unless it is subordinated to use. 


That is the all-important point of view, and from it all 
personal display becomes impertinent. We have much to 
learn upon this whole subject, but much has already been 
accomplished. In the light of the present exposition of 
woman's work it will be seen that a wonderful progress has 
been made. We can not here enter into the question of 
what constitutes the best decorative art, or what are the 
best means of developing the talent which, as has been 
demonstrated, woman has in her keeping. 

Let us hope that the time will come when she will exer- 
cise this talent, freed from the shackles of custom and 
fashion ; the time when she will not tie ribbons on jugs, 
paint pictures on plates, or transform her home into the 
likeness of a bric-a-brac shop. To paraphrase a well-known 
saying, let me decorate the homes of a people and I care 
not who teaches them. 

The Trades and Professions Underlying the Home^ 
Address by Alice M. Hart of Ireland. 

In asking me to speak to-day before this great and won- 
derful congress on the trades and professions underlying 
the home, or in other words on home industries, I gratefully 
recognize the graceful compliment that has been paid me 
on account of my ten years' work in developing the home 
industries of Ireland. 

In Ireland the conditions of life are much the same as 
they are in Saxony, Bohemia, and the Tyrol, but in these 
countries a watchful and more sympathetic government has 
encouraged home and hand industries, and helped to make 
them a substantial means of support to the people, and it is 
therefore from these countries that we have so much to 
learn. It must be hard for you in America, where you have 
large farms and a paucity of labor, to realize the condition 
of things where there are small farms and an abundance of 
labor. Yet this is the condition of labor which prevails in 


certain parts of Italy, Bohemia, Saxony, and in what are 
known as the congested or the poor districts of Ireland. 
In these countries and districts where, as a rule, the farm is 
too small to give the means of support to the whole family, 
home industries become of inestimable value. It is sur- 
prising to those who think that everything is made, and 
best made, nowadays by machinery, to learn how large a 
part in production hand-work still plays, and that notwith- 
standing the amassing of capital and labor in large facto- 
ries, home industries do still hold their own. Thus, in Ger- 
many, in the Black Forest and Saxony ; in Austria, in the 
Bohemian Mountains ; in Switzerland, in the Tyrol, and in 
France, in the Vosges Mountain districts, large populations 
are employed in their own homes in the making of toys, 
dolls, and clocks, and in the manufacture of lace and pas- 
sementerie, and in the weaving districts of Wurtemburg in 
Germany, and in Lyons in France a large portion of the 
finest work is still done in hand-looms in the cottages. The 
advantages of home industries are many ; their disadvant- 
ages are also patent to all. Among their advantages I may 
claim those of living in the healthful country and the 
preservation of family life ; among the disadvantages are, 
the length of the hours of labor and the smallness of the 
earnings ; but, as almost invariably where home industries 
flourish the population is partly agricultural, and each 
family has its little farm or flock to cultivate, the time not 
spent in some hand industry would be idle, and the money 
thus earned, though little, is supplementary to the earnings 
made by farm labor. It may seem to you that one to two 
dollars a week earned at lace-making or knitting is a miser- 
able pittance, and that it would be far better to gather these 
workers into factories, to multiply their power of produc- 
tion a hundred-fold by machinery, and increase their wages 
perhaps to ten dollars a week, but such a policy would 
leave the agricultural populations without the means of 
supplementary earnings, and agriculture would become 
what it is in England, a forsaken industry, and the country 


districts would become depopulated. As long as home 
industries flourish the agricultural districts in the old coun- 
tries of Europe remain thickly populated ; but also, so long 
as hand industries are pursued by an agricultural popula- 
tion as supplementary work the earnings, on an average 
from one to three dollars a week, of such work will control 
its market value, and consequently town-workers will find 
that the same industries yield them a pittance on which 
life in cities can not be supported. Thus the dollar or two 
dollars earned weekly by the lace-girl living at home on her 
father's farm, who gives a hand at the dairy or in the fields, 
will help keep the family from want in the winter, or, if put 
by, will give her a dower for her wedding-day ; but the 
lace- worker earning the same wages in a city will be plunged 
into the depths of poverty. Thus I advocate cultivating 
home industries to the utmost in the country and in agri- 
cultural districts, but carrying on such work in the cities in 
shops and factories under proper supervision and correct 
sanitary conditions. It would be impossible to consider the 
whole subject of home industries in the short time at my 
disposal, and as this congfress of women is called to report 
the progress of women all over the world I think it would 
be more interesting for you to hear what women have done 
and what I myself have been privileged to do in encour- 
aging home industries in Ireland, that distressful country 
for which our sympathies are so constantly invoked. 

Ireland is essentially an agricultural country. From 
causes which I need not describe the people have been 
driven back upon agriculture as their chief means of sup- 
port, and from this fact arose that land hunger which 
became on one side the motive of oppression and on the 
other the mainspring of revolution. The people being 
rooted in the soil, the cultivation of home industries among 
them becomes a vital necessity. Women have been the 
first to recognize this in Ireland, and to women and their 
practical pity for the poor are due some of the most flour- 
ishing industries in Ireland. As these stories of women's 


work and pity are little known or have been forgotten, I 
should like briefly to tell them. In the Woman's Building 
at the World's Fair, in Lady Aberdeen's exhibit of cottage 
industries in the Plaisance, and in our own Irish Village 
when opened, there will be found beautiful examples of 
Irish lace ; these laces are known as Carrickmacross, Lime- 
rick, Yoghal, Innishmacsaint, and crochet. Each one of 
these lace industries has been either founded or revived by 
a woman's pity. 

The Carrickmacross lace industry originated in 1820 in the 
efforts made by Mrs. Gray Porter Anne Stedman to copy a 
piece of Italian lace. Miss Reid of Rahns, near Carrickma- 
cross, taught herself and her sister the new art, and subse- 
quently established a school in which poor children were 
taught lace-making as a means of supplementing the earn- 
ings the family obtained from working the little farm. The 
town of Carrickmacross is on the Bath and Shirley estate. 
When twenty-five years later the g^eat famine was in the 
land Mr. Tristam Kennedy became manager of the Bath 
estate, and he was so much impressed by the benefit con- 
ferred on the neighborhood by Miss Reid's lace school that 
he raised a public fund and built several lace schools in and 
around Carrickmacross. He subsequently secured a grsmt 
of one hundred pounds from Parliament to teach drawing 
and designing in his schools. Mr. Kennedy's schools and 
the lace industry which sprang from them were of the 
greatest help during the famine years. Many of them were 
subsequently closed, but the central school at Carrickma- 
cross is still in existence and does good work, owing to the 
annual g^ant still paid it by government, and it has sent a 
fine exhibit of lace to Chicago. 

The Limerick lace industry owes its origin to an English- 
man, Mr. Charles Walker, who, on marrying the daughter 
of a lace manufacturer, determined to try to make a com- 
mercial success of an industry which had at that time a most 
feeble existence. He brought over twenty-four girls from 
England as teachers, and in a short time a large amount of 


good lace was being made in Ireland. During the famine 
lace-making was one of the great resources of the. district^ 
and through an association of ladies who work hard to help 
the poor in their distress, a considerable sale was obtained 
for Limerick lace. This was at the time when lace fichus, 
berthas, ruffles, and frills were much worn by ladies, both 
young and old. The lace made at this period was very 
fine — good in design and delicate in execution. After the 
famine, when death and emigration had greatly diminished 
the population of Ireland, and the desperate need of an 
agricultural population for some extra earnings, however 
small, had passed away, the Limerick lace industry declined ; 
public interest in it was lost ; good designs were no longer 
furnished the workers ; Limerick lace fell out of fashion ; 
the industry was transferred to Belgium, and until a 
few years ago only the coarsest kinds and the poorest 
designs were made in Ireland; these were sold at very 
low prices. This pretty old lace was in this degraded con- 
dition when it was taken in hand about seven years ago by 
Mrs. Vere O'Brien, the adopted daughter of the late W. E. 
Foster, chief secretary for Ireland, who, on marrying an 
Irish gentleman, the son of the late Smith O'Brien, and 
settling near Limerick, opened a school to teach again the 
making of the charming old lace of the district. Under 
this kind and wise influence the industry has revived, and 
at Mrs. Vere O'Brien's school are now produced the most 
beautiful ran and tambour laces, fine in execution and 
artistic in design. 

Irish point owes its origin to the earnestness and ingenu- 
ity of a nun in the convent at Yoghal, who was anxious, as all 
good nuns of Ireland always have been and still are, to find 
industrial employment for the children of her schools. 
Chancing upon an old piece of Italian point she unpicked 
it, studied the stitches of which it was composed, and repro- 
duced them with success. She then determined to teach 
some of the poor children who were in need of bread to 
make point lace as a means of livelihood. She succeeded 


SO well that the first specimens of Irish point were sold at a 
high price. New point stitches were invented and designs 
were improved, and, in a short time, owing to the devotion 
of this good nun to her poor children, Irish point became 
an established success. It is now made in many con- 
vent schools, but that made at Kenmare, Kinsale, and 
Yoghal is the best. Irish point also fell into a low condi- 
tion, owing tb the poor designs and coarse thread used, but 
of late years the lace committee at the South Kensington 
Museum, the School of Design at Cork, and Mrs. Power 
Lawlor have done excellent work in stimulating the pro- 
duction of good lace designs and in aiding the workers and 
teachers to obtain them, and consequently Yoghal point 
has taken its position again as one of the finest laces made. 

Away in the wild and desolate County of Donegal, in the 
midst of Lough Erne, there is a holy island called Innish- 
macsaint, to which the poor peasants of the district often 
come on pilgrimage or to perform pennance. Extremely 
poor the peasants of Donegal always are, but in 1846 their 
condition was desolate. An old piece of Italian point ex- 
cited the attention of Mrs. McLean, the wife of the rector 
of the parish of Tynan, exactly as a similar relic had 
attracted the nun at the convent of Yoghal. The old 
piece of lace awoke in each lady similar trains of thought 
and induced each to make the same effort to help the 
starving children about her. This old piece of point was 
unpicked, and the stitches of which it was composed dis- 
covered, and Mrs. McLean began to teach the making of 
Rose point to the girls of her parish. Private orders sus- 
tained the school, and the earnings resulting were a great 
boon to the people. This lace was, however, near extinction 
when, about sixteen years ago, it was taken up by the late 
Mr. Benlindsey of Dublin and reestablished as an industry. 

A school at which reprodiictions of Greek and Italian 
Reticella lace are made has been established by Mrs. Hall- 
dare at Newtonbury ; the lace produced is admirable, and 
nothing finer was made in Italy in the sixteenth century 


than the Reticella turned out from Mrs. Halldare's school 
in Ireland. 

Irish crochet is known all over the world. About the 
year 1836 it became fashionable in England, owing chiefly 
to the pattern books published by Madame Del Riago, a 
lady who was always deeply interested in promoting the 
crochet industry in Ireland, who, when she died three or 
four years ago, left her fortune to be devoted to the encour- 
agement of lace schools in the south of Ireland. It was, 
however, the great famine of 1846 which stimulated the 
crochet industry, when, owing to the government grants, the 
energetic action of the Netherland ladies, and the intelli- 
gent industry of convent schools, crochet lace became the 
chief hope of the people of County Cork, and gave an 
immense amount of employment during a period of dire 
distress. The nuns of the Ursuline Convent at Black Rock, 
County Cork, had already begun to teach their scholars to 
make crochet lace before the famine, and when the unhappy 
country lay prostrated by the scourge the crochet industry 
springing from this industrial center became the main sup- 
port of the people of that district. The little hook-needle 
was turned indeed into a very wand of hope, crochet was 
taught in almost every convent, and ladies exerted them- 
selves to form classes, introduce and invent new designs, 
and to keep up and improve the standard and quality of 
the work. The names of two ladies are particularly asso- 
ciated with this effort to save a starving people by creating 
a new industry, namely, those of Mrs. Roberts of Fountain, 
County Kildare, and Mrs. Hand, the wife of Lovicka, of 
Cloynes, County of Monaghan. These ladies took as their 
models of design five old Italian guipures and Venice 
points and adapted them to crochet ; and it is due to their 
intelligent direction that much of Irish crochet is so rich 
and Venetian in appearance. Every girl taught was 
obliged to teach three more, and she could not get employ- 
ment till she gave evidence that three girls had been 
taught by her to do good work. In this way the spirit of 


Christian helpfulness spread, and thousands of girls were 
soon earning money to support their families. Irish 
crochet laces, for which sympathy for suffering created so 
great a demand, unfortunately fell so out of fashion, a ruin- 
ous trade competition and the demand for cheapness so 
lowered wages and degenerated the once beautiful work, 
that the industry almost died out. Mr. Biddle of London 
has of late years done much to revive it, and has supplied 
the Irish workers with beautiful designs. He has also 
introduced a splendid crochet lace in lustrous silk, both 
black and white, which is now called " Royal," owing to the 
fact that the queen, in order to encourage the work, wore a 
quantity of this lace on her dress at a recent drawing- 

Before concluding this account of the Irish laces I must 
mention an effort now being made to introduce the pillow 
and the making of Torchon or platted laces into Ireland. 
Mrs. Dawson of Bedford, County Mayo, has been for many 
years engaged in this work and has taught numbers of girls 
to make good Torchon laces. I have also in Gweedore, 
County Donegal, made an effort to establish pillow-lace as 
one of the industries of the place, and have opened a lace 
school where gfirls are taught Torchon and Kells laces. In 
the effort to draw public attention to the beauty and capa- 
bilities of Irish laces I have exhibited them at a great num- 
ber of the recent international exhibitions, and at the great 
exhibition in Paris in 1889 I was awarded the silver medal 
for my exhibition of Irish lace. 

The Irish Industries Association, which has been recently 
formed by Lady Aberdeen, will do useful work if it carries 
out its programme, namely, to associate the lace industries 
and lace centers of Ireland, to provide good and marketable 
designs and to find a foreign market for their products. 

Brave pioneer work is being done in Ireland to encour- 
age home industries, by women little known to fame. The 
story of Miss Sturge's work has always struck me as one 
of the most touching and inspiring. Miss Sturge, a young 


and beautiful Quaker lady, touched by stories of the need 
of employment of the people in Connemara, left her home in 
Birmingham and settled on the wild coast of Connemara in 
order to teach the peasant boys the art and industry of 
basket-making. She has succeeded so well that she has now 
a flourishing little industry. Numbers of ladies are doing, 
similar work in other industries, among whom I may men- 
tion Mrs. Power Lawlor of Dublin, Miss Johnson of Ardglass 
the Duchess of Abercom, Miss Roberts of Burtonport, Miss 
Oreene of County Tyrone, Miss O'Hara of Raheen, County 
•Galway; Miss Chaine of Port Stewart, Mrs. Davidson of 
Balinakille, Mrs. Home Payne of London. To many of these 
our Organization for the Encouragement of Irish Home In- 
dustries has been of the greatest value, as we supply them 
with work and designs for their classes and employes. 

This brings me lastly to speak of my own work for the 
encouragement of home industries in Ireland, which is so 
well known that I think it is necessary for me to make only 
the briefest allusion to it. 

Ten years ago my attention was attracted to the congested 
districts of County Donegal by the stories of distress and 
destitution which were said to prevail there, and I urged 
my husband to go with me on a tour of inquiry into the 
causes of the people's poverty. We went, and found a pop- 
ulation numbering no less than one hundred thousand 
living along the creeks and bays of a wild coast, or squatting 
on the bogs, striving to cultivate a barren soil and separated 
from the rest of the world by thirty miles of uninhabited 
bog; a population living always on the verge of distress and 
whom a misfortune such as a failure of the potato harvest 
would plunge into the depths of distress. I came to the 
conclusion that the question here was not agricultural but 
industrial, and that these people require not charity, which 
was ruining them, but the cultivation among them of 
industries such as were of so g^eat benefit to the people of 
Bohemia and the Tyrol, and which were so large and well 
organized in other and more prosperous parts of Ireland. 


Having once decided that this was the solution of the diffi- 
cult problem I set to work at it, and for ten years I have 
labored incessantly, devoting time, brains, and money to 
the cause. That we have succeeded in teaching them to 
produce marketable wares is proved by the fact that some 
of the leading houses in New York, Philadelphia, and 
Chicago have placed orders for our hand-made stuflfs, our 
embroideries and home-spun linens. I consider this the 
best test of success. 

The next test of success, and of permanent benefit to the 
people, is to make these industries thoroughly self-supporting 
as commercial undertakings. The collapse of many of the 
lace industries of Ireland, of which I have told you the 
story, is due to the fact that, though founded in enthusiasm 
they have not been related to commerce, and have often 
after the first outpourings of generosity, languished and 
died from inanition. Now the organized cottage industries 
of Ireland, which have been founded by the g^at firms of 
Belfast and Deny, have been established and are conducted 
on commercial lines, and are hence of permanent benefit to 
thousands of homes in Ireland. You will be surprised to 
learn how large and extensive are these cottage industries. 
In the g^eat industry of Belfast, the products of which are 
the embroidered handkerchiefs and household linen so 
much liked by American ladies, there are at least twenty 
thousand g^rls all employed in their own homes in embroid- 
ery alone. One large Belfast firm which furnished me with 
returns for an article on this subject, stated that they 
employed six thousand five hundred sewing girls, and 
turned out one million two hundred and fifty-five thousand 
-dozen handkerchiefs a year, mainly for the American 
market. This industry was severely curtailed by the 
McKinley tariff. In the shirt-making and under-linen 
industries of Deny, numbers of women are employed in 
their own homes, either sewing by hand or by machine, and 
it is estimated that at least seven thousand women are 
employed in their own homes by the Deny houses. 


Pondering all these facts I determined to found my work 
for the poor of the congested districts of Donegal on two 
broad principles, which are, that all public industries to be 
successful must be based on practical technical teaching, 
and that they must be carried on on sound financial and 
commercial principles ; on these lines, through good report 
and ill report, I have tried to accomplish my task, though 
acting always myself as a disinterested volunteer in the 
matter. With regard to technical teaching, I first demon- 
strated seven years ago that the native homespun indus- 
try of the people of County Donegal could be immensely 
improved by the practical technical teaching we had given 
in dyeing, spinning, and weaving, and on bringing the 
subject before the government I received a vote in Parlia- 
ment to enable me to carry out a scheme of training technical 
teachers in villages and sending them on itinerant tours 
through the county. This scheme was carried out by us in 
1 888 and 1 889, with the result that the old and nearly defunct 
industry of making homespun received such an impetus 
that it now brings in not less than from seventy-five to one 
hundred thousand dollars a year into this poor district. A 
technical school has also been established in Gweedore, with 
a congeries of workshops, where the village boys and girls 
are taught wood-carving, carpentry, wheelwright work, 
tailoring, sewing, and lace-making. The cottage industries 
of knitting and homespun have been most carefully and 
laboriously taught and directed, and made a means of earn- 
ing to large numbers of households. 

The benefit to this desperately poor district of the revival 
and encouragement of these simple home industries has 
been incalculable, but more than the money that they have 
brought into the district — and I have paid more than three 
hundred thousand dollars into Ireland for work and wages 
— is the revival of hope and the preservation of self-reliance 
among this worthy peasantry. In other parts of Ireland also 
are organizations, one of which is known as the Donegal 
Industrial Fund, which has its headquarters at Donegal 

• ••• ••• 


Lady Lincmkk Suriva. 



House ; another, the Depot for Irish Industries, 43 Wigmore 
Street, London, has established a new cottage industry of the 
Kells embroideries, of which the linens are woven in hand- 
looms in the cottages, and the embroidery done by poor 
ladies at home. The making also of under-linen, of lace and 
sprigging has been taught and encouraged, and numbers of 
convent schools and small organizations have received from 
us direction and suggestion. 

This brief account of the eflforts made by women to 
encourage home industry in Ireland, when we remember 
the work past and present done by such women as Barbara 
Uttmann in Saxony, Mrs. Hansom in Constantinople, and 
the Baroness Burdett-Coutts in Baltimore, will show that 
women can be the very mothers of industry, and that while 
not neglecting their own homes they can make the homes 
of thousands of women who are bowed with care and tor- 
tured with penury brighter, happier, and holier. 


In the history gleaned from the pages of holy writ are 
the cradle-song of a Virgin Mother; the noble love of a 
penitent Magdalen ; the gentle suasion of a womanly Salome ; 
the first Sister of Charity, Dorcas of Lydia ; the Christian 
mothers and scholars, Lois and Eunice ; the woman merchant 
of Thyatira, Lydia ; the tent-makers, Aquila and Priscilla^ 
model workers and wives. Turning pages to the days 
of Roman power we read with tender pity, pride, and 
even surprise, of the slave maiden and martyr of Lyons, 
Blandina; the patrician dame, Perpetua; Marcella of the 
Eternal City, pupil of philosophy ; Fabiola, the city mis- 
sionary ; and Pukacia, the foster-parent of an emperor. In 
the ages that follow are such examples as Genevieve of 
Nontare, the shepherdess ; Clotilda, Bertha, and Ethelberga, 
queens and reformers; Lioba, counselor in matters spirit- 



ual of bishops and abbots ; Hilda, of a royal race, student 
of Scripture and foundress of many schools ; Gisella, sister 
of the mighty Charlemagne, patroness of science and litera- 
ture ; Hrosvitha of Gandersheim, writer of classic comedies ; 
Herrade, compiler of the first encyclopedia; Margaret of 
Scotland, queen and architect; Elizabeth of Hungary, 
foundress of hospitals and orphanages ; Catherine of Siena, 
apprenticed in the dye-house of her father ; Joan of Arc, 
leader of a royal army ; Theresa of Avela, mystical writer ; 
Cassandra Fidele, professor at the University of Padua; 
Helena Kanaro, honored by this same institution with its 
highest degrees ; Maria Agnesi, mathematician, eulogized 
by Fontwell, Bosway, and Colson of Cambridge ; and lo! 
we touch the history of our own century replete as well 
with its familiar examples of woman's work in every field 
of labor. 

** Like a man choosing a profession, when a woman mar- 
ries," says John Stuart Mill, " it generally may be under- 
stood that she makes a choice of the management of a 
household and the bringing up of a family as the first call 
upon her exertions during so many years of her life as may 
be required for the purpose, and that she renounces all other 
objects and occupations but those which are consistent with 
this." And again he exclaims with great, earnestness, 
" Women are most wanted for the things for which they are 
most fit." 

Horace Mann writes, " God has created the race of male 
and female on the principle of a division of labor." And he 
adds, as if to give a key to his dictum, ** No higher respect is 
due the greatest inventor or discoverer than to the woman 
who has mastered the science of domestic economy." 

From this point begins the outward influence of the home, 
as into a busy, demanding world crowd workers of both 
sexes, cultivated according to the home's tone and elevation. 

Labor sustains the homes, and in a free land it is the 
trades-people, with the knowledge of a craft, that make, 
support, and dignify a great nation. 


To-day a puzzling picture greets the observing eye, and 
the truly philosophical pause and ask themselves what can 
be the natural outcome of an evolution which places woman 
in a position broader and more exacting than that enjoyed 
by her grandmother and her mother. She labors for love 
of labor, when conditions do not demand it. She walks 
side by side with her brothers in the halls of learning, on 
the business thoroughfares, judging and adopting opinions 
of life freely for herself, and making her mark for excel- 
lence in certain lines so frequently and brilliantly that the 
skeptic pauses, and for a brief moment at least doubts his 
own preconceived opinions. Still she is a woman, and as 
long as she remains such, respect is her due. No true man 
will deride her, and no honest member of her own sex mis- 
understand her ; but let the mantle of her female modesty 
and womanly attributes fall from her, revealing an identity 
that uses privileges as rights, progress as license, and mis- 
takes clamor for applause, and we have before us something 
which is possible when woman leaves the home shelter not 
to benefit but to impress humanity. 

There never was an age since the day of woman's crea- 
tion when so many legitimate opportunities were given her 
to become a part of the working world, a beneficiary of its 
latest and best crafts, and a sharer alike with man in its 
emoluments. Setting aside the professions of politics, law, 
and arms, wholly, for the majority, unfitted to a woman's 
nature, we find her as the physician of her own sex, the 
trained nurse of the hospital, the successful pharmacist, the 
student of astronomy and botany, the teacher of the young, 
the publisher, the printer, the artist, the architect, and the 
housekeeper, all of which occupations open to her fields 
replete with chances for a cultivated and honest life, with- 
out one iota of compromise as regards the position of her 
sex, while unlimited ways of doing good, advancing the 
interest of human society, and growing mentally and mor- 
ally herself, blend with these conditions. 

If in these varied avenues she does not find a congenial 


occupation, then her own individual nature and not social 
usages are at fault. She need not weep, and claim her 
vocation is as " Hobson's choice.** There is plenty of work 
for the willing laborer, but there is no sure antidote known 
for the chronic grumbler. The old adage of " room at the 
top *' applies to woman as well as to man in their suitable 
occupations. Her possible trades, her legitimate profes- 
sions, are, because so ordained by God, and sustained by 
reason and common sense, more noble the closer they are 
allied with her domestic nature. Her influence over man 
lies in this very fact. 

" Her well-ordered home,** says one who has studied her, 
" dignifies and ennobles a well-ordered state,** and " wide 
and illimitable,** claims John Stuart Mill, " as is her work 
of love, its center and beginning must be home.** 

The Effect of Modern Changes in Industrial and 
Social Life on Woman's Marriage Prospects — 
Address by Kaethe Schirmacher of Germany. 

It is the marriage prospects of the modem woman in 
Germany that I shall discuss before you. 

The marriage prospects of every woman depend as a rule 
upon three circumstances, the first of which is the number 
of eligible men living in the country. In this respect the 
German women are not particularly favored, for their num- 
ber exceeds that of the men by a round one million and a 
half, so that it is impossible for every German woman to 
marry, unless we institute polygamy, put a tax on bachelors, 
or forbid young men to emigrate. 

The second- circumstance upon which the marriage pros- 
pects of a woman depend is the gp-eater or less facility her 
countrymen find in founding a household of their own and 
supporting a family. In this direction the prospects of 
German women are not bright. All over Germany you 
will hear the same complaint, that wants are great, money 


and employment scarce, no new openings to be found, the 
struggle for life harder than ever, and the possibility of 
making both ends meet less than before. Under these 
circumstances the number of marriages is likely to decrease, 
and actually is decreasing. 

I come to the third point to be considered. It is of a less 
material character than the two preceding ones, but of 
still more vital interest. It refers to the views the two 
sexes hold on marriage in general, and the ideal type they 
expect one another to live up to. 

Now what is, as a rule, a German man entitled to expect 
his wife to be ? The answer is very short. His inferior, 
but a pleasant one ; an inferior that at the same time is a 
lady, meets with all the outward marks of respect due to a 
lady, and yet in all the more important questions of life 
remains an inferior. This is no exaggeration. 

Consult the church in Germany — she says : The Christian 
wife is an obedient wife. 

Consult the German law — it says : The German wife, as a 
person being supported by her husband, has in all outward 
circumstances to submit to his will, and in affairs of great 
importance may not act without his permission. 

Consult the army, as the most privileged and most highly 
considered class of German society — it will answer : A wife 
is a very pretty, agreeable, and lovable object, but incapa- 
ble of doing military service, and therefore inferior to 

Consult the men of science, and, except some of broader 
views, they will pretend, even should it be into the teeth 
of fact, that a woman is incapable of thorough work, high 
intellectual training, and high intellectual achievement. 

Consult the German government — it has hitherto shut 
woman out from the university as a student, from the upper 
classes of girls' high schools as a teacher, from the school 
board, the advisory councils, from all public affairs, and all 
public functions. A German woman is no citizen. 

Consult the German press — and except some liberal papers 


and reviews, exceptions to the rule for which we are most 
truly thankful, it but reechoes the judgments quoted above, 
and even liberal-minded editors of great liberal papers are 
taken aback at the idea of a woman's discussing political 
economy and politics. 

Consult German literature — and you will find it knows only 
of one relation between men and women, the relation through 
love and passion. The relation through thought, opinion, 
work, and the modifying influence of these on love or pass- 
ion seem to have been perfectly unknown hitherto. 

Then, after having consulted all these authorities, address 
yourself to an average German man on the point of getting 
married, and ask him what he expects his future wife to 
be. I think he will answer, " Pretty and gay, ignorant of 
life, able to follow me in my thoughts to a certain extent, 
but by no means independent.** 

Now, a modem woman may be pretty and she may be 
gay, but she is never ignorant of life, and she is always 
independent in feeling and opinion ; therefore, her marriage 
prospects in Germany, and all the countries sharing the 
German ideal, are poor. 

Hitherto a German woman, on the average, had but 
one way of being happy, useful, and respected — through 
marriage, through man; and she could attain this with- 
out a special training of her faculties, or a thorough devel- 
opment of her character. 

A modem woman, on the contrary, does not consider 
marriage as her inevitable fate ; nor is she convinced that it 
is every woman's chief vocation, or that it should be every 
woman's disposition to fulfill the duties of a wife and mother ; 
nor does she believe that without a special training of her 
faculties and a thorough development of her character a 
woman can be able to fulfill these duties as they should be 
fulfilled. She therefore asks as her right, considers as her 
personal duty, considers as a general necessity, that a woman 
should in the first place be a character and full-grown per- 
sonality ; that she should, secondly, make sure of her chief 


gift or capacity, and train it, so as to know what regular 
work means and be able to support herself. 

Then, having obtained this, she asks for the liberty to 
choose marriage if she feels particularly disposed toward 
it, and to refuse it if she sees another way of being more 
happy, or more useful to the world ; and this latter decis- 
ion she wants to be allowed to make without being pitied by 
the world or blamed for it. 

A modem woman having thus developed her brain and 
her will, there is still one quality she can not do without — a 
warm heart. She must have a feeling of fellowship toward 
all other women, pulling, so to speak, at the same rope with 
her ; the wish to help all those who, striving in the same 
direction with her, may be less gifted or less fortunate than 
she ; to help all those who, losing courage, have ceased to 
fight. Unless she have the backbone of a conviction, the 
desire to stand with others for a cause, and to claim 
justice, she is no modern woman. 

I now repeat my question. Is this modern woman the 
wife her German countrymen expect ? And I make the 
same answer as before. No, she is not, and therefore her 
marriage prospects in Germany are poor. 

Though the modem woman knows that marriage in the 
present actual state of development in Germany is not 
meant for her, yet she is not at all averse to marriage in 

Being a full-grown and fully developed woman, she is 
perfectly capable of love, of passion and devotion. She does 
not pride herself on being insensible to love, nor affect a 
lofty and ridiculous disdain for men in general. On the 
contrary, knowing how hard it is to develop a character, and 
how much it has cost her to make her way, she will fully 
appreciate a man who, having done the same, expects the 
same from her ; a man with whom she may share her ideas, 
thoughts, and feelings, her experiences, her tendencies, per- 
haps even her profession ; a man whose comrade she will be, 
as well as his wife ; for the modem marriage, in spite of all 


the rapture, love, and passion attached to marriage, is based 
in the first place on comradeship and mutual understanding. 

Unless the modem woman find a man to appreciate her 
strength of will and tenacity of purpose, as she does his ; 
unless he admit her to his life on a footing of perfect 
equality, for the simple reason that she is his equal ; unless 
she can be sure of finding all this in a husband, I think 
she will not marry. 

She supports herself, and so does not want to marry in 
order that she may be provided for. She is fond of her 
work, absorbed by it, makes friends by it, is respected for 
it, and so need not marry in order to obtain the regard 
due to a useful member of society. 

That at times she will suffer from being alone, that she 
will have her hours of temptation, of depression, the modem 
woman is far too upright to deny. Yet, so far as I can see, 
a character of this stamp, a modem woman, will cherish 
liberty above all, and will be happier still when living alone, 
free to think, to feel, and act as she likes, than if, having 
married (for marrying's or passion's sake) a man she does 
not thoroughly agree with, she must be bored by his pres- 
ence all her life. 

And the modem woman begins to be rather easily bored. 
Hitherto women have been taught to lookup to men, and on 
the whole they have done so. Now this innate feeling of 
respect for a man as such is more and more declining in the 
soul of the modem woman, and this change I consider most 
decisive as to the marriage prospects of our sex. It is not 
a change one can rejoice in — it is very painful to realize ; 
for who would not prefer admiring, venerating with all 
her heart, to blaming, judging, and condemning? 

Yet this change from innate respect to downright indif- 
ference is actually coming about. It can not be avoided, 
for it is the natural result of the modern woman's deepen- 
ing experience of life — of her knowledge of the realities 
of the world. It is this knowledge that estranges woman 
from man. A woman that has come to know by direct per- 


sonal experience what this worid is actually like, what she 
may meet with, in spite of being a lady, when trying to 
make her way by herself and going out unprotected by a 
great name or a chaperon ; a woman who has come to 
realize that there are two moral standards, and that what is 
morally wrong for 'her is allowed to men; a woman that 
has looked into the depths of society, has understood its 
sham and its shame — such a woman is not likely to consider 
men as her superiors nor to be satisfied with the world as it 
stands. From her own experience, her own reflection, a 
quiet, concentrated, but very earnest protest is rising, a pro- 
test against the world as it is. And taking into account her 
character, how can it be otherwise ? 

Considering, however, the views of the German husband 
this state of affairs can but displease him. For women 
leading independent lives, holding certain decided views ; 
women with ideas and principles, women who before mar- 
riage have taken to their own wings and made their way in 
the worid ; women judging men and asking them to account 
for various very unpleasant things in the world; such women 
are, in Germany at least, still a great, a very great and 
startling innovation, and therefore, I repeat, their marriage 
prospects are poor. Things will not always remain like this. 
The modern woman is highly organized; the weather 
all over Europe is black, and times of storm and stress are 
always favorable to the rising types. Let the modem 
woman stand the test of troubles now threatened, and she 
will see her claims admitted ; let her exemplify the survival 
of the fittest, and she will be respected ; let her with all her 
independence still be a woman, and she will be desired. 
Until the times come when the modem woman shall meet 
the modem man, we have to work, to sow and plant with a 
never-resting hand, that there may grow great characters 
for the world, characters able to grapple with the great 
problems at issue; it is characters we want, for as Walt 
Whitman says, ** Have great men and the rest will follow.*' 



I hope it will not seem ungracious if I preface my 
remarks by saying that the expression " Woman's prospects 
of marriage ** jars on me. There is to my mind the jingle 
of money and traffic back of it. The word prospect at once 
suggests rise and fall in the price of grain or in the stock 
markets. Woman, as I love to picture her, after a few more 
congresses, will, with God's blessing, be abl6 to create her 
own prospects. It is my theory that every little girl ought 
to enjoy physical life, and be talked to frequently, just as a 
boy is, of what she is going to be and do. I would teach 
every girl a profession, business, or trade, so as to give her 
a definite purpose in life, as well as a means of self-sup- 
port. God has given girls talents and capacities, just as he 
has given them to boys. Surely he did not mean the girls 
to be purely ornamental, as they so frequently are. I know 
there is a pretty theory that every woman ought to have a 
supporter in father, brother, or husband, but even if this 
were a desirable condition, statistics show that through the 
result of wars and other excesses there are not enough 
fathers, brothers, and husbands to supply the demand. It 
may be objected that earning her living would be hard 
work for a. woman ; but my observation is that the aver- 
age privileged society woman does as hard work as the 
woman who follows other occupations for several hours a 

The society woman's idea of duties and work might not 
accord with that of a business or professional woman, but 
one is just as full of affairs as the other. Do any of us 
know any woman who has time ? The plea of every one is, 
" I am so busy, I have no time." Considering marriage as 
a prospect, I think the growth of luxury and expensive 
habits is one of the great hindrances to marriage. Club life 
spoils men for married life. 


Costly bringing up and inability to earn her own living 
make a woman without a fortune dependent on getting a 
rich husband. 

The luxurious young man of the present day has unlim- 
ited capacity for getting rid of money, and is consequently 
a little shy of sharing his income with the undowered object 
of his affection. 

These are, I think, the effects of modem social changes 
on marriage prospects; not only on the number of mar- 
riages, but on their quality. 

True marriage brings, of course, the completest fulfill- 
ment of a woman's nature as wife and mother. John Stuart 
Mill describes the highest marriage as " a union of two per- 
sons of cultivated faculties, identical in opinion and pur- 
poses, between whom there exists that best kind of equality, 
similarity of powers, with reciprocal superiority in them ; 
so that one can enjoy the luxury of looking up to the other 
and can have alternately the pleasure of leading and being 
led in the path of development." That this is not purely a 
theoretic picture is proved by the fact that John Stuart 
Mill himself enjoyed just such an ideal marriage. But for 
such marriage there must be freedom of selection, untram- 
meled by mercenary motives. 

The woman with a fortune or a bread-winning capacity is 
alone free to make such a marriage. Every advance, there- 
fore, in the development of occupations for women increases 
the opportunity of marriage on this high plane. 


The question before us is this, "What is marriage?" 
Is it a mere coming together of two people who have fallen 
in love ? Do you know that love is the only thing people 
ever fall into ? If a man undertakes any form of business in 
the world he deliberates upon the business, his attainments, 


his preparation to manage and master it, and the possibility 
of his success — the whole ground is studied over carefully ; 
but when two people undertake to enter upon the most 
serious business in life — that from which they can not 
well ever be rescued — instead of deliberating they ** fall " 
into it. A young man sees a young woman " with marvel- 
ous bangs," and that is the last of him. A young woman 
sees a young man with ** a marvelous mustache," and that 
is the last of her. They have fallen in love. After they 
are married they find that marriage means something 
besides bangs and mustache. My idea of marriage is of 
the highest and holiest kind. I believe marriage, and the 
home that is the result of marriage, is the holy of holies 
this side of the throne of God; and that any two people 
who enter upon this sacred relation should be those who 
are fitted to found in this world a home which is a type of 
the home which awaits us all beyond. I believe that what- 
ever broadens and enlarges woman, whatever develops any 
of the capacities which God has given her, fits her to 
become a founder of this kind of home. Anything which 
makes a woman free, anything which develops her physical, 
mental, moral, or spiritual life makes her better fitted to be 
the founder of a home. 

Now the whole thought upon this question is that women 
develop, but that during this age of development which 
has come to woman, men have remained stationary. As 
women grow broader, men are also growing broader, and I 
believe the man of the future will demand for his wife the 
woman of the future, as the man of to-day demands the 
woman of to-day. As our boys and girls are reared together, 
as they become educated in our institutions of learning 
together, as they go out in trades and professions together, 
our young men will never know any other kind of woman- 
hood than that with which they are reared ; and so I believe 
a woman's marriage prospect is equally good with a man's 
marriage prospect, for if a woman loses her prospect here a 
man must lose his prospect also. Since men will not give up 


marriage, women also, you see, can not give up marriage ; 
so the marriage prospect of one sex is equally good with 
the marriage prospect of the other under any condition in 
life. But I believe the man of to-day is beginning to demand 
a nobler woman for his wife ; and although in the past, men 
considered that absolute innocence and ignorance and in- 
ability to do anything but entertain them were admirable 
traits in a sweetheart, it is marvelous how much good sense 
they expected of the woman after she became a wife. The 
difference between what a man demands of the woman with 
whom he is passing a few of his leisure hours and what he 
demands of her when she becomes his wife is wonderful ; 
and I believe the man of the future will demand of the 
woman of the future that kind of training which will makie 
her not only a good cook and a good housekeeper, but also 
his companion in all that interests and concerns him. 

Why should we care for marriage unless it is the highest 
state into which men and women can enter ? Why should 
one seek marriage unless it is better to her than the unmar- 
ried state ? If marriage offers nothing better than the con- 
ditions out of which one goes, unless marriage has some- 
thing that it can hold up as an inducement over against 
these conditions, we can not expect the modem woman to 
give up her leisure, her independence, and all that comes to 
a woman outside of marriage. 

I am not one who believes that motherhood is the high- 
est crown of glory which a woman can wear. I must con- 
fess I have heard that poetry all my life. It is good poetry ; 
it sounds well, and it comforts us, but it is not true. Woman 
is something more and greater than a mother. Woman is 
something more and greater than any of the external con- 
ditions of her life. The highest crown of glory that any 
woman can wear is pure, strong, noble, virtuous, dignified 
womanhood. After a woman has attained to that fullness 
of perfect womanhood, then let come to her what will, 
motherhood or spinsterhood, either will be equally with the 
other a crown of glory. 


I say again that marriage must have something to offer 
to the average woman of to-day, the woman of culture, the 
woman of education, the woman able to earn a good salary 
and make for herself a beautiful home. Marriage must 
have something in it worthy of that woman, and worthy of 
the sacrifice which she shall make of her independence. I 
believe that marriage has much to offer. The ideal, the 
marriage which I believe God has in his mind when he 
conceives of home, is the marriage made by two who 
enter into the home as equal partners. So long as in the 
marriage ceremony of any church there remains the com- 
mand on the part of one to obey, and of the other to com- 
pel or demand obedience, the home founded can not be the 
highest and best place for men and women. When public 
sentiment has risen to that high plane which shall demand 
that no woman shall become subservient to her husband or 
commit perjur}% we shall have the ideal marriage, and until 
we have ideal marriage we can not tell what effect any 
change in either business or social conditions can have upon 
woman's marriage prospect. 

I believe that underlying the perfect marriage must be 
perfect equality of the two entering upon this estate; 
perfect equality everywhere and perfect respect ; neither to 
rule as head over the other, neither to be submissive and 
subordinate to the other, but each to be the equal, the com- 
rade and the friend of the other. 

Now concerning this whole change in woman's life, I 
admit frankly that there may be some little harm, some 
little hurt, resulting from it. There has never been any 
great reformation without some harm in the transition 
period. In giving liberty to the slave some harm came to 
both slave and master. From any great movement we 
expect some evil to follow. There has never been a great 
revival of religion but some evil came in its train. So in 
this transition stage from subordination and dependence to 
self-respect and independence there will be some friction. 




It is plain to me that the time has not yet fully come for 
IIS to know what really are " the effects of modern changes 
in industrial and social life on woman's marriage pros- 
pects." The earth still awaits her queen, and the sex is as 
yet only moving toward that grander type of woman, which, 
as part of the great onward march of humanity, she must 

These great changes are, however, now promising, nay, 
even giving, much that is best and grandest in life to woman, 
and it is not in nature that they do, or will, or can, in any 
sense jeopardize her marriage prospects ; for to woman the 
holy state of matrimony must ever hold the fullest, noblest, 
completest life, "that fairer Eden where wifehood and 
motherhood take on something of the divine tenderness of 

But call these changes what you may — higher education, 
emancipation, freedom of the ballot for woman — they all 
mean the same thing — advancement — and one of their 
most marked effects is to raise the standard of marriage, 
chiefly perhaps in this sense, that women may and do 
require more than they once did ; and as, happily, it is no 
longer necessary to regard marriage as a means of liveli- 
hood, they may await the coming of the man of kindred 
tastes and temperament, and marriage may at last be based 
solely on love, respect, equality. 

There was a time, and not many years ago either, when 
it was safe to say that any man might marry any woman 
he chose, but now I believe that any woman may deliber- 
ately choose her man and marry him, and, what is more, 
make him do the asking. 

It is objected that wage-earning and higher education 
make women less likely to love. On the contrary, I believe 
they elevate and ennoble heart as well as head. As for the 

industries and occupations. 606 

Organization among Women as an Instrument in Pro- 
moting THE Interests of Industry — Address by 
Kate Bond of New York. 

I am asked to consider the application of this great pro- 
moter of effects, organization, to the production of material 
things, and believing '* that progress may simply be re- 
garded as the development of order," I gladly speak to 
you on this subject, for I believe that to secure order 
organization is essential ; and " socially as well as individ- 
ually organization is indispensable to growth ; beyond a cer- 
tain point there can not be further growth without further 

Side by side with national progress, and in the wake of 
modern civilization, has followed the necessity of order. 
Organization has developed as population has increased, 
and new possibilities have presented themselves to the 

With increased knowledge and multiplied industrial re- 
sources, there has developed a consciousness of personal 
power. The Ego is emphasized, and individualism expresses 
itself in our age as never before, and as a consequence we 
reap the advantage of personal enterprise and success. 
Democratic principles prevail, and each man recognizes his 
own needs, discerns his possibilities, and claims his indi- 
vidual rights. Equality has -become the watchword of 

Equality is an individual possession given by law, and 
upon it rests human liberty ; but individuals make up the 
collective whole, and order requires that in protecting the 
one we shall also subserve the interests of the many. 

Hence, while all men may be born equal before the law, 
citizenship has its limitations; and its best individualism 
can only be attained when, by organization, protection is 
secured to the entire community. 

Reckless use of power and indiscriminate violence is no 
essential part of equality. Order requires that participation 



of many shall be essential to progress, and by it only can 
continued growth in civilization be maintained. 

The warfare of to-day is an internecine one — it is based 
upon enmity among brothers ; and this enmity, whatever 
its source, whether it arise from social, or economic, or 
political causes, can never be effaced by personal conflict. 
Power may control and overcome tumult, law may limit 
action that is detrimental to the general welfare, but the 
happiness of all concerned and the growth of progress 
depends upon conciliation between the offended parties, 
and organized effort, that shall tend to the welfare of each. 

It has been well said "that the industrial economy which 
divides society absolutely into two portions, the payers of 
wages and the receivers of them, the first counted by thou- 
sands and the last by millions, is neither fit for nor capable 
of indefinite duration ; and the possibility of changing this 
system for one of combination without dependence and 
unity of interest instead of organized hostility depends 
altogether upon the future development of the partnership 
principle." — Mill. 

The past has been remarkable for the increase of actual 
force ; the force of combined members on the one hand, of 
concentrated wealth on the other. The problem of the 
future is therefore a double one. Industrial progress de- 
pends upon two constituents, material and human, and 
the solution of this problem which has arisen must be ade- 
quate to meet the material as well as the human demands. 

By the provision of an all- wise Providence, human needs 
can not be met by economic laws alone. Moral aspects and 
influences must also be comprehended and considered. The 
issues involved in the use of capital and the payment of 
wages can not be confined to economic results. The life of 
the race depends upon the moral adjustments connected 
with man's relation to man ; and however progressive civil- 
ization may have become, and however great the class 
distinctions, the eternal command to love our neighbor as 
ourselves will continue to repeat itself and to exact obedi- 


ence — and the demands of humanity will not be silenced 
until God's voice is heard and heeded. 

While recognizing this supreme command individual lib- 
erty will not be interfered with ; nor will competition be re- 
moved. Men will come to see that individual interests can 
be reconciled, and that the measures which promote per- 
sonal advantage will tend to the collective welfare. 

Money is powerless unless controlled in its employment 
by men, and coupled in its outlay with labor, which has 
been well defined as "wealth-creating effort." When this 
conception of wealth is accepted the employer and the em- 
ploy6 will stand upon a common basis of possession. The 
man who has capital will recognize his dependence upon 
labor, which is also capital ; in manufacture a fair estimate 
of how much each party has contributed to the forces of 
production will be considered ; by conciliation and mutual 
settlement individual interests will be protected, and the 
problems in industry which seem to-day so difficult of 
adjustment will not long continue unsolved. 

We have seen that the beliefs of one age have been dis- 
sipated by the innovations of successive years. We have 
learned that ideas which it would seem could never be 
overturned, because of their fixedness in the public mind, 
have been displaced without visible processes, but through 
the silent influences of public sentiment. Education has 
brought enlightenment; and that which was deemed an 
incontrovertible argument for their permanency has come 
to be regarded as a palpable absurdity. 

So the fancy that the employer and the employ^ must re- 
main separate in interest will eventually become a thought 
of the past. The signs of cooperation and conciliation are 
even now visible, and in the labor unions, trade societies, 
corporations, and syndicates, which seem in their methods 
oftentimes so unwise, disorderly, and grasping, we yet 
behold the recognition of the power of organization, which 
shall ultimately tend to develop order in industries. 

Men no longer act singly, but unitedly. Self-protection 


and emolument demand union of effort. All classes per- 
ceive it. Public opinion is fast being educated to this 
belief. Observation is busy collecting facts upon which the 
future structure of civilization and trade shall be built, and 
with divine patience Christianity enforces her precepts. 
Angered and misguided men may revolt and delay organ- 
ization, but progress, though it may be hindered, can not 
be stopped. 

So-called socialism, which " consists in party organization, 
in spreading the desire for material improvement among 
the masses, in pressing into the service of the social propa- 
ganda all centralizing tendencies in the State, in trade and 
in journalism, can not accomplish the desired result." 

The leaders of this unjust socialism consider but one 
class in the community. They criticise capital, and style 
private property " robbery," and by so doing^they lose their 
opportunity to promote the cause which they have at heart. 
They are disorderly in their outbursts of passion and in 
their violence ; consequently progress is not promoted by 
their combinations and public benefit is not realized. 

Calm judgment will condemn this sort of socialism, nor 
will it approve gross individualism. Justice and kindness 
will ultimately prevail and win to their leadership the best 
among us. Men will come to see that selfishness and 
greed will result in reactionary revolutionary efforts ; that 
directed by self-indulgence the evolution of the people will 
not manifest itself in intellectual advance, but in moral 

Whatever plans of adjustment may be made between the 
proprietors of industries and the men employed by them 
must be originated by themselves, and the overtures must 
come from the proprietor. The association between these 
parties exists under a system which is unsatisfactory to 
both. It is uncertain and subject to interruption, and such 
interruption is likely to interfere with profits and to prove 
injurious to business. 

To prevent uncertainty in production, labor must be 


secure, and without production there can be no distribution ; 
hence this security must be provided first. 

How to insure production on the best conditions, those 
involving the highest skill and most economical service, 
has long been the consideration of manufacturers ; and amid 
much excitement and the adverse influence of strikes 
among workmen, honest thought has evolved helpful sug- 
gestions and practical methods. Conciliation, arbitration, 
profit^haring, and recognition of labor as a part of capital 
have all been tested, and as a whole these various methods 
have all given satisfaction to the employer and the employed. 
Capital has augmented, cooperation has been efficient, 
larger money receipts to the employer and the employed 
have resulted. Moral sense on the part of the proprietor 
has awakened it in the employes, and interruption to busi- 
ness has been prevented. The rich and the poor have met 
together in the conduct of business, and have mutually 
shared greater or lesser success in trade. 

We do not mean to limit our plea for cooperation and 
order to men alone; women also demand this protection. 
The old-time fallacy that women will be taken care of 
by men has proved an empty boast. Women may marry 
and assume the duties incident to their choice, often 
to find money-earning added to their domestic burdens. 
The working-man can not always support his family, even 
if willing to do so; wages are inadequate to meet rent, 
food, and clothing; and tenderness often inspires the 
woman to join the ranks of wage-winners. And even if 
all married women were supported by their husbands, what 
is to become of the widow and the unmarried woman ? 

The introduction of machinery has called women to 
service outside of their homes. Dexterity of touch and 
quickness of physical movement have made them available 
in factories. Thus equal production with cheaper labor has 
been secured. Men have been thrown out of employment 
to give place to their wives and sisters, who will work for 
what they can get ; and larger profits have thereby been 


obtained; for a half -century or more this unjust labor of 
women has been exacted, and to-day, despite factory 
laws of a protective character, and a limit set to labor hours 
by legislation, the enormities of the "sweating system" 
and the methods of ready-made clothing-houses bring the 
blush to honest faces, and pity shrinks helplessly away 
from the sight of the suffering and penury of women who 
work sixteen and eighteen hours a day to secure the shelter 
of a dilapidated tenement, a few cups of tea and bits of 
bread, meager clothing, and perchance quick release in 

The horrors of the life of women breadwinners have 
been vividly described. These oppressed ones are crying 
for help ; and if ever a Macedonian cry went up to the ears 
of God's servants, it is uttered to-day by the working-women 
of our cities and towns. They toil from early dawn to mid- 
night and secure but scanty fare. They can not do more ; 
their case is hopeless ; and they must keep up the fight with 
injustice and greed or fall into a pauper's grave. 

Women are not taken care of by men in the humble 
walks of life, and they can not be until men's wages are 
increased through organization and co5peration in manu- 
facture. Even then a large number of women must depend 
upon their own exertions for support ; and women must 
submit to the conditions of labor imposed upon them by 
men, for men are the employers, and there is no appeal 
from their requirements — it may be the manager of the 
factory, the superintendent of the works, or the master 
sweater. Dismissal follows complaint ; and want of work 
to a woman without friends must mean moral ruin or 

Why is the woman worker less fortunately placed than 
the man ? Because woman has as yet made no place for 
herselt socially. She is not recognized by society nor by 
the commonwealth — she is an unknown quantity in the 
world ; and before her condition as a wage-earner is im- 
proved she must win place and recognition. If she ever 


had a first estate which entitled her to support and protec- 
tion, she has not been maintained in it by the force and 
devotion of man, but stands to-day as one who fills the gap 
left open by him, and does the work he will not perform and 
takes the pay he resents as " too small." 

Woman has filled a supplementary position, and she has no 
place, because she has never been trained to skillful artisan- 
ship. Woman came to work in agriculture as the helper 
of her husband and father. She did not own the land, nor 
gather the products, nor exchange them for money and sup- 
plies. She toiled to help those she loved, without thought 
of personal advantage. 

When the factory system was introduced she gave dex- 
terity to supplement the work of machinery. Without 
recognizing the danger to family welfare she toiled for 
wages lower than those exacted by man, and instead of 
augmenting her husband's gain reduced his pay, and be- 
came in part the breadwinner of the household without 
increasing the income. 

There was no organization to guard the interests of 
women and children as participants in labor, and they 
crowded the factories, and crushed out their lives by long 
hours of toil and insufficient food and sleep ; and for fifty 
years woman single-handed has continued to work to win 
decent support, but has failed in her efforts. 

Proprietorship and greed have dictated terms to this 
unrecognized class of laborers ; and because no man cared 
for their lives, they have accepted the injustice done to 
themselves, and have huddled in tenement attics and 
burned the midnight oil to keep their heads above the 

As. yet the laboring-class of women receive no training 
to fit them for their vocations. To sew is easily learned, 
and needlework in various forms opens to girls ways 
to earn a living; but a girl may from early youth to 
mature years sew furs, gloves, ready-made clothing, etc., 
and her experience will not cause her to be appointed the 


superintendent of the house at whose industry she may 
have worked long. She continues as "only one of the 
hands/* and has during the years of her toil received no 
industrial training beyond that of sewing the part given 
her. No system of promotion applies to her experience ; 
and she gains no outside knowledge that will acquaint her 
with new methods, nor with commercial demands induced 
by an ever-changing trade. 

Self-assertion and ambition are regarded as befitting 
manly character ; but a woman is looked upon as an inter- 
loper in business. She is not welcomed by male workers, 
and is employed by proprietors only because she works 
cheaper than do men, or else takes a place in the trades 
rejected by men. 

Women should be trained to become skillful artisans; 
and the fathers who are in business should see to it that 
their daughters receive from them exact training in com- 
mercial pursuits, such as they g^ve to their sons. Then the 
woman who must win her bread will have a fair chance 
to do so. She will be conscious of her own qualifications, 
and would not find herself so unfortunately at odds in a 
struggle for place; and added to this advantage there 
would ensue a willingness among men to be associated 
with their sisters. Technical training is in part woman's 
hope for the future. In the days to come she will be 
equipped by the public school for her life-work ; and the 
fact that the state will bestow upon her this education will 
avow its recognition of her as a unit in the citizenship of 
the whole. Woman at present receives no recognition even 
from her own sex. This condition must change before 
order can be secured. Women in better condition must 
give recognition to the lower class, whose existence npw is 
ignored, and who are left to be victimized by avarice and 
to toil in despair. 

Women of superior conditions must ally themselves with 
the oppressed women in organization ; and by their knowl- 
edge of life and its difficulties, by their education, and 


because their own welfare depends upon it, they must 
create public sentiment in favor of legislation that shall 
protect the helpless, and that shall give to the wage-woman 
recognition and protection through legal statute. 

A single-handed fight for justice is hopeless. The mother 
of one family may refuse to work at starvation wages, and 
she may be arrested as a vagrant, and find warmth and 
food at the state's expense ; but she can not alone enforce 
justice to her associates in labor ; this must be done by com- 
bination. All working-women, and all women who do not 
need to work, but who know the wrongs done to their 
sisters in service, should unite to reform evil practices, and 
to secure righteous measures that shall add to the honor- 
ableness of woman's labor and the recognition of its just 

And women can do this — as men have done it. Until 
men were organized in trades societies and labor organiza- 
tions they had no way of redress under bad conditions of 
industry. Each man was at liberty to make his own con- 
tract, and to live or die by it, but the welfare of the class 
was not considered. 

Conciliation, arbitration in difiiculties, could not be prac- 
ticed ; and no recognition of the laborer was entertained 
save by those who hired him, and they oftentimes regarded 
him only as the means to an end. And this condition has 
existed despite the fact that man for a hundred years has 
been accounted a citizen in our United States, and has ex- 
ercised a ballot, and has claimed the right of representation 
in government. 

But it has come that through organization, however 
badly conducted, men have protected themselves. Wages 
have been increased and made uniform. Labor has been 
recognized as coexistent with and essential to capital in the 
work of production. Trade has come to be recognized as 
honorable, and men devoted to it have risen to high posi- 
tion and have commanded universal respect. Education 
has made it possible for men bom to labor and experienced 


in manufacture to participate wisely in the general govern- 
ment, to legislate for commercial protection, and to promote 
national wealth. 

Labor among men is not per se superior to labor among 
women. Both perform it to obtain personal support ; both 
give time, force, intelligence, and purpose to attain the one 
result — the means to live. But men have place in the social 
world. Men by organization secure to themselves a voice 
in legislation ; and the laboring-man's ballot counts as high 
as that of the luxurious idler. 

Men organize for self-protection, and claim for themselves 
recognition in the community. Men established the propo« 
sition that upon them were dependent the women and chil- 
dren of their households, and the employed met face ta 
face with the employer and asserted their just demands ; 
and as a result the rights of working-men have been recog- 
nized by society. 

Legislation has protected them, and civilization has made 
it possible for the man who works with his hands, and is 
honest in his labor, to advance socially and politically. How 
sadly different is the position of the working-woman. She 
must do work that men will not do, or else perform labor 
at a price that men will not accept. She has no vote, and 
therefore can not introduce to office men who will legislate 
in her behalf. She has no power to resist the tyranny of 
employers, for she may decline the offered work, but her 
hollow-eyed, bony- fingered sisters rush quickly forward to 
secure the employment she has refused. Men do not recog- 
nize women as associates in labor and protect their interests 
along with their own, for men of the working-classes claim 
that women are their rivals in industry. Upon women they 
charge the blame for low wages, and but for women, they 
declare, a larger class of industries would be dependent 
upon the services of men. In part this is true. Women do 
work at reduced rates, and this is wrong. 

Like labor should command like returns. A woman who 
8ets type alongside of her brother should receive in the 


same ratio wages for her work, but this principle can be 
established only by organization. Women workers must 
first secure recognition as a class upon which capital is 
dependent before rights can be claimed, and before men 
will acknowledge them. Like labor should command like 
returns; but this will never be possible so long as every 
woman cringes before competition, and stoops to accept the 
least wage offered. Organization among women is the only 
remedy to right the wrong; but organization should be 
conducted with dignity and by wise methods, and right- 
thinking, educated women should join hands with the 
down-trodden, ignorant workers. American women who 
work, and command industrial recognition among their 
fellows because of education, character, and family rela- 
tionship, should assume the leadership in these organiza- 
tions. Public sentiment should be created by their influ- 
ence. The press should be used to call attention to the 
work and aim of organization among wage-earning women. 
Without public sentiment in favor of a cause, be it ever so 
just, action can never arise in its behalf. Society is indiffer- 
ent to secret suffering only because it is ignorant of it. 
Let women unite to acquaint each other with the suffer- 
ings and wrongs endured among them. Talk to the voters 
who share your comfortable homes. Influence their ballot 
in favor of protection to woman's labor. Combine to lift 
up by practical training the many who are unskilled. Have 
the children, both girls and boys, taught in the public 
schools to use their hands deftly. 

See to it that technical training-schools are established. 
Let women do their part to promote the recognition of 
working-women socially. 

It is a pitiful fact that instead of protecting wage-earning 
women by our recognition of them as members of a whole 
of which we too form a part, we too often pass them by 
and are heedless of their injuries. 

Organized charity pours oil into the wounds of those 
abandoned toilers when the good Samaritan finds them by 


the wayside ; but no woman should fall by the way if 
another woman's hand can keep her from falling. It is the 
duty of all women to combine to resist injustice to every 

Organize all women throughout the United States into a 
woman's league, composed of local organizations, and let 
trade associations be formed wherever a special kind of 
work is done in quantity by women. Choose cool-headed 
women of clear judgment to become leaders of these organi- 
zations, both national and local. 

Let no violent spirited partisans control their actions. Let 
women of leisure consider the situation, and devise wise 
government in them. Let women of wealth, alignment, 
and luxury identify themselves with these movements; study 
how best to adjust women toward labor and toward society, 
and when the public are made cognizant of woman's wrongs, 
and of a united effort on the part of mothers, daughters, and 
sisters to right that which is wrong, and to deal righteously 
one with another, good feeling will manifest itself, and will 
formulate itself in law. Equal wages in return for equal 
labor will be secured, working hours will be limited, and 
ultimately the status of working women and men, socially 
and politically, will be the same. Harmony in labor will 
prevail. Competition between men and women workers 
will cease. Wages will be just. Self-support will not be 
difficult. Education will be universal, skilled labor will be 
the only labor possible to an American citizen. To preserve 
the advaiitages of American civilization and equality in 
citizenship, immigration will be restricted alike to all 
nationalities, and the reception of pauper incompetents 
into our country will be forbidden. 

God hasten the day when each soul clothed in human 
form shall be recognized as the child of the Divine King, 
and when because of its birthright, be it male or female, it 
shall receive justice and honor. 


Organization among Women as an Instrument in 
Promoting the Interests of Industry — Address 
BY Harriette a. Keyser of New York. 

Organization is a great force of nature. What is one 
star in the sky, one leaf of the forest, one drop of the ocean, 
or one grain of sand on the ocean's shore ? Our own bodies 
are results of organization. We might be irresponsible, 
vagrant, shifting atoms flying apparently helter-skelter 
through the universe ; instead we are organisms, and organ- 
ization continues until we become an organization of organ- 
isms and a social force. 

Organization begins early. The children, who do not 
know the meaning of the word, organize for their sports. 
So do the lambs skipping about the green meadow or on 
the hillside. Later we find flocks of sheep ; and men who 
have put away childish things, still continue to organize for 
every purpose under the sun, from the luxurious club with 
its enervating influence to the trust whose suicidal policy 
carried out to its logical conclusion must destroy the 
private luxury it was created to promote. 

Although organization is a law of nature and of society, 
organization for industrial reform has in the past pursued 
its way along thorny paths. By way of contrast, survey in 
England that haggard offender in the time of George III. 
breaking stones for the offense of striving to organize for 
industrial interests, and then look at Joseph Havelock Wil- 
son, M. P., speeding to sympathize with the Hull dockers. 

It is impossible to trace out the most important cause 
leading to any great change of public opinion, because such 
cause is always spiritual and unseen ; nor have we time to 
notice the stages of change from 1810, when the Friendly 
Society of Iron Founders met on dark nights on. the wastes 
and moors in the highlands of the midland counties of 
England and buried their archives in the peat, to the great 
Trades Union Acts of 1871 and 1876. 


The conservatives of this age have the views of the 
radicals in those times ; but John Bums, M. P., a radical of 
this age, is not yet satisfied, and in his late Hyde Park 
address described Parliament as an organized conspiracy 
of land and capital. 

It is generally believed that the first strike in this coun- 
try was that of the sailors in 1803, who paraded the streets 
of New York with a brass band, forcing seamen to leave 
their work and join in a demand for higher wages. The 
doughty leader was arrested. Contrast this wretched pris- 
oner with the leaders of present powerful trades unions. 
Contrast the administration of the laws at that time with the 
recent decision of Judge Barrett of New York, which re- 
fuses the injunction asked by the Clothing Manufacturers' 
Association to restrain the garment-cutters from issuing 
boycotting circulars. The refusal was based on the fact 
that the manufacturers were themselves guilty of what they 
wished to restrain the employes from doing, and the judge 
uttered these remarkable words, **You must come into a 
court of equity with clean hands." 

In favor of organization as a means of promoting indus- 
trial interests I could, were there time, quote to you many 
utterances from the wisest and best. I will only say that 
Mr. Childs of the Public Ledger, who is said at the first to 
have believed labor organization detrimental to the inter- 
ests of the employer, had so changed that opinion in 1 886 
that he presented the International Typographical Union 
with $10,000. 

As organization among men has been an instrument in 
promoting industrial interests, it becomes us to consider the 
status of women with respect to organization. It is not 
easy to discover how many women are in existing labor 
organizations, because the number belonging to such organ- 
izations is not given to the public. It has been estimated 
that one-tenth of the members belonging to unions in this 
country are women. The mass of women are not organized. 
There have been and are some striking examples of organi- 


zation. In 1888 the Hannah Powderly Assembly, Knights 
of Labor, numbered eleven hundred women, and is said 
practically to have controlled the shoe trade in Cincinnati. 
Since then its influence has declined. There were in Phil- 
adelphia at one time women in the cigar and tobacco 
industry who, as a result of organization, received equal 
wages with men doing the same work. All tobacco organi- 
zations have declined. There is in Brooklyn a powerful 
local union of women hat-finishers belonging to the Inter- 
national Hatters* Union. There is a very successful local 
union of shirt-makers in the New York Knights of Labor 
called the Lady Gothams. 

The hotel girls of this country need organization. Efforts 
to induce these girls to organize, so far, have been made 
without success, excepting in cases where the waiters have 
succeeded in persuading the girls whose employments bear 
upon their own to organize with them. 

The saleswomen in the large cities of the United States 
are in great need of organization. The Working- Women's 
Club, of which I have the honor to be a delegate, has 
striven for three years to introduce a bill into the New York 
Legislature for the betterment of the condition of the sales- 
women. They are not discouraged. It took as many years 
before they succeeded in passing a bill for the appointment 
of inspectors ; and the society intends to continue its fight. 
If these saleswomen were organized, they would begin 
their own legislative fighting, and would be sure of help 
from societies of women interested in industrial reform. 
Seventy thousand women in New York City alone are 
struggling with the problem of subsistence by the needle. 
Many of these are underpaid, and with no adequate protec- 
tion from exaction or fraud. If even half that number 
would combine, what a power they would be ! 

In the late report of the congressional committee 
appointed to . investigate the sweating system, are many 
facts given by Dr. Anna S. Daniel, out-of-door physician to 
the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. She 


tells of the necktie industry, which is for the most part 
confined to tenement houses. A worker can earn the sum 
of forty-five cents per day, and have the privilege of finding 
her own thread. Frauds are quite common. All advertise- 
ments state that women are needed to learn the business, 
which will take two or three weeks, after which "wages will 
be received. As a matter of fact it can be learned in a few 
days, and at the end of two or three weeks the unpaid 
workers depart and their places are filled with more victims. 

Employers can thus at any time organize women for 
their own industrial destruction. Happily, there is a 
remedy in counter-organization. In San Francisco, several 
years ago, there was a standing advertisement in the papers 
for women to learn tailor-sewing, which would take several 
weeks. They were encouraged to bring their own sewing 
machines. At the end of two or three weeks they were 
discharged. A mass-meeting was called and an organiza- 
tion formed, one of its paramount motives being to correct 
such frauds. There is no need to multiply illustrations. 
The great search-light^ industrial reform, has already 
flashed into the depths of the dark flood of poverty and 
despair and revealed the truth. 

What shall we do when we turn from the cold pharisaism 
of ancient political economy, with its bleak and pitiless cry 
of supply and demand? Organize as fully as possible, and 
thus provoke strikes ; but some of our best thinkers upon 
economic questions consider organization the ultimate 
destruction of strikes. 

Organization of working-women for industrial interests 
is diflicult. Some say it is impossible to organize the poor- 
est working- women needing it the most. Many reasons are 
given. One, that women marry and leave the ranks, or that 
they are ignorant, and a larger esprit de corps comes only 
from education. 

Women marry, but they organize for other reforms: 
temperance, suffrage, education, literature, art. However, 
many women who marry remain breadwinners to their 


graves, and these permanent paupers are not able to rest 
alone in the few feet of earth we should all possess at the 
last. It is true that esprit du corps is increased by education, 
and there is no better way of promoting organization than 
to pass laws in all the States making education to the age 
of fourteen compulsory. However, the most ignorant 
working-women of the present day are not entirely without 
esprit du corps. They help each other. Such reasons as 
these I have named are commonly given. Not so commonly 
mentioned is the one that, as women have no voice in the 
laws controlling their industrial circumstances, they find 
organization more difficult than men do. Working-women, 
through their misfortune or fault, do not always recognize 
this. Some girls withdrew from the Knights of Labor 
because their meetings kept them up until twelve o'clock ; 
very sensible objection. Besides, there was so much talk 
about politics. They were out of political matters, and did 
not have sufficient foresight to prepare themselves for 
the day when they will be in. 

Organize; do not wait for great numbers. Remember 
that Uriah S. Stevens, a tailor of Philadelphia, with eight 
friends, organized the Knights of Labor. It is the con- 
suming fire of earnestness that must bum the stubble of 
the present industrial system, and this divine gift is not 
confined to great numbers or to great minds. Is it not 
true of any reform that not many rich, not many mighty, 
not many noble are called ? 

And is there nothing for you to do who are not working- 
women ? Organize for their protection. Enforce the laws 
in their favor. Memorialize legislatures until new laws are 
enacted. Is it not discreditable to be a conservative through 
tradition or prejudice alone ? Mr. Mallock says : " First 
of all, conservatives need increased knowledge and clear-^ 
ness with regard to economic science." Said Christ,. 
**Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Ye 
can discern the face of the sky, but ye can not discern the 
signs of the times.*' If there is one successful woman here 



who rejoices merely in the triumphs of her own individ- 
ualism, let her glory in the service she may do for others, 
to promote the solidarity of humanity, for I declare to you 
this only is woman's chief glorj'. Oh, remember that the 
industrial interests of woman mean not the interests of the 
working people alone, but a higher life for the masses, 
using that word not to mean, as it once did, all outside of a 
privileged class, but all sorts and conditions of men, the 
crowned and the uncrowned, the rich and the poor, the 
enlightened and the ignorant. If one member of this great 
humanity is oppressed, the whole must suffer. 

The Women's Protective and Provident League of 
Glasgow — Paper by E. E. Anderson of Scotland. 

The Women's Protective and Provident League of Glas- 
gow was founded in 1888. It is a union exclusively for 
women, and has a membership of over one thousand women 
workers drawn from various trades, including weavers, 
tailoresses, umbrella-makers, dressmakers, polishers, biscuit- 
packers, etc. 

The main objects of the Women's Protective and Provi- 
dent League are to secure for women workers better wages, 
shorter hours, healthy workrooms, aliment in sickness and 
want of work, and settlement of trade disputes without 

The need for women's unions has long attracted the atten- 
tion of the more enlightened and far-seeing philanthropic 
portion of the community, and it is cause for congratulation 
that the prejudices that formerly existed against trades unions 
are rapidly dying out, because the best employers regard 
them as a useful agency, not alone in the interest of the 
worker, but as a defense against the unscrupulous employer, 
who undersells his goods in the open market by reducing 
his wage-scale to the lowest possible level, and paralyzes the 
trade of the master who endeavors to deal justly with his 


employes and give them " a fair day's wage for a fair day's 

To show that women who have to earn their own living 
or contribute to the support of their families are compelled 
to do so under the hardest possible conditions, we have but 
to point to the low wages in the various trades in which 
they are employed. In the tailoring trade, for example, for 
finishing a pair of men's trousers a competent woman 
worker is paid from a penny to four pence half-penny ; for 
making a man's vest she is paid one shilling nine pence, 
whereas a man receives for the same garment, identical in 
every respect, three shillings six pence ; and as to the com- 
parative quality of the work, we have the assurance of the 
men tailors themselves that fine white vests or black vests 
are, as a rule, exclusively made by women, because of their 
superior skill. 

Umbrella-workers are paid as hemmers and coverers at 
the rate of six and one-half pence a dozen. 

Shirt-finishers are known also frequently to receive seven 
and one-half pence per dozen ; that is, for making the but- 
ton-holes, sewing on the buttons, hemming down neckband, 
wristbands, gussets, and inside of sleeves, and feathering 
the breasts of flannel or tweed shirts. 

These are comparatively skilled workers ; but there are 
thousands of young women engaged from day to day in 
many occupations that yield only starvation wages in 
return for a ten or twelve hour day's labor. Among such 
are girls employed in confectionery work and jam-making, 
who wash jam-pots at four and one-half pence a gross, 
standing for hours at a stretch on wet, sloppy floors, and 
others who draw the jam from the boiling pots, wheel it in 
heavy hand-barrows alongside the stacks of jam-jars and 
fill them with the boiling mixture, at a set wage of from 
five to seven shillings a week. 

In addition to these low wages the workers have fre- 
quently to endure the most disgraceful sanitary condi- 
tions ; some women, such as are known as hollow-ware 


workers, having to do a great part of their work in the 
drying-ovens ; and tailoresses having to work in the employ- 
er's premises or in the sweater's den in stifling atmospheres 
in which it is impossible to preserve health. We know of 
one instance, in an admittedly respectable tailor's shop in 
this city of Glasgow, where a young woman was found at 
work in a closet a few feet square, of which the only venti- 
lation was into the men's lavatory. Of course such con- 
ditions are a direct contravention of the Public Health Act, 
but it is a well-known fact that women will endure any 
amount of suflfering rather than lay themselves open to dis- 
covery or suspicion on the part of the employer that may 
lead to their summary dismissal. This points to the fur- 
ther statement that women workers are their own worst 
enemies, and are themselves to blame for the little headway 
that the women's unions have made all over the country. 
What are the sixty thousand women who have joined 
unions for trade protection compared with the great mass 
of women workers scattered far and wide over the land ? 

While men's unions have secured for them fair remuner- 
ation for their day's labor, and many concessions that were 
practically unknown twenty or thirty years ago, the women 
workers of to-day have yet to learn the value of combi- 

The difficulty of organizing women is almost insuperable 
so long as there are found workers who will step in and, for 
a miserable pittance, take the place of the female operator 
who stands out for a decent wage wherewith to keep soul 
and body together. 

There are young women by thousands living in their 
parents' comfortable homes who are contenMo earn a few 
shillings weekly so that they may live more at ease ; others, 
the wives and daughters of idle or drunken husbands or 
fathers, are compelled to take whatever the employer chooses 
to offer ; and widows, with families to support, who have no 
choice but to accept the white slavery that the labor market 
offers as the only refuge from starvation. Still further, 


there is the natural timidity of women to combat when 
endeavoring to organize them. Anything that savors of 
resistance, however unjust and ill-conditioned the demands 
may be, or any action on their part that may lead to pos- 
sible censure from the employer, is a danger too great to 
be faced. Thus it is that cheap labor and female labor 
are interchangeable terms. 

These are but a few of the considerations that led to the 
formation of the Glasgow Women's Protective and Provi- 
dent League. 

Cooperative Housekeeping — Address by Mary 
Coleman Stuckert of Illinois. 

Mrs. Stuckert concluded an elaborate discussion of the 
principles of cooperation as applied to domestic life. 

Mrs. Stuckert outlined her own plan for erecting build- 
ings that would accommodate a large number of families. 
The plan comprises the following points: Forty-four 
houses will be built around an oblong block, the houses 
varying in size from four to twelve rooms. In the center 
of the block will be a building containing on the first floor 
a kitchen, laundry, and dining-room ; on the second floor, 
apartments for the accommodation of all the help ; on the 
third floor, an entertainment hall, library and reading-rooms, 
and apartments for kindergartens. From machinery in the 
basement of this central building the entire surrounding 
block will be heated and lighted. The central building 
also contains cold storage and an ice plant. Between the 
central building and the surrounding homes extends a large 
court, surrounded by a promenade. 

The management of the whole is to be consigned to a 
board of directors, under whom a superintendent will do 
the buying and bookkeeping of the establishment and give 
a general supervision to the practical conduct of all the 
work carried on in the central building. Only skilled 


cooks who understand the chemistry of food will be em- 
ployed. All the help employed will be specialists experi- 
enced in their respective departments. 

In the laundry, fitted with the latest labor-saving improve- 
ments, laundry-work can be done at twenty-five cents per 

This plan provides for maintaining the absolute separate- 
ness of the diflfereht homes, if desired by their respective 
proprietors, with whom it will be optional to have food 
served in the home or in the general dining-room of the 
central building. 

Mrs. Stuckert gave in great detail the cost of the building 
of such a block, and submitted the architectural designs for 
it. She also gave in great detail the cost of living accord- 
ing to this plan in varying scales of comfort and elegance, 
according to the incomes of the tenants. 

Domestic Service and the Family Claim — Address 
BY Jane Addams of Illinois. 

Ever since we entered upon the industrial revolution of 
the eighteenth century, factory labor, work done in fac- 
tories, has been increasingly competing in the open market 
with household labor — work done in private houses. Taking 
out of account women with little children or invalids depend- 
ent upon them, to whom both factory and household labor 
are impossible and who are practically confined to the sew- 
ing trades, to all untrained women seeking employment a 
choice is open between these two forms of labor. There are 
few women so dull that they can not paste labels on a box 
or do some form of factory work ; few so dull that some per- 
plexed housekeeper will not receive them, at least for a 
trial, into the household. Household labor, then, has to 
compete with factory labor not only in point of hours, in 
point of permanency of employment, in point of wages, but in 
point of the advantage it affords for family and social 


life ; and all women seeking employment more or less con- 
sciously compare the two forms of labor in all these points. 

The three points are easily disposed of. First : In regard 
to hours there is no doubt that the factory has the advan- 
tage. The average factory hours are from seven in the 
morning to six in the evening, with a chance of working 
over-time, which, in busy seasons, means until nine o'clock. 
This leaves most of the evenings and Sundays free. The 
average hours of household labor are from six in the morn- 
ing to eight at night, with little difference in seasons. There 
is one afternoon a week, with an occasional evening, but 
Sunday is never wholly free. 

Second : In regard to permanency of position the advan- 
tage is found clearly on the side of the household employ^. 

Third. In regard to wages the household is again fairly 
ahead, if we consider not alone the money received but also 
the opportunity offered for saving money. This is greater 
among household employes, because they do not pay board, 
the clothing required is simpler, and the temptation to 
spend money in recreation is less frequent. The average 
minimum wage paid an adult in household labor may be 
fairly put at two dollars and fifty cents a week ; the maxi- 
mum at six dollars, this excluding the comparatively rare 
opportunities for women to cook at forty dollars a month and 
the housekeeper's position at fifty dollars a month. The 
factory wages, viewed from the savings bank point of view, 
may be smaller in the average, but this I believe to be 
counterbalanced in the minds of the employes by the 
greater chance which the factory offers for increased wages. 
A girl over sixteen seldom works in a factory for less than 
four dollars a week, and she always cherishes the hope of 
being at last a forewoman with a permanent salary of from 
fifteen to twenty-five dollars a week. Whether she attains 
this or not she runs a fair chance, after serving a practical 
apprenticeship, of earning ten dollars a week as a skilled 
worker. A girl finds it easier to be content with four dol- 
lars a week when she pays for board, with a scale of wages 


rising toward ten dollars, than to be content with four 
dollars a week and board, the scale of wages rising toward 
six dollars ; and the girl well knows that there are scores 
of liberally paid forewomen at fifteen dollars a week for 
one forty-dollar cook or fifty-dollar housekeeper. In many 
cases this position is well taken economically, for, although 
the opportunity for saving may be better for the employ^ 
in the household than in the factory, her family saves 
more when she works in a factory and lives with them. 
The rent is no more when she is at home. The two dollars 
and fifty cents which she pays into the family fund more 
than covers the cost of her actual food, and at night she can 
often contribute toward the family labor by helping her 
mother wash and sew. 

This brings us easily to the fourth point of comparison, 
that of the possibilities afforded for family life. It is well 
to remember that women, as a rule, are devoted to their 
families ; that they want to live with their parents, their 
brothers and sisters, and kinsfolk, and will sacrifice a good 
deal to accomplish this. This devotion is so universal that 
it is impossible to ignore it when we consider women as 
employes. Young unmarried women are not detached from 
family claims and requirements as young men are, and, so 
far as my observation goes, are more ready and steady in 
their response to the needs of the aged parents and helpless 
members of the family. But women performing labor in 
households have peculiar difficulties in enjoying family life, 
and are more or less dependent upon their employers for 
possibilities to see their relatives and friends. Curiously 
enough, the same devotion to the family life and quick 
response to its claims on the part of the employer operate 
against the girl in household labor, and places her in the 
unique position of isolation. The employer of household 
labor, to preserve her family life intact and free from 
intrusion, acts inconsistently in her zeal, and grants to her 
cook, for instance, but once or twice a week such oppor- 
tunity for untrammeled association with her relatives as the 


employer's family claims constantly. So strongly is the 
employer imbued with the sanctity of her own family life 
that this sacrifice of the cook's family life seems to her per- 
fectly justifiable. If one chose to be jocose one might say 
that it becomes almost a religious devotion, in which the 
cook figures as a burnt oflfering and the kitchen range as 
the patriarchal altar. 

This devotion to family life the men of the family also 
share. A New York gentleman who lunches at Del- 
monico's eats food cooked by a cook with a salary of 
five thousand dollars a year. He comes home hungry, 
and with a tantalizing memory of the lunch, to a dinner 
cooked by a cook who is paid at most forty dollars a 
month. The contrast between lunch and dinner is great, 
and the solace of the family is needed to make the 
dinner endurable, but the aforesaid gentleman quiets dis- 
content with the reflection that in eating a dinner cooked 
by an individual cook they are in some occult manner 
cherishing the sanctity of the family life, though his keen 
business mind knows full well that in actual money he is 
paying more for his badly cooked dinner than for his well- 
cooked lunch. 

To return from the digression — this peculiar isolation 
of the household. In addition to her isolation from her 
family, a woman finds all the conditions of her social life 
suddenly changed when she enters the service of a house- 
hold. It is well to remember that the household employes 
for the better quarters of the city and the suburbs are 
largely drawn from the poorer quarters, which are noth- 
ing if not gregarious. The girl is born and reared in a 
tenement house full of children. She knows them almost 
as well as she knows her brothers and sisters, and plays 
with them almost as constantly. She goes to school, and 
there learns to march, to read, and to write in constant 
companionship with forty other children. If she lives at 
home until she is old enough to go to parties, those she 
goes to are mostly held in a public hall and are crowded 


with dancers. If she works in a factory she walks home 
with many other girls, in much the same spirit as she form- 
erly walked to school with them. Most of the young men 
she knows are doing much the same sort of work, and she 
mingles with them in frank economic and social equality. 
If she is a cloak-maker, for instance, she will probably marry 
a cutter, who is a man with a good trade, and who runs a 
chance of some day having a shop of his own. In the 
meantime she remains at home, with no social break or 
change in her family and social life. 

If she is employed in a household this is not true. Sud- 
denly all the conditions of her life are changed. The 
individual instead of the gregarious instinct is appealed to. 
The change may be wholesome for her, but it is not easy ; 
and the thought of the savings bank does not cheer us much 
when we are twenty. She is isolated from the people with 
whom she has been reared, with whom she has gone to 
school, with whom she has danced, and among whom she 
expects to live when she marries. She is naturally lonely 
and constrained. 

Added to this is a social distinction, which she feels 
keenly, against her and in favor of the factory girls, in the 
minds of the young men of her acquaintance. A woman 
who has worked in households for twenty years told me that 
when she was a young and pretty nurse-girl the only young 
men who paid her attention were coachmen and unskilled 
laborers. The skill in the trades of her suitors increased as 
her position in the household increased in dignity. When 
she was a housekeeper, forty years old, skilled mechanics 
appeared, one of whom she married. Women seeking em- 
ployment understand perfectly well this feeling, quite 
unjustifiable, I am willing to admit, among mechanics, and 
it acts as a strong inducement toward factory labor. 

I have long since ceased to apologize for the views and 
opinions of working-people. I am quite sure that, on the 
whole, they are just about as wise and just about as foolish 
as the views and opinions of other people; but that this 


particularly foolish opinion of young mechanics is widely 
shared by the employing class can be demonstrated easily. 
It is only necessary to remind you of the number of 
Chicago night schools for instruction in stenography, in 
t3rpe writing, telegraphy, bookkeeping, and all similar occupa- 
tions, fitting girls for office work, and the meager number 
provided for acquiring skill in household work. 

The contrast is further accentuated by the better social 
position of the office girl, and the advantages which 
she shares with factory girls, of lunch clubs, social clubs, 
and vacation homes, from which girls performing house- 
hold labor are practically excluded by their hours of work, 
their geographical situation, and a curious feeling that they 
are not as interesting as factory girls. 




Pexfatory Comment by the Editor — Copious Extracts from Addresses 
Delivered in the General Congress by Isabblle Bogelot, Cal- 
lirrhOe Parren, Catalina de Alcala, Matildb G. db Miro Quesada, 
Martha-Sbsselberg, Isabel King, Helen Blackburn, C. C. Montefiore, 
Mary McDonell, A. M. Blakely, Prof. Helen Webster, Fannie 
Barrier Williams, Sarah J. Early, Nico Beck-Meyer, Rev. Amanda 
Deyo, May French*-Sheldon, and Helena Modjeska; Very Brief 
Extracts from Discussions of these Addresses by Mrs. John Harvie, 
Emily Cummings, Kirstine Frederiksen, Anna J. Cooper, Fannik 
Jackson Coppin. Hallie Q. Brown, and Lizzie Kirkpatrick — Ab- 
stracts OF Addresses Prepared for the General Congress by Fanny 
Zampini-Salazar, Sofia Bompiani. Lady Linchee Suriya. Sigridr. 
MagnOsson, and Hanna K. Korany. 

IN this chapter the reader will meet witnesses convened 
from all civilized parts of the earth, unconsciously 
testifying to the proposition contained in the title of 
the first address. 

This chapter proves that the woman question is no longer 
an Americanism ; that it is no longer a local question at 
all; that it can not be regarded as the curious culminating 
expression of the insane passion for independence char- 
acteristic of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Here we find the representatives of that race whose 
women are most addicted to coquetry, and of that whose 
men most keenly feel that their personal dignity is con- 



ditioned upon the absolute dependence and seclusion of the 
women of their faipilies, uttering opinions and sentiments 
familiar only to those Americans who frequent conventions 
and public assemblies. Here we find Afro-Americans, but 
one generation from personal bondage, demanding the 
same freedom of thought and action that is innate in the 

Stranger still, an Af ro- American * who was herself a slave 
discusses with temperance and without bitterness the social, 
intellectual, and industrial status of her race. 

The representatives of every nationality claim the free 
exercise of personal judgment ; they demand that the whole 
contention regarding the propriety of a woman's doing this 
or that work shall be determined by her ability. They 
demand equal pay for equal work. They demand for both 
sexes the same moral standard. They demand the highest 
development of the individual, not only as in itself a noble 
end, but as a means to the highest development of the race 
and the highest happiness of society. 

They all see not only the reciprocal dependence of men 
and women, but also the reciprocal dependence of all classes 
of women, and of all women in any class ; and, therefore, 
they all recommend organized eflfort as the surest, the most 
direct, the most cultivating means to the highest ends. In 
this chapter greater significance lies between the lines than 
upon them, and it is commended to those " who have eyes 
to see.**— [The Editor.] 

* Fannie Jackson Coppin was bom a slave, and remained in that state 
until she was thirteen years old, when an aunt, who had already purchased 
her own freedom, bought the young girl for one hundred and seventy-five 
dollars. Fannie graduated from Oberlin College in the classical course 
(what was then called the *' gentlemen's course **) in 1865, taking the A. B. 
degree. She is now entitled to the A. M. degree. 


The Solidarity of Human Interests— Address by 

URER OF THE International Council of Women. 

When the mail from America on the 27th of last Jan- 
uary brought me an invitation to speak in the name of my 
countrywomen on the subject " Solidarity des Intirits de 
rHumanit^y* I felt a deep sense of gratitude to the friends 
in America who thus expressed their confidence and great 
sympathy by inviting me to speak on a subject so grand. 

But with the rapidity of lightning I became conscious of 
my inability to treat a subject so vast, so important. I had 
in my memory the magnificent meetings held in Washing- 
ton in 1888. I felt afraid, but nevertheless I accepted the 
task which was offered me. 

Why did I feel a boldness that did not shrink before so 
heavy a responsibility — why, if I also felt fear ? 

The reason for that assurance came entirely from the 
very title of the subject. The word solidarity enlightened 
me at once and showed me precisely the way on which I 
was to proceed. "My friends of France,** said I, "will 
work with me ; they will help me. We shall make a col- 
lective work, to which each of us shall bring her own 
personal eflfort. I shall give my practical experience about 
the works in which I labor. They, my friends, detained by 
other duties in their homes, will intrust to me the papers 
which they prepare for the different sections of the congress 
to which they promise their co5peration. I shall represent 
them ; I shall be their delegate." 

The moment I looked upon the work thus as collective, 
my fears disappeared, a great peace came over me, and I 
was quite happy to feel that my response was crossing 
the ocean which should say to you, " I accept, count upon 
me, in May I shall be with you at my post." 

To-day I ask your indulgence for the weakness of the 


work which I have the great honor to read to you. Count 
upon my love of justice and my good intentions ; they are 
all that I personally can offer you. 

Five years ago, when I had the good inspiration to come to 
you, I was chosen by the CEuvre des Lib6r6es de St. Lazare, 
a work not of science but of pity and justice ; and it was to 
speak of the prisoners whose most unfortunate condition 
would be ameliorated could all our claims be secured. I 
came to tell you simply, " We are with you. Lei us con- 
tinue to struggle for the enfranchisement of women. We 
see misery most horrible and oftentimes undeserved in the 
prisons. It is the effect of a social state that must be 
modified. The women prisoners are very often the result 
of the prejudice and injustice which are crushing our sex." 

At that time I was the only Frenchwoman among you. 
None of those who had struggled to obtain the reforms 
awaited and desired with so much impatience accompanied 
me. Why this chance which had assigned to me a part for 
which I was so little prepared ? Was it chance ? No, I do 
not think so. Every effect has a cause and comes in its 
own good time. The work of prison reform, which gener- 
ally meets with so little sympathy, but nevertheless is of 
such importance, since it studies the human heart, ought to 
receive some honor after having been despised for so long 
a time. The work brings to light moral suffering in its full 
extent; it probes all wounds; it is a field of experience 
where all thinkers can come to study the necessary reforms 
which we are advocating in this Congress. The work of 
prison reform is bound to all other social questions. It 
makes an appeal to all the sentiments ; it personifies the 
spirit of solidarity. This is why this work of the Lib6r6es 
de St. Lazare, which appeared so modest, but which we 
found so great by reason of the object which it pursues, 
came to America to speak in the name of pity, of justice, 
and of solidarity. It was guided toward you by that same 
justice which assigns to each the place which he is to 


Five years have passed since that first meeting, since the 
clasping of hands which made our hearts one. 

America and France are old allies. They have fought 
under the same standard^ the blood of the two peoples has 
been shed on the same battle-fields in the name of liberty, 
of that liberty which in the loftiest and most absolute sense 
means justice and solidarity. Several among you are of 
French origin, and the names of the two republics are 
inseparably joined. There are imperishable memories 
which belong to the fortune and history of the two nations. 
These memories give me courage to speak in this assembly. 

It is a pleasure to bring to life all the glorious past in 
this moment when we are celebrating the fourth centennial 
of the discovery of the New World in this Art Palace 
inaugurated by the Woman's Congress which shall be one 
continued series of successes. What glory for America 
that this is the woman's congress which is opening the 
series of meetings that will never be forgotten ! What a 
pleasure for France, which proclaimed the rights of men 
one hundred years ago, to celebrate at such a festival by 
raising its voice in this palace here to advocate with you 
the equality of the sexes and the rights of woman ! 

Thanks to the grand Congress at which we are present, 
the century which is drawing to a close will realize that 
beautiful motto of our ancestors ; for true solidarity includes 
the three words, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, which in 
the last century sent a thrill throughout the Old and New 
Worlds. The solidarity of human interests does not admit 
of a doubt. A good or a bad idea, a progress or a recoil 
in the amelioration of the condition of men or of women 
never occurs in vain. The wished-for hour comes, the re- 
quired psychological moment, the being predestined to be 
the propagator and popularizer appears, and the idea de-' 
velops and produces its consequences. At this time, when 
steam and electricity have eliminated distances, nothing can 
happen among one people that does not have its echo 
among all the others. An injustice can not occur in any 

• • . • •• 

• • • • 

• • •• • 

• ••* • ••• 

• • •.• * 

.•• • 

Fannii: Hakruk Wii.i.iams. Prof. L. Websier. 

Sarah J. VV. Early. 

Kiksiim: I'ridkkicksen. Fanny Za.mpini Saeazar. 


comer whatsoever of the civilized world which will not 
soon have to be suffered elsewhere. A lovely deed, a just 
idea, can not be enjoyed in one country whose good effects 
are not also felt by others. Without our having to yield 
our citizenship in the fatherland, without being what they 
call cosmopolitan, there are side by side with those interests 
of one's country, I might almost say above them, the 
greater interests of entire humanity which we can no longer 

So we are all one, without distinction of nationality, when 
it is a matter of humanity. 

The question of the place which woman ought to occupy 
in the world is a general question which joins us all together. 
The progress which is attained by one country can not help 
being shared with others. And it is for this reason that we 
have come from all countries of the Old and New Worlds to 
say to you, " We are with you to work for the amelioration 
of the condition of woman, to take counsel as to the best 
means of attaining our end, to combine and organize our 
efforts in order that, the work being better regulated, the 
results may be obtained the more quickly." Let no one 
deceive himself with the thought that the work which you 
are undertaking, and in which we have come to join our 
forces, is, although it has sometimes been so called, a strug- 
gle to be engaged in between the sexes. 

No; it is the restitution of normal or regular rights, 
oftentimes ignored, but which exist none the less imper- 

When our end shall be attained, the other sex will not be 
the loser, and, with everything brought back to its proper 
place, it is humanity as a whole that will be benefited. To 
obtain this result will require many years ; but solidarity 
among the women of all nations will realize it sooner per- 
haps than we ourselves think. 

I close by bringing to your notice the works which I 
mentioned to you in the beginning : first, the discourse on 
altruism and solidarity written by our friend Madame 



Emilie de Morsier, my associate during seventeen years, 
and vice-president of the CEuvre des Lib^r^es de St. 
Lazare, of which I am the directress and official delegate. 

I ought to g^ve special mention to Marie Deraismes,* 
having passed the most beautiful years of my youth in her 
family. It was, as I had the pleasure of telling you in 1888 
in the Congp-ess at Washington, at her school that I received 
my education; I am most happy to repeat it in this great 
International Congress of Women. I am proud to call 
myself her pupil. We have worked together for the better- 
ment of the condition of women, following each the way 
that her aptitudes, character, and temperament directed. 

Having spoken of the living, permit me to recall the 
memory of two departed ones whom I have deeply loved, 
and with whom, also, I have worked, Caroline de Barrau of 
France and Concepcion Arenal of Spain. The latter died 
only three months ago. She charged me officially to repre- 
sent her here, and to offer to you her last work which was 
dedicated to our reform, ** Le Manuel du Visiteur du Pris- 
onier." f Her son is piously having the manuscripts pre- 
pared which his mother left. 

Let us not forget Leon Richer, who during twenty-three 
years defended the cause of woman, and who did not quit 
the field of battle until forced by age and sickness. My 
last word shall be for my husband, M. Bogelot, known by 
several among you, who has helped me in all my labors. 
He is following attentively from afar all that is being said 
during this Congress. 

I lay upon the table : ist. A complete collection of bulle- 
tins of our society, in the name of my colleagues. 2d. The 
collection of Journal dcs Femmes, of which Marie Martin, our 
friend, is the founder and director. 3d. The articles by Mme. 
Potoni6 Pierre on the group of the Solidarity des Femmes, of 
which she and Marie Martin are the founders and secretaries. 
4th. A diagram by Mme. Griess Traut, whose object is to indi- 

• Since deceased. 

f Translated at this date into three languages. 


cate the means of avoiding war, at the same time respecting 
the interests of all those who have embraced military careers. 
Destructive armies, she says, can be transformed into pro- 
ductive armies, and she denionstrates this by the adjoined 
table, which is excellently compiled. 5th. An account 
rendered in detail of the patronage of young apprentices of 
the Sixth Arrondissement of Paris, founded and directed by 
Mme. Marie Breon. 6th. I present to the Women's Library 
a work in two volumes, ** La Femme Affranchie," by Jenny 
d'Herincourt, who resided in Chicago thirty years ago. It 
is to pay a debt to her memory that I pronounce her name, 
and only to bring from France this work for the cause of 
women is to make her live again. 

The Solidarity of Human Interests — An Address 
BY CallirrhOe Parren of Athens, Greece. 

Let us leave traditions and come to history. The golden 
age of Greece is due to Aspasia. Sculpture, the divine art 
of Praxitiles, was understood by Kora of Corinth. Lalla, 
the woman painter of Kyzychos, was the mistress of ApoUo- 
Theano, the first pupil of Pythagoras, attended his school 
and gave lessons with such perfection that Pythagoras 
himself was jealous. Sappho was distinguished as the 
greatest poet of her time, while Korinna was seven times 
victorious over Pindar. Women philosophers were counted 
by hundreds. To these women Greece owes her wisest; 
most distinguished, most heroic men. 

The Spartan mother said to her son as he took his shield 
to go to battle, " Come back with it or upon it." With their 
incomparable patriotism and their greatness of soul, they 
rendered small Sparta the most warlike place of the world. 

Greece falls, and Rome succeeds it. She is prosperous 
and strong while her men are educated by Cornelias. She 
becomes weak and falls when her wives and mothers are 
Agrippinas and Marcelinas. 


The people of the West and the North have been devel- 
oped, civilized, and strengthened by their reverence for 
women. But in this general regeneration of the European 
people what has become of oppressed Greece ? Has it been 
lost? Has it degenerated? Has it been extinguished? 
No. The women are awake. The women are preserving 
its language, its customs, and its traditions. The Chris- 
tianity which they embraced, and for the improvement of 
which they have worked more than all else, as orators, 
reformers, and apostles, has given to them strength for the 
great work of patriotism. The milk of patriotism and 
Christianity with which they have nurtured their children 
is the blood which the children have afterward shed for 
their faith and their country. 

There is in Greece a rocky comer, a wild, precipitous 
spot, upon which the green grass never grows. The land 
there seems to be in mourning and unable to bear flowers. 
There is a precipitous rock under which flows a foaming 
river, the frightful precipices yawning like black tombs. 
They have served as witnesses of a feminine heroism which 
history has only once recorded. There the later Greek 
women, our foremothers, have danced the dance of death, 
singing the song of liberty ; they have thrown themselves 
down upon the rocks from the frightful precipices, prefer- 
ring with their children an honorable death rather than 
life in an enslaved country. 

From the first years of our independence we have been 
united quite fraternally with you. On the ramparts of the 
Acropolis the Turkish minaret was still elevated, and the 
sentinel was announcing the hours of prayer, when an 
American lady, who was the first educated woman that 
came to Greece, established, with her husband. Doctor Hill of 
blessed memory, the first school for the education of Greek 
girls. In that school, which to-day is still doing excellent 
work, most of my companions have been educated. In the 
volume on distinguished Greek women which I am writing, 
one of the first places is held by this woman of American 


origfin, who became the intellectual mother of so many 

But besides this lady many progressive Greek women 
have established schools from which have gone forth 
during recent years many distinguished women, sculp- 
tors, writers, poets, of whom the strangers that visit 
Greece speak with enthusiasm. Our great men formerly 
worked more for the education of women than they do 
now. This has not prevented us from advancing. We 
have overcome opposition and set aside prejudices. Our 
government has given us only the most elementary edu- 
cation. We are establishing private schools and preparing 
ourselves for the university, which scarcely two years ago 
opened its doors to us. But before this was accomplished, 
when that of our own country was closed against us, many 
of us sought other European universities. Thus we have 
to-day ten women who are devoted to scientific, philological, 
medical, and pedagogic pursuits, and four young girls are 
now going to the University of Athens. 

I am myself, the first Greek woman editor. For seven 
years I have issued a woman's journal. Its articles are 
written exclusively by women, but they are read by a good 
many men. The object of my paper is the education of 
women and the education of the public in respect to 
women. I set forth continually in its columns your march 
in civilization and your stirring activities. I publish the 
lives of the distinguished women of the world. I exhort 
women to energetic work, by which alone complete happi- 
ness can be secured in this world. I do not ask for the 
political rights of women, because for us this question is 
premature ; but when the law is unjust to us, we attack the 
law-makers. I am working now for the establishment of 
an industrial school for girls, and I hope that I shall be 
able to succeed by next September. As the first woman 
editor, I have suffered many attacks and combated many 
prejudices, and many times have been reproached and 
assailed ; but all this has been forgotten in the absorbing 


object which I have had before me, and in the results which 
I have attained. My youngest sister has established lately 
a new woman's paper, under the title The Home, in which 
she will seek to promote the practical, technical, and indus- 
trial education of women. 

Besides my paper, I have published the results of many 
other studies. During the past year I have begun to pub- 
lish the history of woman from prehistoric times to our 
own day. It is a great work, for which for ten years I have 
been gathering material in the libraries of Europe. It will 
be composed of twelve large volumes, and will reveal the 
remarkable influence of women upon the fortunes of peo- 
ples and nations. The Greek and the French press have 
received my first volume with the warmest approval. I 
have treated therein only the women of prehistoric times 
and the women of China and India. Five more volumes, 
relating to women of ancient times down to the Roman 
period, are ready for the press, and then will follow the 
Middle Ages. I am working now upon contemporary 
women. To American women, who now are holding the 
reins of progress, and who are in advance of all Europeans, 
I shall devote a large volume. In this endeavor I invite 
your cooperation and your aid. As far as you are able, 
furnish me with notes, information, and biographies. My 
work will be translated into both French and English. I 
hope it will receive your support. In such labors we must 
all join hands and support one another. 

But let us return to the activity of women in Greece. 
Political rights are denied to us altogether. We enjoy but 
few liberties. Work in public offices, in the arts and manu- 
factures is closed to us. But we have united ourselves, and 
have worked, as you have, for the advancement of women. 
I represent here ten women's organizations of my country'. 
The most of them are under the protection of the queen. 
All of them are philanthropic or educational. A house of 
industry, founded by women, gives employment to nearly 
five hundred poor women, and work is developed here to 


the highest degree of perfection. A large hospital, the 
Evangelismos, established and directed by women, fur- 
. nishes shelter and care to a large number of the sick. An 
orphan asylum for girls, with three million drachmas 
endowment, was established and directed by women. A 
hospital for incurables, of which I am one of the found- 
ers, was established by the King's Daughters, a branch of 
the great organization in America. In a Sunday-school 
which I have established, and which is under the presi- 
dency of her majesty, the queen, four hundred working- 
girls receive instruction every Sunday in reading, writing, 
arithmetic, religion, history, hygiene, and domestic economy. 
There is also an institution for working-women and serv^- 
ants, of which I am one of the organizers and general 
secretary. A society for the education and reformation of 
youthful prisoners has been established, and is directed by 
women, under the presidency of her majesty, the queen. 
There is also a central society of friends of the poor, estab- 
lished and directed by women, and a society for the care of 

In industry the private initiative of women has wrought 
miracles. Embroidery, artificial flowers, the making of 
mats and Grecian carpets, millinery and dressmaking 
employ a large number of women. 

The Greek woman works energetically and with results. 
If the false, enervating, frivolous, and luxurious life of the 
salon could show fewer victims, certainly our situation 
would be better. Vain and selfish women are the greatest 
and most implacable enemies of our cause, and of humanity 
in general. They contribute by the education which they 
give to their sons to the degradation and degeneration 
of men themselves. Against these women we all, and 
especially the progressive women of Europe, must unite 
our forces, because this pernicious class exists in Europe 
more extensively than in America. The cause of woman, 
about which you have asked my opinion, will fully suc- 
ceed when the form of education which produces this 


class of women ceases. All women who are wielding the 
pen for the emancipation of our sex, and all who can exer- 
cise any influence upon the fortunes of women, must attack 
this vain, false, selfish, and pernicious education. We shall 
never obtain liberty, nor rights, nor equality while such 
mothers and wives inspire the men through whom we 
expect our fortunes to be bettered. 

Fortunately the number of such women is growing less 
every day in Greece. While the education of women is 
still behind in many things, the greater part of the wealthy 
and fortunate classes have rid themselves of this vanity. 

To you, O American women ! lovers of progress, we 
look with hope. You are in the van ; you are the flag- 

Women in Spain for the Last Four Hundred Years — 
Address by Catalina d'Alcala of Spain. 

I salute all the women of this great republic, and their glo- 
rious flag, the stars and stripes, designed by a woman. In 
tracing the pages of the past we find that each nation has 
had some special mission for women to perform. To 
America has been intrusted the privilege of developing the 
highest qualities of womanly character and granting unre- 
strained action to them. 

In carrying out the duty assigned me of reviewing the 
women of my country from the beloved Isabella's time, I 
must briefly notice the history of Spain previous to that 
illustrious reign and on down to the present day. For 
several hundred years after the great Saracen invasion 
Spain was broken up into a number of small but independ- 
ent states, divided in their interests and often in deadly 
hostility with one another. The country was inhabited by 
races the most dissimilar in their origin, religion, and 
government, the least important of which has exerted a 
sensible influence on the character and institutions of the 


present inhabitants. They regarded each other with a 
fiercer hatred than that with which they viewed the 
enemies of their faith. More Christian blood was wasted 
in these national feuds than in all their encounters with 
the infidels. The zeal which did at last unite them in a 
common warfare against the invaders was inevitably that 
of a religious fanaticism. The arts used by the ecclesiast- 
ical leaders to control the common people naturally resulted 
in giving Spain the deep tinge of superstition which has 
ever distinguished her among the nations of Europe. Yet 
our historians tell us that whatever were the vices of the 
Spaniards at that date they were not those of eflfeminate 
sloth. The privations which they had suffered at the hands 
of the spoilers had developed in them many hardy, sober 
qualities. It was under these conditions that the character 
of Isabella was formed. That with all her admirable virt- 
ues she had inherited some of the prevailing fanaticism 
is true. The fact that such a reign, so successful in bring- 
ing about the union of many conflicting elements and stimu- 
lating special enterprises, was not followed by the permanent 
elevation of Isabella's own sex, points to some firmly fixed 
retarding influence in the economy of the nation. What the 
Spaniards have already accomplished in the way of learning 
and development of the higher mental and moral qualities 
is truly marvelous, in the face of all the obstacles they have 
been forced to encounter. 

It is well known that Isabella, as soon as she could bring 
order out of the chaos in which she found the government, 
devoted herself diligently to educational matters ; and, 
stimulated by her noble and intellectual influence, the 
women contributed much to the general illumination of that 
period. Female education embraced a broader field in the 
ancient languages than is common now. The learning of 
the women equaled their piety, and, far from contenting 
themselves with superficial attainments, they held professor- 
ships of Latin and rhetoric, and widened the domain of 
philosophical speculation. The queen's instructor in Latin 


was a woman, Doiia Galindo. Another light was Isabel Losa. 
She mastered Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, and founded the 
hospital of Loretto. Sigea Aloysia of Toledo wrote letters 
to the pope in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and Syrian. 
Even poetry and romance were not shunned by the gentler 
sex. Indeed, so strong became woman's position under 
this wonderful reign that Isabel de Rosores was permitted 
to preach in the great church in Barcelona. However, in 
this period, as ever since, a mistake was made in import- 
ing so many foreign teachers for the youth, thus bringing 
a mixture of ideas and influences, confusing national char- 
acteristics and depressing individual identity. Educational 
authorities everywhere claim the benefits of native instruc- 
tors, the lack of whom truly has been a curse to Spain. 
With Isabella's death departed much of the wisdom of her 
administration, and the unstable rulers we have since had 
give rise to the saying that the royal palace became an 
insane asylum. Yet we find that many women of the time 
of Charles V. were noted for their political ability. All 
were eminently domestic in their homes — sewing, embroid- 
ering, and compounding home-made remedies for all known 

Spain can boast of having produced heroines from the 
earliest records of history. Agostina of Saragossa, with 
her courage and fortitude, imparted strength to the droop- 
ing soldiers when the French were mowing down our men 
like grass ; then did this Spanish maid give victory to her 
old town. The new government adopted by our neighbors 
crossed the Pyrenees and inflamed the revolutionary spirit 
in us. The contest was waged upon the battle-field and in 
society, and reflected in the character of woman, through 
whom it entered into family life. Women and men felt 
alike. They were Catholics, Royalists, and Spaniards; 
enemies to everything foreign. For this reason the part 
played by woman in defense against the French was no 
less active than by man. When the Spanish woman sees 
her country in danger, she exhibits the indomitable heart 


of a true patriot. Yet we have no female party, and since 
the conclusion of the last civil war women have paid no 
attention to public affairs. Gradually our position has 
gone down until at the present day men dominate in every- 
thing. Each new conquest made by man in the field 
renders the role of women more passive and confined. 
Educational freedom and the whole parliamentary system 
only serve to transfer that power to one-half of society 
which the other half is losing steadily. You may ask what 
has brought about this change. Spain is a country of 
reactions. One extreme follows another. In the time of 
the first Isabella, women were preeminent. The second 
Isabella found them at the lowest point in the scale of 
public influence. 

The Spaniard is a jealous being. He has suspiciously 
watched the late marvelous achievements of women in 
other nations. He is like a child, inclined to act contrary to 
the thing his attention is called to. In old times there were 
so many '* woman's movements " he thought little about 
being excelled. Now in the present age of broad ideas he 
realizes the danger; that unless he strictly defines woman's 
position she may excel him, not only in intellectual attain- 
ments, but in political management. 

The women of Spain are divided into four classes, those 
of the royal family, the nobility, the middle, and the 
lower class or peasantry. The daughters of the nobility 
as a rule are superficially educated, speak a little poor 
French and dabble in music and painting. Those of the 
middle class are great imitators of the nobility, although 
no amount of money will admit them to court society with- 
out the badge of a government office. A poor government 
clerk on two hundred a year can dance with a duchess, 
whereas the family of a millionaire without official position 
is excluded from the aristocracy. The women of this class 
are for the most part educated in convents. The peasant 
woman is truly a child of nature, with goodness of heart, 
caring for all who come within her reach, sharing her 


last morsel with Christian or heretic, and never accepting 
any remuneration. Be she rich or poor, the heart of the 
Spanish woman is a vast storehouse of Christian gp-aces, 
cheerfulness, devotion, simplicity, and self-denial. The 
home influence is to-day what it always has been, pure 
and ennobling. Spanish women, so far as devotion is 
concerned, are model wives and mothers. When a woman 
once accepts a man's heart or his name she will die rather 
than be unfaithful. 

Divorces are almost unknown. The uncertainty attend- 
ing domestic life in some ot;her nations is not felt in Spain. 
The family relation when once formed is permanent. 
Whatever may be said against the authority of the church 
in affairs of state, all must admit that its control in family 
matters has a salutary effect on the social fabric. When 
even a member of the demi-monde marries, which fre- 
quently occurs, she never returns to her previous life, but 
remains true to her family ties. I may say right here that 
this class of women is not nearly so numerous in Spain as 
is generally supposed, and fewer still would be the depart- 
ures from rectitude if there were as many avenues of self- 
support open to women there as in the United States. 
Women are taught from childhood to depend on their 
natural protectors. In Spain every man expects to pro- 
vide for some woman of his household ; if not for a wife 
or daughter, then for a mother or sister. 

Necessity makes the opportunity. The fact that so many 
women are self-supporting in America does not argue favor- 
ably for the gallantry or ability of the men. The few Span- 
ish women who are thrown upon their own resources 
scarcely know where to turn for an honest living. House- 
work and cigar-making are their principal occupations. 
Even sewing is not much of a public employment, as the 
majority of women, both of the wealthy and the poorer 
classes make their own garments. They do not care for 
reading or any other mental improvement, so how else 
should they spend their time but in sewing ? Much of the 


needlework is done by the nuns in the convents. There 
is no other country able to furnish such fine work in this 

Those who have not the health or inclination to become 
servants turn to the factories. The dgarette-makers are 
deserving of more sympathy than they receive. Many of 
them are true-hearted women with children to support, and 
they rock the cradle with grace and tenderness while they 
roll the cigars. The stage does not include as many classes 
of women as it does in almost any other country, for the 
reason that when a Spanish actress marries she always 
retires. The reports -^Vhich have been circulated concerning 
our hospitals are sadly untrue. They have been for many 
years past conducted by women, and the Spanish Sister of 
Charity has proven herself to be a superior nurse. The 
prisons of Spain include one exclusively for women, which 
is said to be well managed by the sisters, and is never, I am 
glad to add, overcrowded. 

A woman's resources are naturally limited in proportion 
as her education is restricted. The great need of Spain is 
widespread primary instruction. A compulsory law was 
enacted in 1877 for children between the ages of six and 
nine, free schooling being provided for the poor ; but the 
law is not enforced, and even if it were, its provisions are 
too meager to meet the wants of a practical education. 
The universities are open only to men. Educated college 
women are the exception, not the rule, and the number of 
university-educated women is very small. 

I do not wish to leave the impression that there is no 
longer any intellectual individuality or personal ambition 
among my countrywomen. Their meager advantages, their 
scanty education, their few chances to mingle on equal terms 
with the talented and good of the opposite sex have brought 
down upon them a long night of darkness. But we shall 
emerge from the shadows. 


Woman's Position in the South American States— 
Address by Matilde G. de Miro Quesada of Lima, 

Whether woman be considered as the mainspring of 
domestic life, or as a mere auxiliary force intended to 
lift up the many small obstacles that encumber the 
field of man's labor and force him to waste his energies, 
her cooperation is undoubtedly a most essential part of 
man's success in his struggle for life. Whenever he feels 
exhausted and worn out by the painful strife, or inclined 
to succumb to the pressure of persistent adversity or deliber- 
ate injustice, the glowing warmth of woman's aflFection, and 
not seldom her own example, give him renewed courage 
and fresh hope, or the tranquil submission of conscious 
dignity and manly endurance combined. The share thus 
assigned by nature to the weaker sex in the work of life 
is more or less comprehensive in every country, according 
to the race, the stage of civilization, the soil and climate, 
and other conditions arising from local or transient causes. 
Our American continent exhibits in this respect so curious 
and striking a contrast that I deem it to be one of the most 
interesting and useful subjects of study; yet I will not 
venture in this paper beyond a few general remarks such as 
the sympathy for my own sex and the natural aspiration 
for the welfare of mankind may suggest to one who is 
neither a philosopher nor a political expert. It would be 
idle to discuss the faculties and conditions common to all 
members of womankind. Therefore I will confine my ob- 
servations to the position of the Anglo-American woman 
and that of her sister in the Spanish-American States. In 
order to obtain a correct appreciation of the latter's con- 
dition it will be necessary to bear in mind the influence 
exerted by many circumstances appertaining to ancient 
times, as well as the action of more recent and immediate 
causes. The bulk of the Spanish-American population is 


mainly composed of two elements: first, the descendants 
of the Spanish conquerors ; second, the native Indian races 
of Central and South America. The first one, although far 
inferior in numbers, has always been and continues to be 
the only ruling power in all the states. These two elements 
brought into contact during four centuries have never 
become assimilated to any considerable extent. It might 
be said that they have rather kept themselves at a dis- 
tance from each other, so that the overwhelming majority 
still remain pure-blooded. 

But even a partial union of those elements could not 
produce any substantial change in the position of woman in 
the Spanish-American colonies. She had always lived sur- 
rounded by a similar atmosphere and placed under similar 
circumstances in Spanish and Indian civilization, her field 
of action never extending beyond the narrow limits of the 
family and of religious institutions, churches, convents, etc. 
In the whole compass of public life she was totally absent, 
absolutely ignored, as if she could not have any political 
significance whatever. Beyond the walls of the family 
dwelling she could become nothing but a Spanish nun or 
an Indian vestal. The form of government was essentially 
monarchical and theocratic in Spain, as it was in Indian 
communities. The divine right of kings was the same on 
both sides ; and as a natural consequence, in the course of 
several centuries the most exclusive religious sentiment 
became the main characteristic of the population. It must 
be added that the secular war in which Spain fought for 
her national independence and religious creed made a 
single block of these two principles, and melted patriotic 
feeling and Catholic faith to such a degree that they became 
one and the same thought and aspiration in every part of 
that warlike and proud nation. Such is the mold in which 
Spanish-American character was shaped. 

The effects of this cause were, of course, much deeper in 
woman's character, owing to her natural sensibility, her 
instinctive religious tendency, and the docility with which 


she adapts herself to the influences prevailing in her home. 
Being inexorably excluded from all participation in political 
or public life, her patriotic feeling remained latent, the 
whole of her activity being thus completely absorbed by 
her domestic duties and religious worship. Laws, tradi- 
tions, and habits worked together in restraining to an ex- 
cessive degree the freedom and power of woman, even in 
the narrow field of her strictly private life — her existence 
from beginning to end passed in submission to the author- 
ity and will of her lord and master ; and in spite of the 
chivalrous character of the Spaniard, the companion of his 
life was no better than any of her oriental ancestors, an 
imprisoned or enslaved beauty, deprived of all the blessings 
and advantages of education and learning. Yet it is doubt- 
ful if there is a more intelligent or better endowed woman 
in any region on the face of the earth. Her quick compre 
hension, her bright imagination, her artistic propensities, 
her truly wonderful precocity, and even her impulsive and 
passionate character, evidently will cause in the course of 
time the transformation of this brilliant and fascinating 
spoiled child into the noblest type of woman, shining as 
one of the elements of national and universal progress. 
I am conscious of not overestimating the richness of her 
nature when I affirm that there is no heroic self^bnega- 
tion, no sublime ideal, no delicate refinement, no degree 
of moral courage that may rise above the level of the 
Spanish-American woman's natural powers. 

The war for the emancipation of the Spanish colonies of 
America was the first shock that awakened the Spanish- 
American woman from her slumbers, and opened to her 
astonished eyes a new and brilliant horizon. She was every- 
where an enthusiastic agent and a devoted champion of the 
independent party, carrying her action so far that on 
several occasions the Spanish military executions reddened 
with her blood the soil she labored to liberate. 

During the protracted period of internal convulsion and 
civil war that preceded the organization and present state 




Sarah A. Stewart. 
Mr>. Henry Ward Beecher. 

CiR \i i: GREi:NWt)OD. 

(.Mrs. Lippincott.) 

Hri.DA Ll'NDIN. 


of the Spanish-American republics, the influence of woman 
was felt frequently in prominent events of political life. 

She had no right granted by law to interfere with such 
matters ; but she deemed her right to be justified by her 
own self-sacrifice in the war for independence. Her action, 
if not a legal one, was in many instances an efficient force 
that brought about the final solution, and gave rise to deep 
changes, nay, to the very existence of new governments. 

In later years new laws swept away some of the most 
powerful obstacles opposed by ancient legislation to the 
improvement of woman's position in private and public life. 
The barrier of religious intolerance was partially demol- 
ished in several of the new republics, and the free access of 
foreign immigration to their respective territories produced 
a large number of intermarriages and of new homes where 
an enlightened and liberal spirit rules over the family. 

Public and private education began to spread in the 
upper classes of the young nations, although for the most 
part it still remained in the hands of sectarian teachers and 
religious institutions. But in the last score of years a most 
considerable progress has been accomplished, by the united 
action of governments and private individuals, in the prin- 
cipal Spanish-American states. It is with the deepest feel- 
ing of joy and pride that I state the fact of the influence of 
our sex in this great evolution. Nearly all the schools for 
girls are placed under the control of female teachers ; nor- 
mal schools for women are supported amply or protected by 
the national authorities ; large and beautiful buildings, that 
in some cities are veritable palaces, have been erected for 
educational purposes ; and hundreds of foreign professors 
are being brought continually from their native countries 
to the hospitable and promising homes of Spanish-America. 
The majority of female teachers are native young ladies 
who have obtained their credentials in a strictly regular 
way ; and it can be asserted confidently that there will be 
in the future no deficiency in the supply of intelligent 
direction for all public schools. This has been the first 



authorized step of the Spanish-American woman's career 
beyond the limits of domestic life. Another important 
movement, attained by a strength of will and moral cour- 
age of which no one unacquainted with Spanish countries 
can form even an idea, is the admission lately granted to 
female students to the curriculum of the regular univer- 

To appreciate duly this success it will be necessary to 
remember certain circumstances peculiar to several of the 
Spanish- American countries, which formed an almost impas- 
sable barrier against so great an innovation. Fpr many 
generations woman had been regarded in every Spanish 
community as a being deprived by nature of every at- 
tribute of mind and character fit for any sober or serious 
purpose. She could be but a comfort and an ornament in 
the home of her proud and indolent master. On the other 
hand, legal and military affairs being excepted, labor, in 
whatever form, was despised sincerely by the nobility or 
governing class of the country. Even such professions as 
medicine, architecture, and engineering as existed at the 
time, were carried on by individuals of the colored race, 
and not infrequently by slaves. Thus contempt for labor 
had become in all classes of society a habit, an instinct, a 
deeply rooted feeling, that even to this day shows its vital- 
ity in spite of foreign intercourse and advanced education. 
Daily experience, with its eloquent teachings, has to a cer- 
tain extent undermined that ancient prejudice. Still, what 
remains of the old spirit is enough to shake the most reso- 
lute courage. It might therefore be said in all truth that 
the Spanish-American woman has carried the position by 
storm, and she may justly be proud of her new victor}-. 
Although in very limited numbers, there are at present 
women who, as lawyers, physicians, dentists, and midwives, 
sustain a decorous position among their male colleagues. 

The expansive force of this woman's natural talent has 
made a broad field besides in almost every branch of art and 
literature — drawing, painting, music, poetry, and romance, 


afford a pleasant employment to the leisure hours of the 
educated woman, and in many instances have given her 
a reputation which extends beyond the boundaries of her 
native country. The works of several ladies rank as high 
in Spanish literature, especially in poetry, as some of the 
old classics, and stand almost on a level with those of the 
very best poets of the present day. Even the political press 
begins to feel woman's influence, there being already a few 
daily or periodical papers edited by ladies, and devoted to 
the interest of some political organization. It is unneces- 
sary to add that they are always enthusiastic defenders of 
woman's rights. 

It must not be forgotten that the foregoing remarks con- 
cern only a small class of women placed in the most favor- 
able circumstances, and that even among them the literary 
and the artistic labor are never remunerative in any degree 
whatever. Still, there is no doubt that before long such 
labor will become as useful and productive as that of any 
profession or business opened to our sex. The number of 
gfirls and women belonging to the middle class (and they 
are generally more or less educated) who find by their own 
•exertions some means of support is very limited indeed. 
In the great majority of cases they remain a burden to their 
parents, their husbands, or some other male members of 
the family, and in spite of their natural disinterestedness 
gfirls are sometimes induced to accept a marriage by 
necessity rather thaxi by choice. 

This truly deplorable condition of affairs can not be 
changed suddenly, as it is a natural eflfect of the peculiar 
organization of Spanish society. The Spaniard, and still 
more his American descendant, deems himself disgraced, 
dishonored, if it is known that his wife, his daughter, or 
his sister works for her living or for the improvement of 
her home. Such a prejudice and false pride could be 
explained in the period of fantastic wealth, when almost 
everybody in the Spanish colonies lived rich and happy 
without the trouble of any personal labor, for all the work 


was carried on by slaves. That immense wealth passed 
away long ago, yet the old proud feeling still remains. 
How long will it last ? 

Let us hope that more frequent intercourse with foreign 
population, together with the necessity of securing domes- 
tic happiness by providing young girls with the means of 
self-support, so as to make them the companions and help- 
mates, not the servile attendants, of their husbands, will soon 
do away with the unnatural inactivity of so many intelli- 
gent and educated women. 

With the exception of some of the post oflBce, telephone, 
and telegraph offices, there is not a single official bureau 
where women regularly are employed ; and excepting certain 
lines of tramways in a few cities, and occasionally in a small 
number of stores and shops, they are never seen anywhere 
in the vast field of public or private activity. 

To close these brief remarks, I submit to your attention 
two very significant facts, viz. — First, the spirit of associa- 
tion for serious and useful purposes, lately initiated in 
Spanish-American female society and attaining every day 
more remarkable proportions ; second, the ever-increasing 
circulation of literary and scientific books and periodicals 
among the female population of the principal cities in 
almost every one of those states. 

It is the moral duty as well as the practical interest of the 
North American people to extend to the young and prom- 
ising nations of Spanish-America the influence of their 
modem institutions, and the liberal and progressive spirit 
which is advancing the cause of woman, and very particu- 
larly the atmosphere of freedom and encouragement that 
surrounds the life of our sex in the North. No object 
richer in promise can be offered to your energies than the 
more complete social emancipation of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can woman. It seems to me an axiomatic truth that to 
complete the freedom of woman in domestic and social 
life is to secure her legitimate influence and civilizing 
power in the general evolution of mankind. 


The Women of Brazil — Address by Martha Sessel- 
BERG OF Brazil. 

The women of Brazil in character and education are a 
home-loving, home-abiding class. They are born to be 
home-makers, housewives, and mothers. Their home is 
their world ; for that they live, and for that they could die. 
Still, as has been said of Spanish women, with whom in 
character they are closely allied, " They contribute greatly 
to the wealth and prosperity of their country, by their 
habits of order and economy, and by the education they 
give their children, maintaining the national sentiment by 
the poetry of their nature." 

A Brazilian girl as a rule leaves school at an earlier age 
than does an American girl. If she attends a day school 
some member of her family escorts her thither and brings 
her home again, for a Brazilian mother would sooner die 
than allow her daughter to roam about at will, or indeed go 
anywhere unattended. If it be the girl's brother who 
accompanies her, his proud, if rather ostentatious, protec- 
tion of his sister helps in reality to develop in him that 
almost national trait of the Brazilian gentleman — chivalry. 

Many of the girls' schools in Brazil compare favorably 
with your own. Besides private there are boarding schools 
designed for destitute orphan girls, who therein receive 
gratuitous primary instruction, domestic education, food, 
clothing, and, when they marry, a wedding outfit and a 
small dowry. These establishments have a special direct- 
orship composed of philanthropic men, who provide a 
situation for these girls, if they do not marry, when, having 
concluded their studies, they are obliged to leave the 
college. All expenses connected with these poor children's 
asylums are defrayed at the cost of the state or government 

Brazilian girls generally marry between the ages of six- 
teen and twenty-two. Rare are the cases of infidelity 


among the wives. What shall I say of the women of Brazil 
professionally ? What of them in literature and art, you 
ask ? Their natural talent is fast finding a wide scope in 
drawing, in painting, in music, and in literature. Also in 
limited numbers they are at present dentists and physicians. 
I do not know of a lawyer among them. A few excellent 
journalists have of late entered that profession. In needle- 
work, especially the ** labyrinth " lace of Ceara, they excel. 

A true wife, a tender and judicious mother, as a friend 
loyal, in sickness a veritable ministering angel, such is the 
Brazilian woman. 

Women in South America — Address by Isabel King 
OF Argentine Republic. 

At one of the meetings at the Art Institute in Chicago 
during the World's Fair Congresses, a delegate was called 
upon to give an account of the status of agricultural indus- 
tries in some of the countries of South America, and espe- 
cially the relation which woman's work might bear to prog- 
ress in this direction. 

Among other things, she said that in the country, within 
the limits of one's vision, might be seen the latest inventions 
that Yankee ingenuity had constructed to aid man in his task 
of enriching and garnering the treasures that bounteous 
Mother Nature was ready to supply when petitioned under 
proper conditions — side by side with the crudest imple- 
ments used by the peasant class in all countries, whether 
under an oriental or an occidental sky. 

At the same hour that this was being told another speaker, 
giving impressions about South America in the Woman's 
Building, told her audience that the South American coun- 
tries were three centuries behind our age in the knowledge 
or use of agricultural implements and in modes of living. 

The extremes noted in the statements of these speakers 
may well serve to indicate the actual transition period 


through which Spanish-America is passing (for without 
doubt both statements can be verified, both are true ; and 
the cause for this state of things may be only the corollary 
of a condition which must have its influence as much in the 
special methods of government adopted in the diflferent 
countries as in the modes of thought dominant in educa- 
tional or sociological progress generally). 

It must not be forgotten that the autonomy of these South 
American countries is of a very recent date ; also that the 
elements that arrived centuries ago to conquer and plunder, 
and exploit the wealth to be found here, were not such as 
could combine with the natives. 

The great part of the South American population, which 
prides itself on being native, is composed of these two- 
extremes — the descendants of the Spanish conquerors and 
colonists and the native Indian peoples ; the first striving 
to live out a civilization commenced thousands of years ago,, 
and having its rise in scenes and surroundings of Old World 
culture and luxury; the other adhering to the customs 
indigenous to the land of the pampas and the lasso. 

When Spain, Portugal, France, and Britain sent out 
their navigators and colonists in search of wealth in the 
New Continent, these vast countries were overrun by every 
grade of explorer, from the religious fanatic to the con-^ 
scienceless mercenary. The ancient religion and the 
ancient independence were sacrificed to Rome, to Castile, 
and to Portugal. 

The companies of Jesuits of a later date left their impress 
in the shape of great public works, roadways, aqueducts, 
etc., in diflferent countries, which they led their new, willing 
or unwilling, subjects to construct, at the same time holding 
them by the blind faith they were enabled to instill. So it 
is that the conquering few were found leading the vast 
numbers, accustomed to obey the voice of the commander^ 
until the hour struck for the blue-blood of old Castile flow- 
ing in the veins of the descendants of the old-time explorers 
to become oxygenized under the influence of the liberty- 


laden air wafted from the northern countries which had 
thrown oflf the Old World yoke ; and the giants Bolivar, San 
Martin, Rivadavia, and other southern generals led their 
legions through the wars that were crowned with the suc- 
cessful emancipation of the countries of Spanish-America. 

It was in these soul-stirring times that woman discovered 
that her part in the social and political worlds also was 
important. Up to this moment she had been the subdued 
and submissive captive beauty, whether in the rancho of 
the Indian or in the Moorish home of the descendant of 
the Spanish hidalgo. In this home her activity spent itself 
in beautiful embroideries and self-adornment ; in that one, 
in pounding the corn and roasting the meat for her gfuard- 
ian. In both cases religious worship and her immediate 
home affections absorbed all the spiritual life with which 
she was endowed. Now, however, she learned, through 
bitter experience, of the larger family, the patria, which 
called the fathers, husbands, and sons from her side to bat- 
tle for the independence which was also to be hers. 

History records many instances of fiery partisanship and of 
daring intervention on the part of these hitherto ornamental 
helpmates, often made precisely at the moment needed to 
turn the current of success in favor of the native party. At 
a decisive moment during the British invasion of Buenos 
Ayres, at the beginning of the century, the invaders were 
routed when the women came to the aid of their defenders 
by hurling missiles and hot water from the roofs of the 
houses. Not civilized warfare, surely, but the importance 
of the stake at issue and the necessity of the occasion 
defends the success gained in this manner. At the same 
place, during the struggle for independence made possible 
through the victories over the English, the women com- 
bined to provide ammunition which was lacking for the 
ranks of the patriots, at a time when the cause needed the 
stimulus furnished by such an action. 

What was the effect of such uprisings upon beings here- 
tofore passive recipients of what bounty their protectors 


might provide ? Simply what might be expected of women 
endowed, as they were, with powerful sensibility, quick 
intelligence, and strong will to fulfill the religious duties 
imposed upon them, now turned in the direction of the ful- 
fillment of patriotic ideals. Since those, days, although not 
recognized by law as having any political status, woman's 
influence has often been felt in the internal struggles with 
which these countries have been torn in their efforts toward 
self-government; and more important still has been the 
effect upon her own intellectual development, strengthened 
and fortified naturally through polemics and partisanship 
in which she can not help but join when the very air she 
breathes is permeated with them. It might not be difficult, 
even nowadays, to find women who can scarcely sign their 
names who are able to sustain discussions regarding their 
favorite subjects in politics, benevolence, or religion, with 
all the ardor, tact, and correctness of philosophic vision that 
might well befit persons who had received a more favored 
education. In the country homes, where many families 
reside a large portion of the year, owing to the presence of 
the master being needed to oversee the hands at work at 
agriculture or at pasturing, it is not uncommon to find the 
books that have been used at the university by fathers or 
brothers in the hands of mothers, sisters, and aunts. So, 
among surroundings that are often very incongfruous, may 
appear the works of Rochefoucauld, Lamartine, Chateau- 
briand, Shakespeare, Castelar, Cervantes, etc., showing signs 
of use and appreciation. 

As one of our writers observes, the advance-guard of 
thought may come from the country rather than from the 
large cities, where the distractions of society draw the mind 
away from quiet study and the introspection needed for 
the elaboration of deep plans and elevation of thought; 
but it is really in the great centers of population that the 
movement is plainly visible which must end in the appli- 
cation of the principles of liberty, fraternity, and equality 
to both sexes. 


One end of the wedge was inserted during the great 
access of foreigpi immigration, when these countries com- 
menced their independent existence, and woman was so 
often seen working side by side with man, according to cus- 
toms unknown to the descendants of the Spanish hidalgo or 
of the Indian **gaucho." True, she had no degree of inde- 
pendence with this permission to work, and could not 
always dispose of the money she had aided in earning, but 
the ability to work served as a model, and the advantage 
gained, in case masculine leadership should fail, was readily 

Another strong impetus was felt during the discussions 
resulting in and consequent upon the abolition of religious 
intolerance in many parts of the southern continent. Dif- 
ferent points of view were opened before the mental vision 
of those whose horizon, until this time, had been limited 
by the fiat of the ecclesiastic, whose rule was felt in all 

But the power whose influence is making itself felt most 
strongly now is the diffusion of instruction among the 
masses of the population. During the past twenty years a 
wonderful stride has been made in nearly or quite all of the 
South American countries. Each one has a history almost 
similar to the others, in that there has arisen some apostle 
of popular education determined that his own particular 
republic should not remain behind other civilized nations 
in this respect. 

In the Republic of Uruguay the name of Don Jos6 Pedro 
Varela, called the Horace Mann of that country, is vener- 
ated as the founder of common schools, giving instruction 
alike to rich and poor, to boys and girls ; and for making 
possible the founding of normal schools, well equipped, 
and giving a very high grade of secondary instruction. 

The Sefforita Enriqueta Compte was sent to Germany to 
study kindergartening in its home, and now is installed at 
the head of a school of practice for kindergarteners in Mon- 
tevideo that promises to be the beginning of the greatest of 


all reforms in education — the beginning at the beginning, 
and making the foundation strong and sure. 

The Seilora vStagnero de Muiiar is at the head of the 
Normal School for Girls in the same city, and is laboring 
with an abnegation and enthusiasm rarely equaled in more 
favored circles to implant in the minds of the young 
women gathered from different parts of the country the 
pedagogical principles that shall enable them to become 
real teachers. 

She is ably seconded in her efforts by the SeSorita Adela 
Castells, a young litt6rateure whose name •is rapidly becom- 
ing a power in educational circles. It is somewhat difficult 
to determine the exact proportion of illiteracy among the 
general population, owing to the incompleteness of the 
census returns in this respect ; but in the centers of popula- 
tion it has for some years decreased very favorably. With 
the impetus received from the installation of the Patriotic 
League, a society founded for the purpose of having the 
national language taught in all parts of the country (as a 
safeguard from the encroachments of the Portuguese from 
the Brazilian boundaries), and with the enthusiastic leader- 
ship of Doctor Berra, lawyer and teacher, Seiior Gomez. 
Ruano, the director of the Pedagogical Museum, and 
others, it is safe to affirm that this country will soon take an 
honorable position among the educated nations. 

Most flattering of all, perhaps, is the high esteem felt for 
the part woman is taking in this elevation of thought, in 
this crusade against ignorance. She is making her way to 
the front ranks so rapidly that those who know how 
recently the awakening has come are surprised, not taking 
into consideration the many quiet influences that were at 
work preparing this desire for education to burst into such 
rich fruition. 

Secondary instruction has attained a high rank in the 
Republic of Chile, and the results of this are easily notice- 
able in the general deportment of the better class of 


It is probably in the Argentine Republic that the most 
successful work has been done toward implanting a com- 
mon-school course of education among the masses. 

During the revolutionary period, near the beginning of 
the century, the great Rivadavia said : " We can not wonder 
that every state, whether its form of government be mon- 
archical or republican, leaving the conscience of men free, 
flinging the shield of protection over the religion of the 
citizen, should with zealous care watch over the education 
of the rising generations — that men may become familiar 
with the genius and peculiar features of their own govern- 
ment : form an acquaintance with the laws and institutions 
of the country in which they live and act a part ; and that 
they may imbibe a spirit of enlightened patriotism, secur- 
ing them alike from the encroachment of the tyrant on the 
one hand and the selfish designs of the demagogue on the 

The great work planned by this noble and far-seeing 
statesman to secure these ends was in advance of his time, 
and fell to naught during the epoch of anarchy that soon 
came upon the unfortunate country. The cruel civil strife 
that continued so long led men's thoughts far away from 
thoughts of intellectual or moral development, and the 
country was reduced to a state bordering on barbarism. 

When a better day dawned, during the presidency of 
General Bartolomo Mitre, a system of secondary education 
was organized. Colleges were founded by the national 
government in several of the larger cities. The French 
Lyc6e sy-stem was adopted and professors brought from 
European schools. 

It was, however, during the administration of Dr. Don 
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento that popular education 
received an immense impulse. He had seen what free 
education had done for the United States, and he deter- 
mined to establish the common-school system throughout 
his beloved Argentine country. 

Doctor Sarmiento had been on terms of friendship with 


Horace Mann and other educators during his term as min- 
ister to this country, and had come to realize the impor- 
tance of providing the means of an education for each 
child, as the best mode of preparing him for future citizen- 

Large grants of money were voted by Congress for the 
diflFusion of primary instruction in the different provinces, 
and with this stimulus each province awakened to a 
greater appreciation of its own duty in this respect. 

It was owing to the enthusiasm of this schoolmaster 
president that teachers from the United States were invited 
to take part in the training of teachers among the Argen- 
tines. About the year 1883 normal schools for g^rls were 
founded in the capital city of each province, while before 
this there had been but three in all the republic, and these 
located near Buenos Ayres, very far from many of the 
other centers of population, and especially inconvenient in a 
country where popular sentiment would condemn the sepa- 
ration of a young woman from the family circle, unless to 
enter one of the boarding-schools, the greater number of 
which were directed and taught by the Catholic nuns. 

Now, however, all this is changed, and in this Columbian 
year the Argentine Republic sustains fourteen female 
normal schools and seven mixed normal schools, these last 
solving the problem of co-education to the entire satisfac- 
tion of all ; in a country, too, whose customs and general 
sentiment almost precluded the possibility of the idea 
being successfully carried out. 

The following statistics will probably be of interest, as 
showing the great advance made in late years in this first 
authorized step of the Spanish-American woman beyond 
the limits of the domestic circle, there being a large pre- 
ponderance of young women in the normal course prepar 
ing for a professional career : 




Year of founda- 

Buenos Ayres 

Rosario (Province of Santa Fe). 





San Juan 






-San Luis 

Urugfuay (Entro Rios) 




Normal Course. 




School of Appli- 







Year of founda- 



Normal Course. 

School of Appli- 

Parana (Prov. of E. Rios) 

Mercedes (Prov. of B. Ayres).. 

Aiul (Prov. of B. Ayres) 

Dolores (Prov. of B. Ayres)... 
Rio Cuarto - 







•San Nicholas . 

24 323 

La Plata 

25 1 330 


250 , 2,089 


Many of these schools have been or are now tinder the 
direction of teachers from the United States. More than 
thirty American women have found pleasant temporary 
homes among these hospitable people, who were anxious to 
participate in the benefits that a more liberal educational 
system was allowing in the " Great Republic of the North." 


These schools are fitted up with great liberality, often 
housed in fine buildings, containing the most approved 
North American furniture, and costly apparatus from 
France and Germany for the teaching of natural history, 
physics, chemistry, etc. 

The instruction is academic and professional, the course 
for the attainment of the degree of preceptor being now 
four years, and that of professor being six. 

Applicants for admission to the normal course who are 
girls must have attained fourteen years, and must present 
certificates of having passed the common-school course, or 
must pass examination in the common-school branches. 

The kindergarten teaching is being spread with great 
enthusiasm, some of the young ladies devoting themselves 
to a study of its principles and graduating as "professors" 
of kindergarten teaching. 

A great reaction has set in against the teaching of the 
merely ornamental in handwork, and now a thoroughly 
graduated course in sewing, ending in cutting garments 
with mathematical accuracy, forms part of the curriculum 
of the higher girls' schools. 

Manual training has been introduced under the teaching 
of graduates from Mr. Otto Salomon's academy at Naas; 
and, while not properly belonging in an article treating of 
the advancement of women, we can not help indicating here 
the great influence the enthusiasm for this branch of the 
" new education " must have over the future of this country. 
The contempt for labor, which existed all through these 
countries by right of inheritance, is being rapidly eradicated, 
and a wholesome respect for the agricultural and mechan- 
ical arts is springing up, which bids fair to transform the 
unstable condition of this part of the world into one of 
more permanent prosperity. Greater numbers of young 
men are entering the agricultural and veterinary colleges ; 
more are taking engineering courses, and consequently 
fewer graduating as lawyers and physicians. There had 
always been so great a proportion of graduates in these 


liberal professions that many of them had to become merely 
hangers-on in the political field, and often unsatisfied appli- 
cants for political spoils. The leaders of thought look 
forward to the redemption of the country through this new 
trend of educational effort, and hope that with the increased 
prosperity that must come with the exploitation of the 
bountiful natural resources that belong to this portion of 
the earth, and by means of its own sons aiding with intelli- 
gent, well-cultivated direction the crude efforts of the many 
colonists, these latest revolutions will soon come to be the 

Add to this hurried r6sum6 that Argentina, in common 
with nearly all well-established South American countries, 
has enjoyed university education for the favored few since 
the beginning of the century. 

For some years education has been compulsory and gratu- 
itous in Argentina, and the law obliges poor parents, as 
well as employers of children, to prove their more or less 
regular attendance at some center of instruction, either in 
the municipal or rural schools. These are far from being 
equipped as are the normal schools above mentioned, and 
make only a more or less successful attempt at teaching the 
three R's. This teaching is gradually improving, as the 
normal school graduates are spreading out in all directions 
and making their influence felt in favor of better methods 
and more complete instruction. 

Besides these means of education, provided by the national 
and provincial or state governments, there exist many insti- 
tutions founded by the church and working under ecclesi- 
astical supervision, many private schools of a high degree of 
excellence, and a few schools supported through the efforts 
of corporations. 

In the report on education for the Paris Exposition, 
special mention was made of two schools sustained in this 
manner by popular effort in the towns of Goya and Esquina. 

The society of Goya, led by Dr. M. I. Loza, an enthusiast on 
the subject of education as conducted in the United States, 


founded a school for girls which attracted the attention of 
the whole country, as being sustained by the parents them- 
selves who take an active and immediate interest in the 
higher education of their daughters, under the protection of 
their own homes, and without the intervention of the gov- 

Stimulated by the success of this popular venture, Senor 
Ramon Gracia of Esquina initiated a similar movement in 
that town. The results have been most flattering, and thus 
Corrientes boasts of having three educational centers 
directed by North Americans, in which higher education is 
made accessible to a very large proportion of its inhabit- 
ants; the third one is the national normal school in the 
capital city, Corrientes. 

In these popular schools, as they are called, no expense has 
been spared to implant all the newer thought of the day, and 
kindergarten work, manual training, and physical culture 
have been initiated in accordance with the most approved 
methods. Teachers from Sweden are training in wood- 
work, sewing, and physical culture ; and in Goya an enthu- 
siastic graduate from the kindergarten work training-school 
of Parana is directing the attention of parents to the impor- 
tance of this the foundation work in the elevation of the 
human family. 

The annual examinations and exhibitions of these schools 
are veritable educational tournaments, being the great 
event of the year, which all circles of society join in cele- 
brating. The directors hesitate in joining the current of 
opinion tending toward the abolishment of examinations, 
believing that in these towns the direct effect of such exhi- 
bitions is to stimulate parents and children, and that climate 
and modes of living will of themselves prevent any danger 
of overstimulation. 

Corrientes is called the revolutionary province par excel- 
lence, but it can also affirm, with pride, that it is taking an 
advanced place in the evolution which is making for right- 
eousness and better living in all parts of this country ; and 



Argentina may make a similar claim as being the most 
advanced of the South American republics in providing 
educational facilities for the masses, although others may 
equal her in university education. 

Three Argentine women have passed with honors into 
the ranks of the medical profession, two having added to 
their preparation by study in Europe. Doctora Cecilia 
Grierson, now having a large practice in Buenos Ayres, is 
doing pioneer work in educating classes of male and 
female nurses, and actively aiding the propaganda for 
organizing a "Society for First Aid." 

Her efforts are strengthened by the cooperation of* the 
Seiiorita Gracia Lagos and SeSora Dolores L. de Lavalle, a 
member of an old historic family, who is president of the 
ladies' branch of the Red Cross Society, besides being 
prominent in other works of beneficence. 

So in all this southern half of our continent Spanish- 
American women are advancing, and the few who have 
stormed the outworks and striven to attain a place in the 
liberal professions are sustaining their new dignity with 
success, and so illuminating the path for the many who are 
preparing to follow. Among women there are but few 
physicians, dentists, midwives ; fewer lawyers and avowed 
politicians ; but there are many who have achieved a degree 
of prominence in music, painting, and literature. Some 
periodicals in the larger cities are almost wholly conducted 
by women. 

As yet women appear in but few of the telephone and 
telegraph offices, and in comparatively few of the stores 
and shops ; the leveling-up process not having permeated 
the large middle class to a sufficient extent to induce those 
who can not prepare themselves for teaching to leave the 
seclusion of their homes. 

In the statistics of the few countries that have been 
available there has not been noticed any great difference 
between men and women in the compensation for equal 
work done, where both have been employed ; with the very 


noticeable fact that women are not found in the highest 
positions, and therefore are not enjoying the largest 

In recent years the growth and extension of all kinds of 
manufactories have opened larger fields for the entrance of 
women to industrial circles, and as there is ^ome complaint 
as to their lack of business capacity and punctuality, some 
time must elapse before education will become so general 
as to effect results in changing this complaint. 

In the opinion of many, the next step to be taken is to 
provide greater facilities for the superior education of the 
higher classes, and to institute a general system of indus- 
trial education for all throughout the country. 

The time is ripe, men's minds are prepared, theories 
have been advanced, and it can be prophesied that the large 
reforms in this direction will have been commenced by 
women through the elementary efforts beg^n in some parts 
toward teaching poor children to sew. There has even 
been some talk of opening cooking-schools. 

Organization, or association for benevolent purposes 
{nearly always under some phase of religious government), 
has been very generally carried out ; and woman here, as 
all over the world, is the recognized dispenser of charity. 
So far her work has been to feed the hungry and to tend 
the sick and necessitous, without looking farther than 
the momentary needs ; but now, with the growth of better 
modes of living generally, more frequent intercourse with 
other nations, and the spread of greater literary and scien- 
tific knowledge, the spirit of cooperation is gaining strength, 
and a larger philanthropy is being studied, with a view 
to help the unfortunate to be self-helpful. Although still 
largely under the active influence of the church, this 
spirit of association, either from philanthropic motives 
purely or for higher education, is obeying here, as else- 
where, the impulse of to-day for cooperation in all direc- 
tions. Judging by the gigantic strides made toward reforms 
by women here, during the short time since the first steps 


were taken for higher education that made such progpress 
possible, and by the quickness of perception and desire 
for improvement that characterize her, it is not impossible 
that the Spanish-American woman may startle her sisters 
by the advanced position she may be able to assume among 
them when the day shall come for her to be better known. 
At present, communication is so difficult between North 
and South America, and so convenient between North 
America and Europe, that many very intelligent and widely 
traveled persons in the United States have but vague ideas 
of the kind of civilization to be encountered among their 
sister republics. If the culture of a country is to be meas- 
ured by the place woman holds in it, then the more 
advanced of these southern countries must be looked upon 
as possessing the highest and lowest extremes, both in the 
position woman has held and in the promise that is held 
forth as to the position soon to be taken by her. 

The Progress of Women in England — Address Pre- 
pared BY Helen Blackburn of England, Read by 
Harriet Taylor Upton of Ohio. 

The progress of women in England is a large subject to 
be asked to undertake in the brief space of thirty minutes, 
yet the salient points may be indicated by a glance at the 
accompanying diagram, with its various ascents and depres- 
sions, and ascent again.* 

The Saxon period, we must remember, was not one of 
abiding peace — invasions and predatory attacks fill the his- 
tory with records of strife ; therefore, we must expect to find 
the idea which underlies all early systems of jurisprudence, 

*The diagram referred to, a graphic presentation of the progress of 
Englishwomen, is too complex to be reproduced here. The line showing 
the trend of woman's advancement rises so abruptly as to form an almost 
l^erpendicular ascent from the beginning of organized effort among English- 


that the woman is under the protection (mund, to quote the 
Saxon word) of a man, still prevailing in Saxon law. But 
what we also find is that the idea of protection did not 
degenerate into the absolute domination which we find in 
Indian, Greek, and Roman law at a corresponding stage of 
development. There was something in the conditions of 
life in Saxon England which contributed to this. The 
population lived scattered ; they did not congregate in 
camps or walled towns, whence the men went out to fight 
or hunt, but they lived, each household in its own home- 
stead, with its own garden, fields, and share of common 
land. In their daily avocations men and women worked 
side by side, each working into the other s hands, dependent 
on each other for mutual help. There is no country which, 
at a similar stage, seems to have been more favorable to 
women. The Anglo-Saxon girl was left free choice in 
marriage, the Anglo-Saxon mother was guardian of her 
own child, and women filled positions of great respon- 

The figure of Hilda stands out as one of the wisest and 
most saintly women in the whole course of English history. 
" Her prudence was so great," says the venerable Bede, 
" that her advice was sought from far and near, not only by 
ordinary people, but kings and princes sought and found 
counsel from her;" and prelates also, for it was under her 
roof that the ecclesiastical council was held which allayed 
the fierce theological controversy about Easter, which was 
at that time the burning question in the British church. 
The pupils of Hilda's community were trained by her to 
thorough and conscientious study — five who became bishops 
were among her disciples; for she ruled a double com- 
munity of monks and nuns, as did also St. Ebba at Cold- 
ingham, St. Eldreda at Ely, St. Cuthburga at Wimborne — so 
too, a century earlier, Ireland's great St. Brigid at Kildare. 
These facts in themselves indicate the respect in which 
women were held by the church. 

While Hilda thus represents the high place accorded to 


women in religious matters, CEthelflaed is representative of 
their political influence. This ** martial lady," worthy 
daughter of Alfred the King, brought qualities of general- 
ship and statesmanship to bear on her troubled times 
which enabled her to protect and rule her kingdom of 
Mercia, as the old chronicle says, ** with rightful dominion." 
A whole century intervenes between St. Edith of Wil- 
ton and St. Ela of Salisbury, abbess of Lacock. The con- 
quest of England by William of Normandy had meantime 
taken place, ^nd the feudal system had become fully devel- 
oped, with its two predominant ideas of hereditary rights 
and duties and of mutual dependence of classes. These 
conditions are well illustrated in the life of this noble lady, 
who, as heiress of the Earldom of Salisbury, passed the 
title on to her husband, and after his death by appointment 
of the king, Henry III., filled the office, which had been 
filled by both her father and her husband, that of sheriff of 
Wiltshire. Later she became abbess of a convent which 
she had herself founded at Lacock, one of those abbeys 
which were the centers of culture for the young ladies of 
England. In these stately abodes, if they did not learn 
much as we count learning by books, they learned all such 
domestic and healing arts as the knowledge of the day 
afiForded, and the ways and courtesies of a well-regulated, 
digfnified ordering of life. They grew up under the shelter 
of a community which had a distinct place in the life of its 
generation, whose mistress was liable to be summoned to the 
aid of the sovereign, sometimes in camp, sometimes in 
council, and who, in several instances that might be men- 
tioned, herself held manorial courts and had even power of 
life and death. These abbeys then were fit training-places 
for those who themselves would be called on to fill respon- 
sible duties, whether as heads of their husbands' castles, or 
as ladies of the manor, or as custodians of castles. The 
shield on the effigy of the Baroness of Abergavenny marks 
her out in a unique manner as one of those who inherited 
the duties of a knightly position. Such, too, was Elizabeth 


of Clare, Countess of Ulster, and Mary de St. Paul, Countess 
of Pembroke, who are worthy companions of Margaret of 
Anjou and the other women who founded colleges at the 
English universities ; thus illustrating also the appreciation 
of learning which many women shared ; Margaret Beau- 
fort, Countess of Richmond, being the most remarkable 
among these founders, both for her own force of charac- 
ter and as the mother of all the Tudors. There were many 
other women who fulfilled responsible territorial duties. 
Enough has been said to show that the same freer spirit 
which preserved the Saxon woman from the protection 
which is domination pervaded also the feudal period, and 
saved England from adopting the " Salic law.** 

But more than this, in the industrial and commercial 
life of the medieval ages a parallel equality of treatment 
is often to be discerned. The guilds, which form as impor- 
tant a feature of the industrial life of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries as do the friendly societies and trade 
unions of that of the nineteenth century, nearly all included 
women as members, and the ** systren ** are named in their 
regulations along with the " brethren ** as having the same 
claims upon and duties toward the guild. Also, in the 
legislation of those centuries there is no such classification 
to be met with as ** women and young persons," with which 
bur modern factory acts have made us so familiar. In the 
statutes of Henry IV. and Edward IV. it is ** man and 
woman," "father and mother," "son and daughter " that 
we find. Professor Thorold Rogers, in his " Six Centuries 
of Work and Wages," states that the average wages earned 
by a woman in agricultural work now are not more than a 
third of what they earned in relative value four hundred 
years ago. 

Thus the position of women throughout this long period 
of time may be indicated by a fairly level line moving 
upward with the awakening of learning, to culminate in 
the Elizabethan era, when women held the highest place in 
culture that they have held at any time until this present 


generation. There is an assured dignity about the portraits 
of the women of the Tudor period which corresponds well 
with the reputation for learning and for intellectual power of 
so many, of whom Margaret Roper, Mary Sidney, and the 
daughters of Sir Anthony Coke may be cited as representa- 
tives. Even the substantial richness of the dress of the 
Tudor ladies seems in harmony with the substantial char- 
acter of their education. 

But just before this culminating point two institutions of 
the medieval social fabric had been brought to an abrupt con- 
clusion — the monasteries and the guilds. The immediate 
effect of the destruction of such institutions upon society 
was general, but a reflex prejudicial effect on women 
becomes apparent later in the swift decline that took place 
during the hundred years between the death of Queen Eliza- 
beth and the accession of Queen Anne. In this period we 
have not only to reckon with the absence of educational 
and protective institutions, but also with the presence of the 
Puritan spirit, which, with its deep intensity, was limited 
in its horizon. It scorned whatever seemed to savor in the 
least degree of chivalry or of Roman Catholicism ; it dis- 
couraged all that did not harmonize with its dispropor- 
tionate interpretation of scriptural injunctions. 

Of historic women this period yields indeed no mean 
number, but their place in history rests on grounds quite 
different from those of the Tudor period. Able women, 
with a lofty standard of duty, they would have been under 
any circumstances, but the deeds which have earned them 
distinction were drawn forth by the troublous character of 
their time. They show that great individual heroism and 
nobility of character can co-exist with, nay, may be per- 
fected by, the evils which are shattering society. It is the 
lesson of war, a lesson that exalts the individual character 
at the expense of the general well-being. After the resto- 
ration of the house of Stuart, education stood at its lowest 
ebb, for both men and women, between the morbid narrow- 
ness of the Puritan on the one hand and the reaction of a 


corrupt court on the other. What wonder that women of 
ordinary healthy tastes kept quietly to their home circle of 
duties ! There were no stirring events to force them forth ; 
the court repelled them from society, and nothing stimu- 
lated them to new thought or enterprise; nay, rather 
everything was discouraging, as, for instance, the powerful 
remonstrance of Bishop Burnet against the proposition for 
a ladies* college, set forth in the writings of Mary Astell, 
by which that enlightened design was entirely frustrated. 
Mary Astell, was, in truth, the forerunner of the pioneer 
women of a century later. 

It is from this period of decadence that one of the most 
unequal of the laws of England is to be dated. The act of 
Charles II. taking away the court of wards and liveries 
removed the last remnant of the feudal regime and vested 
the sole guardianship of children in the father. In replacing 
the old feudal system of wardship this law simply ignored 
the existence of mothers. Perhaps women had something 
to answer for in this oblivion, but we have already shown 
how surrounded they were by discouragements, and those 
are few at all times who can stand so firmly by their rights 
and by their loyalty as Ann Clifford, Countess of Pembroke, 
Montgomery, and Dorset. And so from the height of the 
Elizabethan the line of the diagram falls below the Saxon 

The next century furnishes little to chronicle. Still, 
though the ensuing years were dead and dull for women, 
the mothers of the men who were laying the foundations 
of Greater Britain, and building up our parliamentary sys- 
tem at home, must in many a quiet home have preserved 

*' An air 
Of life's kind purposes pursued 
With ordered freedom, sweet and fair." 


' Kept their own laws, which seem'd to be 
The fair sum of six thousand years' 
Traditions of civility." 


For here and there — as the portraits of the eighteenth cent- 
ury show — individual women appeared, who, each in her 
own circle, left an abiding mark. Such women become 
more numerous as the century advances ; some marked by 
strong religious faith, like Mrs. Wesley, Mrs. Rowe, Selina, 
Countess of Huntingdon ; some marked by literary capacity, 
like Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle, Elizabeth Carter, 
Mrs. Montague, and the little company of literary women 
associated with them ; some with the reforming spirit, like 
Hannah More and Mary Wollstonecraft. 

As the nineteenth century opens, these pioneer women 
become more numerous. Maria Edgeworth as a novelist is 
accompanied by Fanny Bumey, Jane Austen, Mrs. Radcliffe, 
Miss Porter, and many more ; Maria Edgeworth as a writer 
of juvenile stories finds Mrs. Trimmer, Mrs. Barbauld, 
Anne and Jane Taylof coming up side by side with her. It 
is indeed significant of their discrimination of the true 
value of things that so many of the best women of the time 
devoted so much of their best work to books for children ; 
and here Mrs. Marcet, Mrs. Howitt, and Miss Martineau, 
should be included, for of all the good work they have done 
none is better than the good work they have done for 
young people. 

This period may be described as the period of individual 
workers. Each one of these remarkable women stood alone 
in her work, but with far-reaching influence on the culture 
of the future. And here, also, another significant circum- 
stance calls for notice, that those who have had this wide 
influence have in so many cases had exceptional advantages 
in their own education. It was for women generally, as 
Mrs. Delany wrote, in 1770, ** rather a hardship on our sex 
that we have in general our own education to seek after we 
are grown up — I mean as to mental qualifications." But 
there were some who shared the more robust teaching 
awarded to boys. Lady Mary Wortley Montague received 
the same education as her brother. Elizabeth Carter was 
educated by her father, who made no distinction in the 


Studies of his sons and daughters. Hannah More learned 
much from her father. Maria Edgeworth was her father's 
companion in all his pursuits. Harriet Martineau and 
Mary Carpenter are later instances of the same thing, each 
going to the same school and having the same lessons as 
her brothers. 

Thus individual women were slowly preparing the way to 
a higher level of intellectual culture, and making it possible 
for what in the beginning of the century was the exception, 
to be at the end of the century almost the rule. But mean- 
time the low level to which the standard of interests for 
women in general had fallen had left them defenseless 
against a sweeping stroke of legislation, from which they 
have not yet recovered. The old privilege of voting which 
women had enjoyed in many places under various old local 
franchises had fallen into disuse under the discouragements 
of all the past periods of depression, and this discourage- 
ment was sanctioned and sealed, so to speak, politically, by 
the Reform Act of 1832. The introduction of the one word 
** male *' (before persons) incapacitated women from sharing 
in any of the new privileges of the act. At the time this 
was noticed by only a very few, and a similar stroke followed 
as regards municipal votes in 1835 — yet both acts in reality 
contravened the old traditional principle that a woman 
when placed by birth or circumstances in the position of a 
man should have the rights and duties of that position ; a 
principle by virtue of which, in 1837, Queen Victoria 
ascended the throne. 

The agitations against slavery and against the com laws 
both appealed strongly to women's interests, and both were 
powerful factors in the education of thoughtful minds in 
the first half of this century, and prepared women for the 
associated work in connection with their own progress 
in public interests which is one of the most marked 
features of the second half of this century. From the 
year 1848, when Lady Stanley of Alderly founded Queen's 
College (Harley Street, London) as a school of higher edu- 


cation for girls, the line begins to rise and continues to 
rise rapidly. 

Miss Barbara Leigh Smith (afterward Madame Bodichon) 
wrote her pamphlet, " A Summary of the Laws Relating to 
Women," which contributed much to the progress of thought 
on this subject, in 1854. Her powerful mind brought round 
her a small band of young and earnest women, possessed of 
culture, of ardor, and of independent means, who set their 
heads, their hands and hearts, their money, their strength 
and time, to obtain the amendment of the laws relating to 
married women, to open new avenues of employment for 
women, and to combat false prejudices against women's 
earning for themselves. 

The terrible wrongs which the then existing laws relat- 
ing to the status of married women had brought on a 
lady of such conspicuous talent and high rank as the Hon- 
orable Mrs. Norton had first drawn public attention to the 
crying evil of perpetuating laws which were wholly out of 
harmony with their time and were virtually a survival of 
prefeudal days. The aid of the newly formed association 
for promotion of social science, with Lord Brougham at its 
head, was enlisted ; many petitions were sent to Parliament, 
and the agitation began which by the successive acts of 
1870, 1874, and 1882 has at length placed married women 
on an equitable footing, with respect to property. 

Meantime Miss Leigh Smith and her associated workers, 
foremost among whom were Miss Rayner Parkes, Jessie 
Boucherett, and Adelaide Anne Procter, aided by the sym- 
pathetic counsel of Mrs. Jameson, had in 1858 started the 
Englislnvomen s Journal, the second shilling monthly maga- 
zine in England. In the following year they opened an 
employment and registry office for women. So began what 
may be described as the period of associated effort among 
women. Then as the reform act of 1867 approached, and 
the extension of the parliamentary franchise to householders 
occupied men's minds, these women felt that the time was 
come to make an effort to press the equal claim of women 
to direct representation. 


This agitation drew forth one of those strong characters 
that appear in times of need. As one of the early band of 
workers has said to the writer of this paper, alone they 
never could have borne the shots that greet the advance- 
gfiiard. " She bore the shots ; " her calm judgment, joined 
with an enthusiasm too deep-seated to be daunted, too con- 
trolled to be excited, made Lydia ^ecVier facile princeps the 
general of the women's suffrage movement, and in her 
hands it became the pivot of all the other movements. 

The restoration of municipal rights, the placing of women 
on equal terms with men in the newly constituted school 
boards, followed quickly. The restoration of many old 
educational endowments, the formation of public day- 
schools for girls and of colleges for women, the opening of 
the medical profession, and of university examinations 
were the fruits of the labors of yet others of the pioneers. 
Nor were these the only pioneers. Women like Florence 
Nightingale, who gave the impetus to the great change 
that has come over our nursing ; Miss Weston, whose home 
for sailors last year brought rest and comfort to one 
hundred and fifteen thousand of her majesty's navy ; Miss 
Robinson, whose work for soldiers and for soldiers' families 
is similarly extensive ; Miss Twining, who first called 
attention to the needs of workhouses for more housewifely 
housekeeping ; Mrs. Senior, who proved how the children 
in the nurseries of the state needed "mothering." These, 
and other women working beside them, have given prac- 
tical proof that women have organizing and administrative 
powers that can be of no mean service to the state. 

Already the rising generation of pupils of the new 
schools and colleges are bringing about practical refutation 
of many favorite assertions of what woman should not do, 
and could not do, e. g., they could not master mathematics, 
yet it is the study in which they excel ! They could not 
paint great pictures or compose great music. The works 
exhibited in the Woman's Building tell how far they have 
advanced in both these arts in a few short years of equal 


Study. Well may women work on in the calm and con- 
fidence which are strength. 

A Century of Progress for Women in Canada — An 
Address by Mary McDonnell of Canada, Represent- 
ative OF the Dominion Women's Christian Temper- 
ance Union. 

It is difficult to realize the steady onward march made by 
the women of Canada during the last quarter of a century. 
Before that time women entered very few remunerative 
occupations, but now, with the progress of the modern 
industrial system, there appears to be no limit to their 
opportunities. The active interest women are taking in all 
the great questions of the day is in marked contrast to the 
apathy and indifference of twenty-five years ago. 

Our women have organized missionary, philanthropic, 
temperance, educational, and political associations on a 
scale of great magnitude, without much " blowing of trum- 
pets or unseemly boasting." The Canadian woman's develop- 
ment has been aided very materially by the provincial enact- 
ments, which secured to her increased educational advan- 
tages, municipal and school suffrage, more just and humane 
property rights, as well as a right to enter the professions. 
In securing to women enlarged opportunities, provincial 
law-makers have placed our young nation on a higher 
plane, for it is a well-known fact that the civilization of a 
nation may be ascertained to-day more truly by the eco- 
nomic and social status of its women than by its consump- 
tion of coal, lumber, or pig-iron. 

Therefore, while under heavy obligations to our provin- 
cial Parliament for past favors, we feel that the time has 
come when the question of women's further advancement 
should receive its thoughtful consideration. The woman 
suffrage question is now world-wide, and the women who 
have led the Canadian contingent have had the moral sup- 


port of the best men of Canada. Thus encouraged, we are 
proud to say that we have kept pace with the women of 
other countries. 

But the steps of progress already achieved were not 
gained without a struggle, as the pioneers are ready to 
attest. From the married woman's property act of 1872, 
down to the latest conquest, the right of women to practice 
law, every right claimed has been contested; ridicule, mal- 
ice, indifference, and conservatism have in turn been met 
and surmounted, until now the question of woman's com- 
plete political enfranchisement stands before every legis- 
lative body in Canada, and challenges final consideration. 

In its progress it has benefited all and injured none. 
The right to earn, hold, enjoy, and devise property are 
proud and notable gains. The doors of colleges and uni- 
versities no longer creak their dismay at the approach of 
women. New avenues of self-support have been found 
and profitably entered upon. In public affairs Canadian 
women receive large recognition ; at the present time we 
have women on high and public school boards ; and in the 
management of business affairs women have demonstrated 
to the public that they have heads as well as hearts. 

Every step thus far taken to enlarge the sphere of women 
has been a benefit to her, to man, and to society. We can 
see no good reason for stopping here. Just at this point it 
would be quite in order to consider a few objections met 
with by the advocates of women's enfranchisement in 

Objectors urge disability to perform military service as 
fatal to full citizenship, but would not consent to resign 
their own rights, even when they have passed the age of 
conscription, nor question those of Quakers, who will not 
fight, or of professional men or civic officials, who, like 
mothers, are regarded as of more value to the nation at 
home. They cite the physical superiority of man, but 
would not agree to disfranchise the halt, the lame, the 
blind, or the sick. 


Since questions of peace, of arbitration, and of reconcilia- 
tion have superseded those of war and conquest, physical 
force is at a discount. Reason and justice applied to 
human affairs mark the spirit of the nineteenth century ; 
and, as has been demonstrated recently, wars may be 
avoided with safety and honor to a nation. Many of us 
think that the money now expended on military equipment 
might be diverted into more useful channels. 

Men regard the manly head of the family as its proper 
representative, but would not exclude the adult sons. 

They are dismayed by a vision of women in attendance 
at caucuses at late hours of the night, but enjoy their pres- 
ence at entertainments and balls until early dawn. They 
are shocked at the thought of women at political meetings, 
but in Canada women have attended such meetings for 
years at the earnest solicitation of those in charge, and the 
influence of their presence has been for good. 

The often-urged fear that only the degraded would vote, 
while the intelligent and the virtuous would stand aloof, is 
fully answered by the fact that the former class have never 
asked for the ballot, while the women who ask for full suf- 
frage are from among the most-honored women in Canada. 
Again, it is said that only the strong-minded would vote. 
We can see no objection to this provided the line be drawn 
irrespective of sex. 

Men would not like to see women exposed to the g^oss- 
ness and vulgarity of public life, they tell us, or have her 
encounter the rough element one meets at the polls. When 
we who have mingled among men and women in every 
walk of life hear men talk of sheltering women from the 
rough winds and revolting scenes of real life, we pause 
and wonder if they know whereof they speak, for it seems 
to us that whatever the man may be, he is known to the 
woman. She is the companion not only of the accom- 
plished statesman, the orator, and the scholar, but of the 
vile, the vulgar, yes, and the brutal ; all these classes are 
bound by the ties of family to some women, and if a man 

• ••• 
• •• 

• • • 

•*••• •••• 

••• ••* 

Mrs. John Harvik. 

Lillian M. K. Stevens. 



shows out what he is anywhere, it is at his own hearthstone ; 
besides, the women who have voted for years in municipal 
and school elections attest that even the most degraded 
are a little more manly at the polls than elsewhere. This 
is quite natural, for in the eyes of men women voters rank 
much higher than the disfranchised class. 

Those in power always manifest nervous unrest when- 
ever new claims are made by those out of power, even 
though the request of the claimants may be just and rea- 
sonable. They imagine that if the request of the claimant 
be granted, they must of necessity sacrifice something that 
they already possess ;' they can not divest themselves of 
the idea that individual rights are very much like land, 
stocks, bonds, and mortgages, and that if every new claim- 
ant is satisfied the supply must in time run out, forgetting 
the fact that in this case it is individual rights, and that 
though thousands of women may be deprived of the ballot 
their poverty in this respect does not add to the man's 

We are told that the right of suffrage inheres in the 
people ; women are people. Again, it is said law to bind 
all should be assented to by all ; for that reason women 
should have a voice in selecting those who make the law. 

Men claim the right of the governed and the taxed to a 
voice in determining by whom they shall be governed, and 
to what extent taxed. What justification can be offered for 
the exclusion of women ? Women work in the home, but it 
does not follow that their place is solely in the home, any 
more than that the farmer should never leave his farm, the 
mechanic his shop, the teacher his desk, the clergyman his 
study, or the professional man his office for the purpose of 
expressing his views at the ballot-box. 

It is not enough that men assert the superiority of Cana- 
dian women in intelligence and virtue. We want them to 
consider the gain to the country in their further advance- 

I think that most of us have come to feel that a voice in 



the laws is indispensable. Experience has fully proved to 
us that the influence which we are said to possess is vague 
and somewhat powerless until coined into law, and that 
without a direct voice in legislation women's influence is 
eventually lost. If we have, as is claimed, influence, we 
should also share in the responsibility, even as we now share 
with man in his education, his amusements, his work, and 
his religion. When we are told that politics are unclean, as 
a remedy we would suggest cleaner politicians. We do not 
share in the fears of our opponents that politics will degrade 
women ; on the contrary, we believe that women will purify 
politics. When women vote, the character of candidates wnll 
be more closely scrutinized and better ofiicers will be chosen 
to administer the laws. The polls too will be freed from 
the vulgarity and coarseness which now too often surround 
them, and the polling booths, instead of being in stables and 
kindred places (now thought quite good enough for the 
electorate), would then be located in more attractive centers. 

We believe that when woman takes her place in the body 
politic, politics will be invested with a dignity and serious- 
ness worthy the science of government. 

Man has done well in his onward march, but man alone 
can not grasp the needs of a whole humanity. 

Political questions do not mean merely questions of 
finance, of currency, of tariffs, and of railways. The great 
questions of the future will be economic and social ones. 
Moral questions also are involved, and deeply involved, in 

We often hear it asserted that the voice of the people is 
the voice of God. If that be true the voice of God has 
never yet been heard in human governments, for half the 
race is silent. 


A Century of Progress for Women in Canada — An 
Address by A. M. Blakely of Canada, Representa- 
tive OF THE Dominion Women's Christian Temper- 
ance Union. 

The previous speaker has given such an eloquent and 
exhaustive paper on the progress of women in Canada in 
general that she has not left much for me to say. I shall 
therefore confine my remarks to the women of my own 
northwestern province, Manitoba. 

We have large numbers of bright, intelligent women, who 
have come from some of the best homes of our eastern prov- 
inces. Many of them are decidedly more conservative 
than our American sisters, but are gradually coming to the 
front on the woman question in all its phases. 

We have already municipal and school suffrage. We 
have not yet had a woman elected to a school board, but 
one school district has a lady serving as secretary and 
treasurer. The professions of teaching and medicine are 
open to our women. Our provincial university admits 
women, and from year to year numbers of them take the 
degree of B. A. 

I am sorry to say the legal profession has not yet opened 
its doors to our women. The civil service, however, is open 
to women. In this department we have one bright ex- 
ample. The accountant of the educational department is 
a woman. She has full charge of the disbursement of the 
large legislative grant for our public schools throughout 
the province. She has performed her work in such a way 
as to reflect credit on her sex, and to show that women are 
quite as capable as men of filling such positions. 

I have already said that the women of Manitoba are more 
conservative than the women of the United States. This 
was clearly demonstrated last winter in the city of Winnipeg 
when I was arranging to hold the woman's mock parliament, 
to bring the question of full suffrage for women before the 


people, just previous to petitioning our local legislature for 
the same. 

The idea was a new one. I met with no little opposition. 
Some of our women thought it would be placing ourselves 
in too conspicuous a position to appear before the public as 
a parliament of women. After much difficulty I secured the 
cooperation of twenty-four earnest Christian women. We 
held our mock parliament in the opera house, and conducted 
it in accordance with the rules and regulations of our local 
legislature, with the one exception that we opened the 
session with prayer. We had five clever lady speakers, three 
on the government side and two on the opposition. Of course 
our bill for full franchise was made a government measure. 
The members of our local legislature, which was then in 
session, omitted their own evening session and came in a body 
to our parliament, accepting the front seats, which had been 
reserved for them. They were both surprised and delighted 
with the strong arguments and eloquence of the lady speak- 
ers, and went away thoroughly convinced that our women 
are quite as well qualified as men to conduct a parliament. 
This entertainment did more to educate the people of our 
province on the franchise question than years of ordinary 
agitation could have done. A few days later, when our 
resolution came before the house, not one speaker opposed 
the principle of the resolution. They promised to give us 
full suffrage as soon as they were convinced that women 
really wanted it. They did not wish to impose any added 
responsibility on us that we might not want. Our Canadian 
legislators are so considerate. I presume you find them 
equally so in the United States. 

Our province of Manitoba is still young, and our numbers 
comparatively small, but with the high moral sentiment and 
the courage of their convictions that many of our women 
have we expect and intend to take no second place to any 
province in the Dominion of Canada, or to any state in this 
grand republic, on the woman question. 



Twenty-five years ago a wonderful change came upon 
our women, and the first woman's foreign missionary 
society in Canada was organized in the city of Montreal. 
That society has grown year by year, and has sent mis- 
sionaries all over the face of the earth. It was not denomi- 
national, and three years ago it died a graceful, natural 
death because every single denomination in Canada had 
organized its woman's board of missions. Last year the 
Woman's Board of Missions in connection with the Meth- 
odist church raised thirty-six thousand dollars to send the 
gospel to China and Japan and the Northwest, and this 
year the Woman's Board of Missions in connection with 
the Presbjrterian church has raised fifty-eight thousand 


We have other women in Canada besides white women, 
and I am going to tell you something about the Indian 
women. I visited some Indians two years ago who are 
now in the same condition that the Ontario Indians were 
one hundred years ago. I visited several tribes of Indians 
who in dress and habits were thorough savages. 

The women are intensely fond of their children, and if a 
child dies they cut their legs in long gashes, and go around 
uttering piercing cries of sorrow. To appease the great 
spirit of the sun they chop off their fingers sometimes. I 
saw many women with their fingers chopped off for this 

I saw other Indians who had been in contact with white 
people only a very few years. Something like ten years 


ago they were taken in charge by the government, and 
others have been in contact with civilization for about forty 
years. They live in neat homes and have nice little farms. 
A great many of them can read and write, and they are 
wonderfully advanced when you think it is only forty 
years since they were like the others I have spoken of. 

Coming down to Ontario, let me tell you with pride that 
we have there an Indian woman who is a noted poetess, 
who stands high in literature, whose contributions to 
literature you have often read, I am sure — Pauline Johnson 
by name. She is a great elocutionist^ and is welcomed by 
large audiences wherever she may appear. Her sister, 
also, though not a poetess or an orator, is highly thought of 
in literature, and has contributed to a great many maga- 
zines. To show that these women are not the only ones 
who are advanced, I might say that at our last year's 
missionary meeting two delegates came from an Indian 
woman's missionary society, and although they could not 
understand a word of what was said, a lady interpreted for 
them, and they discussed all the questions and voted just 
as intelligently as any white woman in that audience. 

The Progress of Women in New South Wales — Ad- 



It will perhaps not be surprising to those who see the 
part played by women in the United States to learn that 
in the Australian colonies also women have for some time 
past taken a share in the literary, artistic, and university 
life of our great cities. The principal universities have 
thrown open their doors to women students, who have not 
been slow to avail themselves of the advantages thus 
offered them. There are at present over ninety students 
at the Sydney University, some studying for medical and 
others for art degrees. Two women who obtained the 


degree of M. A. at the Sydney University were last year 
appointed tutors to the women students. There are already 
two women practitioners of medicine in Sydney, who passed 
all their examinations at the Sydney University in a most 
creditable manner. One woman who obtained the degree 
of bachelor in science is now at the head of the Ipswich 
Girls' Grammar School. 

A considerable number of women are now engaged in 
the active pursuit of journalism as a profession, and from 
among them and other women of literary tastes has sprung 
the Women's Literary Society, which, inaugurated in the 
year 1890 with thirteen members, now numbers over a 
hundred, and at its bi-monthly meetings debates on various 
literary and social subjects are held. 

At the recent spring exhibition of the Art Society of 
New South Wales, out of a total of ninety-one exhibitors 
forty-one were women. In music, toward which there is a 
strong leaning throughout Australia, the women of New 
South Wales have not been behindhand. Examinations in 
connection with Trinity College, London, are held annually 
in Sydney, a large proportion of women being among the 
successful candidates. In the Sydney Amateur Orchestral 
Society there are several women among the first and second 

Nor have the women of New South Wales shown them- 
selves behind in their interest in political matters, as is 
proved by the existence of a womanhood suffrage league, 
which was established in 1891, and now numbers close upon 
five hundred members. It may be mentioned that the 
report of this league for 1893 was printed at an ofiice con- 
ducted by women. 

There is also a ladies* sanitary association in Sydney 
which is doing useful work by the dissemination of 
hygienic principles among the poorer classes. 

If this brief record of women's progress in New South 
Wales should seem small and insignificant it must be borne 
in mind that these colonies are, comparatively speaking, 


young, and that it is only within very recent years that 
there has been leisure for the cultivation of the higher 
faculties among either men or women. 

Our Debt to Zurich — Address by Helen D. Webster 
OF Massachusetts, Professor in Wellesley Col- 

This subject, " Our Debt to Zurich," was to have been pre- 
sented by Frau Dr. Emilie Kempin. Frau Doctor Kempin 
does not appear, and I must express my deep regret that she 
is not here. I wish every one of you might hear what we 
all want to know from the lips of Mrs. Kempin, and my 
reason for wishing this is that Frau Doctor Kempin has had 
a remarkable and unique experience at the University of 
Zurich. She is a graduate of the school of law at this 
university. You know the saying that it is an ill wind 
which blows no one good, and it has occurred to me that I 
can make use of her absence to say something about her. 
I was myself a student in the school of philosophy at 
the University of Zurich at the time when Frau Doctor 
Kempin first made her request to be admitted to the depart- 
ment of law at this university as a professor. The request 
was a great surprise to the faculty of the university, and 
immediately, when they were called upon to answer this 
question, they said, " Can we admit a woman to teach our 
men law ? " They referred to their statutes, and there they 
saw that German word " Mann " — only the word " Mann " ; 
only men might teach at the University of Zurich. Then 
there came the question, " Is a woman a man ? " This they 
considered and considered ; and as in every question there 
are two sides, the one side said the German woman is a 
man ; the other side said the German woman is not a man ; 
and the larger number said the latter, and so for a time 
Frau Doctor Kempin was not allowed to read law to the 
university students of Zurich. Did Frau Doctor Kempin 


immediately retire into a corner and say, " Very well ; then 
I can not " ? No. She then said, " I can read lectures of 
law wherever I will." She announced that in the dining- 
room of a neighboring place she would read lectures on 
law ; if students wished to come and hear her they might 
come, and that is what actually happened. She did read 
lectures on law, and there were students who went to 
hear her. After that she came, as doubtless you all know, 
to the United States of America to arouse an interest here 
among women to study law. She remained in New York 
City for two years stirring up the women to do what they 
could toward making a school of law for women. After she 
had finished this work she returned to Zurich, and again 
she put the old question to the faculty of the Univer- 
sity of Zurich, "Will you allow me to read as a Privat 
Decent? '' The question was now for a second time dis- 
cussed. It was discussed by the faculty of the University 
of Zurich ; it was discussed by the authorities on education 
for the Republic of Switzerland, and the answer was, " We 
can not justly exclude women from teaching at the Univer- 
sity of Zurich." Now Doctor Kempin, therefore, is one of 
the faculty of the University of Zurich ; one of the first 
women who ever have taught in a European university — 
at least I will not say ever, but in this nineteenth century. 
And now about our university. Our university, as you 
know through this experience, has done its utmost for 
women ; and what more can a university do than to teach 
women and to give them a chance to teach ? She has shown 
her faith in women by doing them justice, and it is for this 
reason that we have wished to pay to the University at 
Zurich our grateful homage. The position which the uni- 
versity holds toward woman is a most praiseworthy one. 
It is not merely because she admits women to all her 
privileges on the same conditions on which she admits 
men, for in this she is not alone — other institutions do that ; 
but it is because she has done it simply because it is the 
just thing to do. It is not because hosts of women have 


besieged her doors and have clamored for admission until 
she could not do otherwise than admit them, but she has 
done it because it was the simple, the natural, the right 
thing to do, to admit them to the advantages of the student 
and to the privileges of the teacher. 

At the time that the news reached the United States that 
Frau Doctor Kempin had been admitted to the teaching corps 
of the University of Zurich it happened that in the city 
of Boston the president of Harvard University was ad- 
dressing large audiences on the subject of education. In 
one of his lectures he took occasion to say that in women's 
colleges the equipment was poor and the teaching force 
was of an inferior quality; that, although women had 
colleges, yet men had the best colleges. We did not learn 
that this distinguished lecturer brought out this point for 
the sake of showing the unfairness of the condition; we 
did not learn that he himself thought that it ought to be 
otherwise; we did not hear him say that that school 
which has grown up by the side of Harvard University, 
and which has shown itself worthy in every respect, pre- 
eminently worthy to become an organic part of Harvard 
University, ought to share the best things which the men 
of Harvard enjoy. How great the contrast between these 
two great universities ! The women of the world owe it to 
the University of Zurich that she has struck the key-note 
of justice to women, thus making the false note of injustice 
the more distinctly heard around the world. It is not 
merely in the fact that Zurich teaches women, and also 
does not deny them the opportunity to teach in her walls, 
that she has made the women of all the world her debtors. 
It is in what she teaches, no less than in the fact that she 
allows women to learn, that she has made women her 
debtors. She teaches, first of all, the art of plain living 
and high thinking. She teaches devotion to learning and 
to science. It is not on her boat-crews, it is not on her 
trained athletes that she relies for distinction. She does not 
furnish entertainments for the diversion of her students. 


She does not provide amusement for the public in order 
to win public favor. It is in the achievements of her 
ablest professors, in the new recruits which she brings 
to the cause of science, that she crowns her hope. It is in 
truly cultivating her best intellectual power, in propagating 
knowledge, and in extending the bounds of the known 
through original investigation and research, that she looks 
for her success. Let the women of the world rejoice that 
opportunities like these are accessible to them. Let them 
not forget that with all such new privileges which come to 
them their responsibility is so much increased. Let them 
remember that the coming centuries are going to answer 
the question which has been so often asked in the nine- 
teenth century, "Are women capable of performing the 
tasks which require serious effort of the intellect ? " 


Will you permit me to repeat one of the sayings of a dis- 
tingfuished lady who was telling us about the studies and 
the universities of Europe ? I want to repeat this saying 
because I do want you not to misunderstand it, as you 
might. She said that Frau Doctor Kempin of Zurich was 
one of the first ladies to teach in a university of Europe, 
and I want it to be impressed on you that she is not the 
first. The first was Professor Karlensky, Russian born, 
called to Sweden ; and this lady died two years ago, in her 
thirty-fourth year. I think she has achieved as much as 
hundreds of other women together. She obtained the very 
highest prize in mathematics in Paris, and did the work so 
well that the prize was doubled, for they did not know it 
was a woman when they awarded it to her. And she has 
made herself noted as one of the very best novelists of 
Europe ; and when she died she was mourned not only in 
Scandinavia, but to the farthest parts of Europe. 


The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Women 
OF THE United States since the Emancipation 
Proclamation — An Address by Fannie Barrier 
Williams of Illinois. 

Less than thirty years ago the term progress as applied 
to colored women of African descent in the United States 
would have been an anomaly. The recognition of that 
term to^iay as appropriate is a fact full of interesting signifi- 
cance. That the discussion of progressive womanhood in 
this great assemblage of the representative women of the 
world is considered incomplete without some account of the 
colored women's status is a most noteworthy evidence that 
we have not failed to impress ourselves on the higher side 
of American life. 

Less is known of our women than of any other class of 

No organization of far-reaching influence for their special 
advancement, no conventions of women to take note of 
their progress, and no special literature reciting the inci- 
dents, the events, and all things interesting and instructive 
concerning them are to be found among the agencies direct- 
ing their career. There has been no special interest in 
their peculiar condition as native-bom American women. 
Their power to affect the social life of America, either for 
good or for ill, has excited not even a speculative interest. 

Though there is much that is sorrowful, much that is 
wonderfully heroic, and much that is romantic in a peculiar 
way in their history, none of it has as yet been told as evi- 
dence of what is possible for these women. How few of the 
happy, prosperous, and eager living Americans can appre- 
ciable what it all means to be suddenly changed from irre- 
sponsible bondage to the responsibility of freedom and 
citizenship ! 

The distress of it all can never be told, and the pain of it 
all can never be felt except by the victims, and by those 


saintly women of the white race who for thirty years have 
been consecrated to the uplifting of a whole race of women 
from a long-enforced degradation. 

The American people have always been impatient of 
ignorance and poverty. They believe with Emerson that 
" America is another word for opportunity/* and for that 
reason success is a virtue and poverty and ignorance are 
inexcusable. This may account for the fact that our women 
have excited no general sympathy in the struggle to eman- 
cipate themselves from the demoralization of slavery. 
This new life of freedom, with its far-reaching respon- 
sibilities, had to be learned by these children of darkness 
mostly without a guide, a teacher, or a friend. In the mean 
vocabulary of slavery there was no definition of any of the 
virtues of life. The meaning of such precious terms as 
marriage, wife, family, and home could not be learned in a 
school-house. The blue-back speller, the arithmetic, and 
the copy-book contain no magical cures for inherited inapt-, 
itudes for the moralities. Yet it must ever be counted as 
one of the most wonderful things in human history how 
promptly and eagerly these suddenly liberated women 
tried to lay hold upon all that there is in human excel- 
lence. There is a touching pathos in the eagerness of 
these millions of new home-makers to taste the blessedness 
of intelligent womanhood. The path of progress in the 
picture is enlarged so as to bring to view these trustful and 
zealous students of freedom and civilization striving to 
overtake and keep pace with women. whose emancipation 
has been a slow and painful process for a thousand years. 
The longing to be something better than they were when 
freedom found them has been the most notable character- 
istic in the development of these women. This constant 
striving for equality has given an upward direction to all 
the activities of colored women. 

Freedom at once widened their vision beyond the mean 
cabin life of their bondage. Their native gentleness, good 
cheer, and hoi>efulnes5 made them susceptible to those 


teachings that make for intelligence and righteousness. 
Sullenness of disposition,- hatefulness, and revenge against 
the master class because of two centuries of ill-treatment 
are not in the nature of our women. 

But a better view of what our women are doing and 
what their present status is may be had by noticing some 
lines of progress that are easily verifiable. 

First it should be noticed that separate facts and figures 
relative to colored women are not easily obtainable. 
Among the white women of the country independence, 
progressive intelligence, and definite interests have done 
so much that nearly every fact and item illustrative of their 
progress and status is classified and easily accessible. Our 
women, on the contrary, have had no advantage of interests 
peculiar and distinct and separable from those of men that 
have yet excited public attention and kindly recognition. 

In their religious life, however, our women show a pro- 
g^essiveness parallel in every important particular to that 
of white women in all Christian churches. It has always 
been a circumstance of the highest satisfaction to the mis- 
sionary efforts of the Christian church that the colored 
people are so susceptible to a religion that marks the high- 
est point of blessedness in human history. 

Instead of finding witchcraft, sensual fetiches, and the 
coarse superstitions of savagery possessing our women, 
Christianity found them with hearts singularly tender, 
sympathetic, and fit for the reception of its doctrines. 
Their superstitions were not deeply ingrained, but were of 
the same sort and nature that characterize the devotees of 
the Christian faith everywhere. 

While there has been but little progress toward the 
growing rationalism in the Christian creeds, there has been 
a marked advance toward a greater refinement of concep- 
tion, good taste, and the proprieties. It is our young women 
coming out of the schools and academies that have been 
insisting upon a more godly and cultivated ministry. It is 
the young women of a new generation and new inspirations 


that are making tramps of the ministers who once domi- 
nated the colored church, and whose intelligence and piety 
were mostly in their lungs. In this new and growing relig- 
ions life the colored people have laid hold of those sweeter 
influences of the King's Daughters, of the Christian En- 
deavor and Helping Hand societies, which are doing much 
to elevate the tone of worship and to magnify all that there 
is blessed in religion. 

Another evidence of growing intelligence is a sense of 
religious discrimination among our women. Like the 
nineteenth century woman generally, our women find con- 
geniality in all the creeds, from the Catholic creed to the 
no-creed of Emerson. There is a constant increase of this 
interesting variety in the religious life of our women. 

Closely allied to this religious development is their prog- 
ress in the work of education in schools and colleges. For 
thirty years education has been the magic word among the 
colored people of this country. That their greatest need 
was education in its broadest sense was understood by these 
people more strongly than it could be taught to them. It is 
the unvarying testimony of every teacher in the South 
that the mental development of the colored women as well 
as men has been little less than phenomenal. In twenty-five 
years, and under conditions discouraging in the extreme, 
thousands of our women have been educated as teachers. 
They have adapted themselves to the work of mentally lift- 
ing a whole race of people so eagerly and readily that they 
afford an apt illustration of the power of self-help. Not 
only have these women become good teachers in less than 
twenty-five years, but many of them are the prize teachers 
in the mixed schools of nearly every Northern city. 

These women have also so fired the hearts of the race for 
education that colleges, normal schools, industrial schools, 
and universities have been reared by a generous public to 
meet the requirements of these eager students of intelligent 
citizenship. As American women generally are fighting 
against the nineteenth century narrowness that still keeps 


women out of the higher institutions of learning, so our 
women are eagerly demanding the best of education open 
to their race. They continually verify what President 
Rankin of Howard University recently said, " Any theory 
of educating the Afro-American that does not throw open 
the golden gates of the highest culture will fail on the 
ethical and spiritual side." 

It is thus seen that our women have the same spirit and 
mettle that characterize the best of American women. 
Everywhere they are following in the tracks of those 
women who are swiftest in the race for higher knowledge. 

To-day they feel strong enough to ask for but one thing, 
and that is the same opportunity for the acquisition of all 
kinds of knowledge that may be accorded to other women. 
This granted, in the next generation these progressive 
women will be found successfully occupying every field 
where the highest intelligence alone is admissible. In less 
than another generation American literature, American 
art, and American music will be enriched by productions 
having new and peculiar features of interest and excellence. 

The exceptional career of our women will yet stamp itself 
indelibly upon the thought of this country. 

American literature needs for its greater variety and its 
deeper soundings that which will be written into it out of 
the hearts of these self-emancipating women. 

The great problems of social reform that are now so 
engaging the highest intelligence of American women will 
soon need for their solution the reinforcement of that new 
intelligence which our women are developing. In short, 
our women are ambitious to be contributors to all the great 
moral and intellectual forces that make for the greater weal 
of our common country. 

If this hope seems too extravagant to those of you who 
know these women only in their humbler capacities, I would 
remind you that all that we hope for and will certainly 
achieve in authorship and practical intelligence is more 
than prophesied by what has already been done, and more 

OcTAViA Williams Bates. 
Mary McDonnel. Sigrih Storckenfeldt. 


that can be done, by hundreds of Afro-American women 
whose talents are now being expended in the struggle 
against race resistance. 

The power of organized womanhood is one of the most 
interesting studies of modem sociology. Formerly women 
knew so little of each other mentally, their common inter- 
ests were so sentimental and gossipy, and their knowledge 
of all the larger affairs of human society was so meager 
that organization among them, in the modern sense, was 
impossible. Now their liberal intelligence, their contact 
in all the great interests of education, and their increasing 
influence for good in all the great reformatory movements 
of the age has created in them a greater respect for each 
other, and furnished the elements of organization for large 
and splendid purposes. The highest ascendancy of woman's 
development has been reached when they have become 
mentally strong enough to find bonds of association inter- 
woven with sympathy, loyalty, and mutual trustfulness. 
To-day union is the watchword of woman's onward march. 

If it be a fact that this spirit of organization among 
women generally is the distinguishing mark of the nine- 
teenth century woman, dare we ask if the colored women of 
the United States have made any progress in this respect ? 

For peculiar and painful reasons the great lessons of 
fraternity and altruism are hard for the colored women to 
learn. Emancipation found the colored Americans of the 
South with no sentiments of association. It will be admit- 
ted that race misfortune could scarcely go further when the 
terms fraternity, friendship, and unity had no meaning for 
its men and women. 

If within thirty years they have begun to recognize the 
blessed significance of these vital terms of human society, 
confidence in their social development should be strengfth- 
ened. In this important work of bringing the race together 
to know itself and to unite in work for a common destiny, 
the women have taken a leading part. 

Benevolence is the essence of most of the colored 



women's organizations. The humane side of their natures 
has been cultivated to recognize the duties they owe to 
the sick, the indigent and ill-fortuned. No church, school, 
or charitable institution for the special use of colored 
people has been allowed to languish or fail when the asso- 
ciated efforts of the women could save it. 

It is highly significant and interesting to note that these 
women, whose hearts have been wrung by all kinds of sor- 
rows, are abundantly manifesting those gracious qualities 
of heart that characterize women of the best type. These 
kinder sentiments arising from mutual interests that are 
lifting our women into purer and tenderer relationship to 
each other, and are making the meager joys and larger griefs 
of our conditions known to each other, have been a large 
part of their education. 

The hearts of Afro-American women are too warm and 
too large for race hatred. Long suflfering has so chastened 
them that they are developing a special sense of sympathy 
for all who suffer and fail of justice. All the associated 
interests of church, temperance, and social reform in which 
American women are winning distinction can be wonder- 
fully advanced when our women shall be welcomed as 
co-workers, and estimated solely by what they are worth to 
the moral elevation of all the people. 

I regret the necessity of speaking to the question of the 
moral progress of our women, because the morality of our 
home life has been commented upon so disparagingly and 
meanly that we are placed in the unfortunate position of 
being defenders of our name. 

It is proper to state, with as much emphasis as possible, 
that all questions relative to the moral progress of the col- 
ored women of America are impertinent and unjustly sug- 
gestive when they relate to the thousands of colored 
women in the North who were free from the vicious influ- 
ences of slavery. They are also meanly suggestive as 
regards thousands of our women in the South whose force 
of character enabled them to escape the slavery taints of 


immorality. The question of the moral progress of colored 
women in the United States has force and meaning in this 
discussion only so far as it tells the story of how the once- 
enslaved women have been struggling for twenty-five years 
to emancipate themselves from the demoralization of their 

While I duly appreciate the oflfensiveness of all refer- 
ences to American slavery, it is unavoidable to charge to 
that system every moral imperfection that mars the char- 
acter of the colored American. The whole life and power 
of slavery depended upon an enforced degradation of 
everything human in the slaves. The slave code recog- 
nized only animal distinctions between the sexes, and 
ruthlessly ignored those ordinary separations that belong 
to the social state. 

It is a great wonder that two centuries of such demorali- 
zation did not work a complete extinction of all the moral 
instincts. But the recuperative power of these women to 
regain their moral instincts and to establish a respectable 
relationship to American womanhood is among the earlier 
evidences of their moral ability to rise above their condi- 
tions. In spite of a cursed heredity that bound them to the 
lowest social level, in spite of everjrthing that is unfortu- 
nate and unfavorable, these women have continually shown 
an increasing degree of teachableness as to the meaning of 
woman's relationship to man. 

Out of this social purification and moral uplift have come 
a chivalric sentiment and regard from the young men of 
the race that give to the young women a new sense of pro- 
tection. I do not wish to disturb the serenity of this con- 
ference by suggesting why this protection is needed and 
the kind of men against whom it is needed. 

It is sufficient for us to know that the daughters of 
women who thirty years ago were not allowed to be mod- 
est, not allowed to follow the instincts of moral rectitude, 
who could cry for protection to no living man, have so ele- 
vated the moral tone of their social life that new and purer 


Standards of personal worth have been created, and new 
ideals of womanhood, instinct with grace and delicacy, are 
everywhere recognized and emulated. 

This moral regeneration of a whole race of women is no 
idle sentiment — it is a serious business ; and everywhere 
there is witnessed a feverish anxiety to be free from the 
mean suspicions that have so long underestimated the char- 
acter strength of our women. 

These women are not satisfied with the unmistakable fact 
that moral progress has been made, but they are fervently 
impatient and stirred by a sense of outrage under the vile 
imputations of a diseased public opinion. 

Loves that are free from the dross of coarseness, affec- 
tions that are unsullied, and a proper sense of all the sancti- 
ties of human intercourse felt by thousands of these women 
all over the land plead for the recognition of their fitness to 
be judged, not by the standards of slavery, but by the higher 
standards of freedom and of twenty-five years of education, 
culture, and moral contact. 

The moral aptitudes of our women are just as strong and 
just as weak as those of any other American women with 
like advantages of intelligence and environment. 

It may now perhaps be fittingly asked. What mean all these 
evidences of mental, social, and moral progress of a class of 
American women of whom you know so little ? Certainly 
you can not be indifferent to the growing needs and impor- 
tance of women who are demonstrating their intelligence 
and capacity for the highest privileges of freedom. 

The most important thing to be noted is the fact that the 
colored people of America have reached a distinctly new 
era in their career so quickly that the American mind has 
scarcely had time to recognize the fact, and adjust itself 
to the new requirements of the people in all things that 
pertain to citizenship. 

Thirty years ago public opinion recognized no differences 
in the colored race. To our great misfortune public opinion 
has changed but slightly. History is full of examples of 


the great injustice resulting from the perversity of public 
opinion, and its tardiness in recognizing new conditions. 

It seems to daze the understanding of the ordinary citizen 
that there are thousands of men and women everywhere 
among us who in twenty-five years have progressed as far 
away from the non-progressive peasants of the ** black belt " 
of the South as the highest social life in New England is 
above the lowest levels of American civilization. 

This general failure of the American people to know the 
new generation of colored people, and to recognize this 
important change in them, is the cause of more injustice to 
our women than can well be estimated. Further progress 
is everywhere seriously hindered by this ignoring of their 

Our exclusion from the benefits of the fair play senti- 
ment of the country is little less than a crime against the 
ambitions and aspirations of a whole race of women. The 
American people are but repeating the common folly of 
history in thus attempting to repress the yearnings of pro- 
gressive humanity. 

In the item of employment colored women bear a dis- 
tressing burden of mean and unreasonable discrimination. 
A Southern teacher of thirty years' experience in the South 
writes that " one million possibilities of good through black 
womanhood all depend upon an opportunity to make a 

It is almost literally true that, except teaching in colored 
schools and menial work, colored women can find no employ- 
ment in this free America. They are the only women in 
the country for whom real ability, virtue, and special talents 
count for nothing when they become applicants for respect- 
able employment. Taught everywhere in ethics and social 
economy that merit always wins, colored women carefully 
prepare themselves for all kinds of occupation only to meet 
with stern refusal, rebuff, and disappointment. One of 
countless instances will show how the best as well as the 
meanest of American society are responsible for the special 
injustice to our women. 


Not long ago I presented the case of a bright young 
woman to a well-known bank president of Chicago, who was 
in need of a thoroughly competent stenographer and type- 
writer. The president was fully satisfied with the young 
woman as exceptionally qualified for the position, and 
manifested much pleasure in commending her to the direct- 
ors for appointment, and at the same time disclaimed that 
there could be any opposition on account of the slight 
tinge of African blood that identified her as a colored 
woman. Yet, when the matter was brought before the 
directors for action, these mighty men of money and busi- 
ness, these men whose prominence in all the great interests 
of the city would seem to lift them above all narrowness 
and foolishness, scented the African taint, and at once 
bravely came to the rescue of the bank and of society by 
dashing the hopes of this capable yet helpless young woman. 
No other question but that of color determined the action 
of these men, many of whom are probably foremost mem- 
bers of the humane society and heavy contributors to 
foreign missions and church extension work. 

This question of employment for the trained talents of 
our women is a most serious one. Refusal of such employ- 
ment because of color belies every maxim of justice and 
fair play. Such refusal takes the blessed meaning out of 
all the teachings of our civilization, and sadly confuses our 
conceptions of what is just, humane, and moral. 

Can the people of this country aflford to single out the 
women of a whole race of people as objects of their special 
contempt ? Do these women not belong to a race that has 
never faltered in its support of the country's flag in every 
war since Attucks fell in Boston's streets ? 

Are they not the daughters of men who have always 
been true as steel against treason to everything funda- 
mental and splendid in the republic? In short, are these 
women not as thoroughly American in all the circumstances 
of citizenship as the best citizens of our country ? 

If it be so, are we not justified in a feeling of desperation 


against that peculiar form of Americanism that shows re- 
spect for our women as servants and contempt for them 
when they become women of culture? We have never 
been taught to understand why the unwritten law of chiv- 
alry, protection, and fair play that are everywhere the con- 
servators of women's welfare must exclude every woman 
of a dark complexion. 

We believe that the world always needs the influence of 
every good and capable woman, and this rule recognizes no 
exceptions based on complexion. In their complaint against 
hindrances to their emplo3mient colored women ask for no 
special favors. 

They are even willing to bring to every position fifty per 
cent more of ability than is required of any other class of 
women. They plead for opportunities untrammeled by 
prejudice. They plead for the right of the individual to be 
judged, not by tradition and race estimate, but by the pres- 
ent evidences of individual worth. We believe this country 
is large enough and the opportunities for all kinds of success 
are g^eat enough to afford our women a fair chance to earn 
a respectable living, and to win every prize within the reach 
of their capabilities. 

Another, and perhaps more serious, hindrance to our 
women is that nightmare known as "social equality." The 
term equality is the most inspiring word in the vocabulary 
of citizenship. It expresses the leveling quality in all the 
splendid possibilities of American life. It is this idea of 
equality that has made room in this country for all kinds 
and conditions of men, and made personal merit the 
supreme requisite for all kinds of achievement. 

When the colored people became citizens, and found it 
written deep in the organic law of the land that they too 
had the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, 
they were at once suspected of wishing to interpret this 
maxim of equality as meaning social equality. 

Everywhere the public mind has been filled with constant 
alarm lest in some way our women shall approach the social 


sphere of the dominant race in this countr)^ Men and 
women, wise and perfectly sane in all things else, become 
instantly unwise and foolish at the remotest suggestion of 
social contact with colored men and women. At every turn 
in our lives we meet this fear, and are humiliated by its 
aggt'essiveness and meanness. If we seek the sanctities of 
religion, the enlightenment of the university, the honors of 
politics, and the natural recreations of our common country, 
the social equality alarm is instantly given, and our aspira- 
tions are insulted. " Beware of social equality with the col- 
ored American " is thus written on all places, sacred or pro- 
fane, in this blessed land of liberty. The most discouraging 
and demoralizing effect of this false sentiment concerning 
us is that it utterly ignores individual merit and discredits 
the sensibilities of intelligent womanhood. The sorrows 
and heartaches of a whole race of women seem to be 
matters of no concern to the people who so dread the social 
possibilities of these colored women. 

On the other hand, our women have been wonderfully 
indifferent and unconcerned about the matter. The dread 
inspired by the growing intelligence of colored women has 
interested us almost to the point of amusement. It has 
given to colored women a new sense of importance to wit- 
ness how easily their emancipation and steady advance- 
ment is disturbing all classes of American people. It may 
not be a discouraging circumstance that colored women can 
command some sort of attention, even though they be mis- 
understood. We believe in the law of reaction, and it is 
reasonably certain that the forces of intelligence and char- 
acter being developed in our women will yet change mis- 
trustfulness into confidence and contempt into sympathy 
and respect. It will soon appear to those who are not 
hopelessly monomaniacs on the subject that the colored 
people are in no way responsible for the social equality 
nonsense. We shall yet be credited with knowing better 
than our enemies that social equality can neither be 
enforced by law nor prevented by oppression. Though 


not philosophers, we long since learned that equality before 
the law, equality in the best sense of that term under our 
institutions, is totally different from social equality. 

We know, without being exceptional students of history, 
that the social relationship of the two races will be adjusted 
equitably in spite of all fear and injustice, and that there 
is a social gravitation in human affairs that eventually over- 
whelms and crushes into nothingness all resistance based 
on prejudice and selfishness. 

Our chief concern in this false social sentiment is that 
it attempts to hinder our further progress toward the higher 
spheres of womanhood. On account of it, young colored 
women of ambition and means are compelled in many in- 
stances to leave the country for training and education in 
the salons and studios of Europe. On many of the rail- 
roads of this country women of refinement and culture are 
driven like cattle into human cattle-cars lest the occupying 
of an individual seat paid for in a first-class car may result 
in social equality. This social quarantine on all means of 
travel in certain parts of the country is guarded and 
enfotced more rigidly against us than the quarantine regu- 
lations against cholera. 

Without further particularizing as to how this social 
question opposes our advancement, it may be stated that 
the contentions of colored women are in kind like those of 
other American women for greater freedom of develop- 
ment. Liberty to be all that we can be, without artificial 
hindrances, is a thing no less precious to us than to women 

We come before this assemblage of women feeling con- 
fident that our progress has been along high levels and 
rooted deeply in the essentials of intelligent humanity. 
We are so essentially American in speech, in instincts, in 
sentiments and destiny that the things that interest you 
equally interest us. 

We believe that social evils are dangerously contagious. 
The fixed policy of persecution and injustice against a class 


of women who are weak and defenseless will be necessarily 
hurtful to the cause of all women. Colored women are 
becoming more and more a part of the social forces that 
must help to determine the questions that so concern 
women generally. In this Congress we ask to be known 
and recogfnized for what we are worth. If it be the high 
purpose of these deliberations to lessen the resistance to 
woman's progress, you can not fail to be interested in our 
struggles against the many oppositions that harass us. 

Women who are tender enough in heart to be active in 
humane societies, to be foremost in all charitable activities, 
who are loving enough to unite Christian womanhood 
everywhere against the sin of intemperance, ought to be 
instantly concerned in the plea of colored women for jus^ 
tice and humane treatment. Women of the dominant race 
can not afford to be responsible for the wrongs we suffer, 
since those who do injustice can not escape a certain 

But there is no wish to overstate the obstacles to colored 
women or to picture their status as hopeless. There is na 
disposition to take our place in this Congress as faultfinders 
or suppliants for mercy. As women of a common country, 
with common interests, and a destiny that will certainly 
bring us closer to each other, we come to this altar with our 
contribution of hopefulness as well as with our complaints. 

When you learn that womanhood everywhere among 
us is blossoming out into greater fullness of everything 
that is sweet, beautiful, and good in woman ; when you 
learn that the bitterness of our experience as citizen-women 
has not hardened our finer feelings of love and pity for our 
enemies; when you learn that fierce opposition to the 
widening spheres of our employment has not abated the 
aspirations of our women to enter successfully into all the 
professions and arts open only to intelligence, and that 
everywhere in the wake of enlightened womanhood our 
women are seen and felt for the good they diffuse, this 
Congress will at once see the fullness of our fellowship, and 


help US to avert the arrows of prejudice that pierce the soul 
because of the color of our bodies. 

If the love of humanity more than the love of races and 
sex shall pulsate throughout all the grand results that shall 
issue to the world from this parliament of women, women 
of African descent in the United States will for the first 
time begin to feel the sweet release from the blighting 
thrall of prejudice. 

The colored women, as well as all women, will realize that 
the inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of hap- 
piness is a maxim that will become more blessed in its 
significance when the hand of woman shall take it from its 
sepulture in books and make it the gospel of every-day life 
and the unerring guide in the relations of all men, women, 
and children. 


The higher fruits of civilization can not be extemporized, 
neither can they be developed normally, in the brief space 
of thirty years. It requires the long and painful growth of 
generations. Yet all through the darkest period of the 
colored women's oppression in this country her yet unwrit- 
ten history is full of heroic struggle, a struggle against 
fearful and overwhelming odds, that often ended in a 
horrible death, to maintain and protect that which woman 
holds dearer than life. The painful, patient, and silent toil 
of mothers to gain a fee simple title to the bodies of their 
daughters, the despairing fight, as of an entrapped tigress, 
to keep hallowed their own persons, would furnish material 
for epics. That more went down under the flood than 
stemmed the current is not extraordinary. The majority 
of our women are not heroines — but I do not know that a 
majority of any race of women are heroines. It is enough 
for me to know that while in the eyes of the highest tribu- 


nal in America she was deemed no more than a chattel, an 
irresponsible thing, a dull block, to be drawn hither or 
thither at the volition of an owner, the Afro-American 
woman maintained ideals of womanhood unshamed by any 
ever conceived. Resting or fermenting in untutored minds, 
such ideals could not claim a hearing at the bar of the 
nation. The white woman could at least plead for her own 
emancipation ; the black woman, doubly enslaved, could but 
suffer and struggle and be silent. I speak for the colored 
women of the South, because it is there that the millions of 
blacks in this country have watered the soil with blood and 
tears, and it is there too that the colored woman of America 
has made her characteristic history, and there her destiny is 
evolving. Since emancipation the movement has been at 
times confused and stormy, so that we could not always tell 
whether we were going forward or groping in a circle. 
We hardly knew what we ought to emphasize, whether 
education or wealth, or civil freedom and recognition. We 
were utterly destitute. Possessing no homes nor the 
knowledge of how to make them, no money nor the habit 
of acquiring it, no education, no political status, no influence, 
what could we do ? But as Frederick Douglass had said in 
darker days than those, " One with God is a majority," and 
our ignorance had hedged us in from the fine-spun theories 
of agnostics. We had remaining at least a simple faith that 
a just God is on the throne of the universe, and that some- 
how — we could not see, nor did we bother our heads to try 
to tell how — he would in his own good time make all right 
that seemed most wrong. 

Schools were established, not merely public day-schools, 
but home training and industrial schools, at Hampton, at 
Fiske, Atlanta, Raleigh, and other central stations, and 
later, through the energy of the colored people themselves, 
such schools as the Wilberforce, the Livingstone, the Allen, 
and the Paul Quinn were opened. These schools were 
almost without exception co-educational. Funds were too 
limited to be divided on sex lines, even had it been ideally 


desirable ; but our girls as well as our boys flocked in and 
battled for an education. Not even then was that patient, 
untrumpeted heroine, the slave-mother, released from self- 
sacrifice, and many an unbuttered crust was eaten in silent 
content that she might eke out enough from her poverty 
to send her young folks off to school. She "never had 
the chance," she would tell you, with tears on her withered 
cheek, so she wanted them to get all they could. The work 
in these schools, and in such as these, has been like the lit- 
tle leaven hid in the measure of meal, permeating life 
throughout the length and breadth of the Southland, lift- 
ing up ideals of home and of womanhood ; diffusing a 
contagious longing for higher living and purer thinking, 
inspiring woman herself with a new sense of her dignity in 
the eternal purposes of nature. To-day there are twenty- 
five thousand five hundred and thirty colored schools in the 
United States with one million three hundred and fifty- 
three thousand three hundred and fifty-two pupils of both 
sexes. This is not quite the thirtieth year since their eman- 
cipation, and the colored people hold in landed property 
for churches and schools twenty-five million dollars. Two 
and one-half million colored children have learned to read 
and write, and twenty-two thousand nine hundred and 
fifty-six colored men and women (mostly women) are teach- 
ing in these schools. According to Doctor Rankin, Presi- 
dent of Howard University, there are two hundred and 
forty-seven colored students (a large percentage of whom 
are women) now preparing themselves in the universities 
of Europe. Of other colleges which give the B. A. course 
to women, and are broad enough not to erect barriers 
against colored applicants, Oberlin, the first to open its 
doors to both woman and the negro, has given classical 
degrees to six colored women, one of whom, the first and 
most eminent, Fannie Jackson Coppin, we shall listen to 
to-night. Ann Arbor and Wellesley have each graduated 
three of our women ; Cornell University one, who is now 
professor of sciences in a Washington high school. A 


former pupil of my own from the Washington High School, 
who was snubbed by Vassar, has since carried off honors 
in a competitive examination in Chicago University. The 
medical and law colleges of the countrj'- are likewise bom- 
barded by colored women, and every year some sister of 
the darker race claims their professional award of "well 
done." Eminent in their profession are Doctor Dillon and 
Doctor Jones, and there sailed to Africa last month a 
demure little brown woman who had just outstripped a 
whole class of men in a medical college in Tennessee. 

In organized efforts for self-help and benevolence also 
our women have been active. The Colored Women's 
League, of which I am at present corresponding secretary, 
has active, energetic branches in the South and West. The 
branch in Kansas City, with a membership of upward of 
one hundred and fifty, already has begun under their vigor- 
ous president, Mrs. Yates, the erection of a building for 
friendless girls. Mrs. Coppin will, I hope, herself tell you 
something of her own magnificent creation of an industrial 
society in Philadelphia. The women of the Washington 
branch of the league have subscribed to a fund of about 
five thousand dollars to erect a woman's building for 
educational and industrial work, which is also to serve 
as headquarters for gathering and disseminating general 
information relating to the efforts of our women. This is 
just a glimpse of what we are doing. 

Now, I think if I could crystallize the sentiment of my 
constituency, and deliver it as a message to this congress of 
women, it would be something like this: Let woman's 
claim be as broad in the concrete as in the abstract. We 
take our stand on the solidarity of humanity, the oneness of 
life, and the unnaturalness and injustice of all special favor- 
itisms, whether of sex, race, country, or condition. If one 
link of the chain be broken, the chain is broken. A 
bridge is no stronger than its weakest part, and a cause is 
not worthier than its weakest element. Least of all can 
woman's cause afford to decry the weak. We want, then, 


as toilers for the universal triumph of justice and human 
rights, to go to our homes from this Congress, demanding 
an entrance not through a gateway for ourselves, our race, 
our sex, or our sect, but a grand highway for humanity. 
The colored woman feels that woman's cause is one and uni- 
versal ; and that not till the image of God, whether in parian 
or ebony, is sacred and inviolable ; not till race, color, sex, 
and condition are seen as the accidents, and not the sub- 
stance of life ; not till the universal title of humanity to 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is conceded to be 
inalienable to all ; not till then is woman's lesson taught and 
woman's cause won — not the white woman's, nor the black 
woman's, nor the red woman's, but the cause of every 
man and of every woman who has writhed silently under 
a mighty wrong. Woman's wrongs are thus indissolubly 
linked with all undefended woe, and the acquirement of her 
^'rights" will mean the final triumph of all right over 
might, the supremacy of the moral forces of reason, and 
justice, and love in the government of the nations of earth. 



This conference can not be indifferent to the history of 
the colored women of America, for if we have been able to 
accomplish anything whatever in what are considered the 
higher studies, or if we have been able to achieve anything 
by heroic living and thinking, all the more can you achieve 
it. It is an unanswerable argument for every woman's 
claim. If we fight the battle, all the more can you win it. 
Therefore you know this is not simply a side issue in which 
you feel that out of consideration for a certain class of peo- 
ple you ask them to give the history of their life. I have 
often thought of you when the battle went hard with me, 
and when it was impossible for me to gain the encourage- 
ment I might have gained by looking upon the faces of 


the best people of America ; for whatever may be said of 
what we have had to suffer in this country, we have never 
had to suffer from the best people. The opposition, and the 
trials, and the oppression and depression and suppression 
have always come from the middle and lower classes, and 
that has grown out of their very poor education. And now 
what is the hope for the future ? Every hope. 

I wish by no means to be among that class of people that 
counsel words without knowledge. We, as a people, have 
suffered greatly from what may be termed the "sizing up," 
and the regulation "putting down," and setting forth of 
what it was possible for us to do. 

Our idea of getting an education did not come out of 
wanting to imitate any one whatever. It grew out of the 
uneasiness and the restlessness of the desires we felt within 
us ; the desire to know, not just a little, but a great deal. 
We wanted to know how to calculate an eclipse, to know 
what Hesiod and Livy thought ; we wished to know the 
best thoughts of the best minds that lived with us; not 
merely to gain an honest livelihood, but from a God-given 
love of all that is beautiful and best, and because we thought 
we could do it. 

If black girls can calculate equations and logarithms as I 
saw them doing yesterday, how much more could you with 
your higher inheritance do ? Do you consider that you owe 
us an obligation for that ? 

There was a single word used in the address that I heard 
this evening that I can not hear without having permission 
to reply. What is that word ? We, as you know, are classed 
among the working people, and so when the days of slavery 
were over, and we wanted an education, peoole said, " What 
are you going to do with an education ? " You know your- 
selves you have been met with a great many arguments of 
that kind. Why educate the woman — what will she do with 
it ? An impertinent question, and an unwise one. Rather 
ask, " What will she be with it ? " We are getting a better 
education all through America. I can not think that the 


selfishness, the discourtesy that would push down a poor, 
weak, innocent creature because it could not protect itself 
will long remain in America. It is bound to succumb to the 
better education that is everywhere being given, till people 
will call it after awhile by its right name, viz.: very bad man- 
ners. Nobody can be considered well-bred who would cause 
an inoffensive traveler to leave the table to himself. 

At the close of Mrs. Coppin's remarks the audience 
insisted upon hearing from Hon. Frederick Douglass, who 
was present upon the platform. Mr. Douglass spoke as 
follows : * 

I have heard to night what I hardly expected ever to live 
to hear. I have heard refined, educated colored ladies 
addressing — and addressing successfully — one of the most 
intelligent white audiences that I ever looked upon. It 
is the new thing under the sun, and my heart is too full to 
speak; my mind is too much illuminated with hope and 
with expectation for the race in seeing this sign. 

Fifty years ago and more I was alone in the wilderness, 
telling my story of the wrongs of slavery, and imploring 
the justice, the humanity, the sympathy, the patriotism, 
and every other good quality of the American heart 
to do away with slavery; and you can easily see that 
when I hear, such speeches as I have heard this 
evening from our women — our women — I feel a sense 
of gratitude to Almighty God that I have lived to 
see what I now see. It seems to me that we are not liv- 
ing in the old world I was bom into, but in the one seen by 
John in the apocalyptic vision. A new heaven is dawning 
upon us, and a new earth is ours, in which all discriminations 
against men and women on account of color and sex is 
passing away, and will pass away ; and as John said there ' 

* Mr. Douglass was the only man who, after the opening session, spoke 
in the General Congress. The occasion was of such historical significance 
that the editor feels justified in reproducing Mr. Douglass' address here, 
notwithstanding the published declaration that no one would be permitted 
to speak in the congress whose name did not appear on the programme. 


would be no more sea after they had been surrounded on 
that desolate island so long, so I say there is a time coming 
when prejudices, discriminations, proscriptions, and perse- 
cutions on account of what is accidental will all pass away, and 
this great country of ours will be possessed by a composite 
nation of the grandest possible character, made up of all 
races, kindreds, tongues, and peoples. 

Dear friends, I am full and you are full. You have heard 
more to-night than you will remember, perhaps, but the 
grand spirit which has proceeded from this platform will 
live in your memory and work in your lives always. 

The Organized Efforts of the Colored Women of 
THE South to Improve Their Condition — An 
Address by Sarah J. Early of Tennessee. 

In this age of development and advancement all the 
forces which have been accumulating for centuries past 
seem to be concentrated in one grand effort to raise man- 
kind to that degree of intellectual and moral excellence 
which a wise and beneficent Creator designed that he 
should enjoy. No class of persons is exempt from this 
great impulse. The most unlettered, the most remote and 
obscure, as well as the most refined and erudite seem to 
have felt the touch of an unseen power, and to have heard 
a mysterious voice calling them to ascend higher in the 
scale of being. It is not a strange coincidence, then, that 
in this period of restlessness and activity the women of all 
lands should simultaneously see the necessity of taking a 
more exalted position, and of seeking a more effective way 
of ascending to the same plane, and assuming the more 
responsible duties of life with her favored brother. 

In organization is found all the elements of success in 
any enterprise, and by this method alone are developed the 
force and ability that have reared the grand structure of 
human society. God intended that man should be a social 


being, for he has given to no one individual the genius to 
construct by his efforts alone the complex edifice. 

Step by step, as the dark cloud of ignorance and supersti- 
tion is dispelled by the penetrating rays of the light of eter- 
nal truth, men begin to think, and thought brings revolu- 
tion, and revolution changes the condition of men and leads 
them into a happier and brighter existence. So have the 
great revolutions of the age affected the condition of the 
colored people of the Southern States, and brought them into 
a more hopeful relation to the world. When they emerged 
from the long night of oppression, which shrouded their 
minds in darkness, crushed the energies of their soul, robbed 
them of every inheritance save their trust in God, they 
found themselves penniless, homeless, destitute, with thou- 
sands of aged and infirm and helpless left on their hands to 
support, and poverty and inexperience prevailing every- 
where. To improve their social condition was the first 
impulse of their nature. For this purpose they began imme- 
diately to organize themselves into mutual aid societies, the 
object of which was to assist the more destitute, to provide 
for the sick, to bury the dead, to provide a fund for orphans 
and widows. These societies were the beginning of their 
strength, the groundwork of their future advancement and 
permanent elevation. They were constructed with admira- 
ble skill and harmony. Excellent charters were secured, and 
the constitution and by-laws were adhered to with remark- 
able fidelity. The membership increased rapidly, and the 
funds in the treasuries grew daily. The women, being 
organized separately, conducted their societies with wonder- 
ful wisdom and forethought. Their influence for good 
was felt in every community, and they found themselves 
drawn together by a friendly interest which greatly 
enhanced the blessings of life. Their sick and dead and 
orphans have been properly cared for. Thus our people 
have shown a self-dependence scarcely equaled by any other 
people, a refined sensibility in denying themselves the 
necessities of life to save thousands of children from want 


and adults from public charity ; in screening them from the 
stinging arrows of the tongue of slander and the carping 
criticisms of a relentless foe. 

These organizations number at least five thousand and 
carry a membership of at least a half-million women. They 
have widened into State societies, and some of the stronger 
bodies into national organizations, meeting in annual assem- 
blies to transact business and to discuss their future well- 
being. They have in some States built and sustained 
orphans' homes, and in others purchased their own ceme- 
teries. They have built commodious halls for renting pur- 
poses ; they have assisted in building churches and other 
benevolent institutions. They have granted large death 
benefits, and thus provided homes for many orphan children, 
and have deposited large sums in savings banks for future 
use. Should the question be asked what benefit has accrued 
from these organized efforts, we answer, much in every way. 
Their organizations have bound the women together in a 
common interest so strong that no earthly force can sever it. 
Organization has taught them the art of self-government^ 
and has prepared the way for future and grander organiza- 
tions. By their frequent convocations and discussions their 
intellectual powers have been expanded and their judgment 
has been enlightened. Organization has given hope for a 
better future by revealing to colored women their own exec- 
utive ability. It has stimulated them to acquire wealth by 
teaching them to husband their means properly. It has 
intensified their religion by giving them a more exalted 
idea of God through a constant survey of his goodness and 
mercies toward them. It has refined their morality through 
adherence to their most excellent constitutions and by- 
laws. It has assisted in raising them from a condition of 
helplessness and destitution to a state of self-dependence 
and prosperity ; and now they stand a g^and sisterhood, 
nearly one million strong, bound together by the strongest 
ties of which the human mind can conceive, being loyal to 
their race, loyal to the government, and loyal to their God. 


Having thus provided for their future well-being, their 
attention was turned to the spread of the gospel. With 
hearts glowing with the love of God, they longed to assist 
in building up his kingdom on earth. Many devout women 
joined themselves into missionary societies to obtain means 
with which to send the gospel to other parts of the world 
more destitute than their own. They were auxiliary to 
the churches of various denominations, and multiplied until 
their scanty donations amounted to sums sufficient to accom- 
plish much good in the Master's cause. On the women's 
part in the African Methodist Episcopal church they have 
donated the sum of thirty thousand dollars, and a like 
amount in each of the five other leading denominations. 
The Presbyterian Home and Foreign Missionary Society sus- 
tains missions in West Africa, the West Indies, the Bermuda 
Islands, South America, and the islands of Hayti and St. 
Thomas. The home missions of the various denomina- 
tions occupy the time of more than one thousand ministers. 
About the year 1890 the women of the African Methodist 
Episcopal church formed a mite missionary society, which 
has its auxiliary branches all over the Union. They now 
labor assiduously for the advancement of the foreign mis- 
sions they had prayed for. They believe in him who 
blessed the widow's mite, and who pronounced a divine 
benediction on the modest disciple who had done what she 

This organization raises two thousand dollars annually, 
sustaining two or three missionaries in Hayti, and assists in 
the Bermuda and West African missions. The aggregate 
of all the money raised annually by the colored churches 
amounts to over half a million of dollars, and by far the 
greater share is raised by the women. 

Many a benighted heathen has heard the gospel through 
their instrumentalities. By their efforts they themselves 
have become better informed concerning the gospel, and 
better acquainted with the world and its inhabitants. In 
trying to raise others they have learned to look up from 


their toilsome and abject present to a brighter and more 
glorious future. They have learned to exalt the goodness 
of God as manifest in the sanctification of their work to 
his honor and glory. This has raised in them a holy ambi- 
tion to accomplish greater good for their fellow-men. 

The colored women of the Southern States have not 
been indifferent to the necessity of guarding their homes 
against the pernicious influences of the drinking system. 
They have begun to fortify themselves against the most 
powerful of all enemies — strong drink. Woman's Chris- 
tian temperance unions have been formed in all Southern 
States, into which many hundreds have gathered, who work 
with much patience and diligence. Hospital work, prison 
work, social purity, and flower mission work, and the dis- 
tribution of literature among all classes of persons have 
been performed faithfully, and many erring and destitute 
souls have felt the tenderness and shared the bounty of the 
benevolent hearts and ready hands of the colored women 
of the Woman's Christian Temperance Unions. 

These organizations have accomplished much in forming 
temperance sentiment among the people and in the 
churches, and have helped materially in changing votes at 
the polls for prohibition. 

Again, when this fair land was distracted by contending 
factions, and military forces left desolation and ruin in their 
pathway, while enemies met in deadly conflict on the fields 
of battle, the expiring soldier longed for the soothing touch 
of woman's hand, and his heart yearned for the consoling 
words of woman's prayer. It was then on the blood- 
drenched field that the colored women showed the deepest 
sympathy for suffering humanity and the highest valor 
and loyalty by stanching the bleeding wounds, and cooling 
the parched lips with water, and raising the fainting head, 
and fanning the fevered brow, and with tender solicitude 
watching by the dying couch, and breathing the last prayer 
with him who had laid down his life for his country. The col- 
ored men often endangered their lives by passing the line 


of the enemy to carry messages to the officers of the Union 
army, so that a part of the army was saved not once nor 
twice but often by their daring valor. And when her loyal 
and chivalric brothers, of whose loyalty and valor she was 
justly proud, returned from the conflict with halting limbs 
and shattered frames, and victory perched on their banners, 
they were content to lie down and die, and leave their wid- 
ows and orphans to the care of a merciful God and their 
brave comrades. When the women of the nation proposed 
to form relief corps to assist the needy comrades of the 
Grand Army of the Republic and care for their orphans 
and widows, the colored women did not hesitate, but when 
opportunity offered they organized, and they have many 
active and industrious corps accomplishing much noble 
work, in assisting the needy, decorating graves, presenting 
flags to schools, and in many ways instilling patriotism. 

If we compare the present condition of the colored people 
of the South with their condition twenty-eight years ago, 
we shall see how the organized efforts of their women have 
contributed to the elevation of the race and their marvelous 
advancement in so short a time. When they emerged from 
oppression they were homeless and destitute ; now they are 
legal owners of real estate to the value of two hundred and 
sixty-three millions of dollars. Then they were penniless, 
but now they have more, than two millions in bank. In 
several States they have banks of their own in successful 
operation, in which the women furnish the greater number 
of deposits. Then they had no schools, and but few of 
the people were able to read ; now inore than four millions 
of their women can read. Then they had no high schools, 
but now they have two hundred colleges, twenty-seven of 
which are owned and conducted by their own race. 

These feeble efforts at organization to improve our con- 
dition seem insignificant to the world, but this beginning, 
insignificant as it may seem, portends a brighter and nobler 
future. If we in the midst of poverty and proscription 
can aspire to a noble destiny to which God is leading all his 


rational creatures, what may we not accomplish in the day 
of prosperity ? 

Hark ! I hear the tramp of a million feet, and the sound 
of a million voices answer, we are coming to the front ranks 
of civilization and refinement. 

Five hundred thousand girls and young women are now 
crowding our schools and colleges; they are forming 
literary societies. Young Women's Christian Associations, 
Christian Endeavor Societies, bands of King's Daughters, 
and with all the appliances of modem civilization which 
have a tendency to enlighten the mind and cultivate the 
heart, they will emerge into society, with all their acquired 
ability, to perfect that system of organization among their 
race of which they themselves are the first fruits. 



For two hundred and fifty years the negro woman of 
America was boujg^ht and sold as a chattel. The sacred ties 
of wife and mother were broken and disdained. Side by 
side with the men of her race she toiled in the dank rice- 
swamps, in the cotton-fields, and the lone cane-brakes. She 
tilled the soil of her so-called master, enlarged his estates, 
heaped his coffers with shining gold, and filled his home 
with the splendors of the world. 

In character she was patient, sympathetic, and forgiving. 
She was counted but little higher than the brute creation 
that surrounded her, and was said to possess neither a brain 
nor a soul. Scourged by the hard hand of the slave-driver, 
and suffering every privation, there fell upon her a help- 
lessness born of despair ; but with an implicit trust and an 
unswerving faith in God, she caught the glinting light from 
the peak of freedom's day. 

The thoughts of a slave insurrection and the horrors of 


St. Domingo were in the mind of Longfellow when he 
penned these lines : 

There is a poor blind Samson in the land« 
Shorn of his strength and bound in bars of steel, 

Who may, in some grim revel, raise his hand 
And shake the pillars of the commonweal 

Till the great temple of our liberties 

A shapeless mass of wreck and ruin lies. 

But our own Frances Harper, who championed the cause 
of the oppressed in the early anti-slavery days, sang with 
lips and tongue touched by a live coal : 

Yes, Ethiopia shall stretch 

Her bleeding hands abroad; 
Her cry of agony shall reach 

The burning throne of God. 
Redeemed from dust and free from chains 

Her sons shall lift their eyes. 
From cloud-capped hills and verdant plains 

Shall shouts of triumph rise. 

When the first low mutterings from Fort Sumter were 
heard, hope sprang up within the negro woman's breast, and 
when by an eternal fiat the gyves and chains on wrists and 
ankles were broken she stepped forth, her body scarred and 
striped by the lash, her intellect dwarfed and sunken into 
piteous ignorance, without money, clothes, or home — but 
a free woman. 

With freedom's first sweet draught came the thirst for 
knowledge. The drowsy intellect awoke under gracious 
influences to find itself possessed of powers hitherto 

In 1865 Major-General O. O. Howard was appointed com- 
missioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, and the bread of life 
was given to these hungry, starving souls. Never in the 
history of the world was there manifested on the part of 
any people such an earnest desire to obtain an education. 
Five years later the general made his report. It was full of 
interest. There were enrolled ninety-one thousand five 


hundred pupils, more than half of whom were women and 
girls. Mothers, gray-haired and bent with age, sat with the 
children poring over the spelling-book and reader. 

Twenty-five years of progpress find the Afro-American 
woman advanced beyond the most sanguine expectations. 
Her development from darkest slavery and grossest igno- 
rance into light and liberty is one of the marvels of the age. 
Her friends and enemies united in declaring that she would 
die out under the higher refining influences of Christian 
civilization ; but through unremitting exertions she has 
climbed to elevated planes, accepting all which dignifies 
and refines, and flourishing under it. 

The negro woman has made greater progress education- 
ally than in any other direction. We favor this as an intel- 
ligent choice, a wise decision, for what trade, profession 
or vocation in life may be entered upon without the basis of 
scholastic education? Moreover, it prepares her for her 
important duty in home economy, since she must mold the 
men of the future. 

A score or more of our women have entered upon jour- 
nalism. Some have reached greater heights, and rank as 
authors of distinction ; and we point with pride to Frances 
Harper's " lola Leroy," while Anna Cooper gives *' no un- 
certain sound " in ** A Voice from the South." 

A poor orphan girl, left alone at an early age and forced 
to battle with the world, visited the city of Boston. As she 
gazed upon the statue of Franklin she became conscious of 
a latent power, and the genius within her cried out when 
she exclaimed, " I can make a stone man ! " William Lloyd 
Garrison, the champion of human rights, came to her assist- 
ance, and in her studio at Rome Edmonia Lewis has con- 
verted the unpolished stone into fine statues. " Madonna 
with the Infant Christ, " " Hagar in the Wilderness, " and a 
life-size statue of Phillis Wheatley, the African poetess, 
attest her powers. 

Europe, Asia, and Africa have heard the story of the 
cross sung and told by the sweet voice of Amanda Smith, 


the ** singing pilgrim " of the race. In the darkness of the 
night-hour her lonely hut was made resplendent with the 
glory of another world, and the pent-up sorrow of a race 
was breathed out in songs that are immortal. 

We may go to Austria for the music of a Mozart, to Bel- 
gium for that of a Beethoven, to Germany for that of a Han- 
del and a Wagner, but when these countries call back to 
this land to produce her national music she must turn to 
the lowly slave, with the grand note of sadness resounding 
in her melodies, the reverberations of personal sufferings, 
as the only music truly and purely native American. 

It was asserted that the negro was brutal, revengeful, 
murderous ; and " the constant fear of an uprising " kept 
alert the vigilant patrol. In a distant city the Abolitionists 
were holding a meeting. Mr. Douglass, in his unrivaled 
eloquence, had graphically depicted the condition of the 
country and the gloomy outlook for the slave. In the lull 
that followed his earnest, burning words, Sojourner Truth 
calmly asked, ** Frederick, is God dead ? '* These words of 
that black woman changed the whole tenor of that meeting, 
and they realized that God was not dead, but marching on, 
conquering and to conquer. 

We hear Sojourner Truth, the black sibyl, prophesying 
the downfall of slavery when not a ray of light penetrated 
the gloom, when all hope seemed gone. In her own 
native ruggedness and homely but powerful eloquence she 
met in debate and defeated the solons of the Michigan 
Legislature. Her faith was sublime. 

But let us make a tour of the Southland where the teem- 
ing millions are ; pause and inspect the schools of learning 
and the industrial schools, where thousands of young 
women are receiving an education in art, science, litera- 
ture, and handicraft. The mill and the factory are verit- 
able hives of industry. The age and the race demand 
skilled labor, educated labor. The girls of the South are 
realizing that with a common education and a trade they are 
superior to the girl who completes the academic course and 


neglects the training of her hand. The girls of the South 
are realizing that they must refute the dark prophecies 
concerning the race by lives of integrity and chastity. 
To this end they have organized among themselves various 
societies, such as Young Woman's Christian Associations, 
Woman s Christian Temperance Unions, the King's Daugh- 
ters, the Christian Endeavor, homes for orphans, for the 
aged and infirm, and many benevolent societies for the 
amelioration of the condition of the poor and helpless about 
them. I have come to this Congress to represent the 
women of the black belt of Alabama, black not on account 
of its numerous dark-skinned inhabitants, but black because 
of its ignorance, superstition, and degradation. Ten years 
ago B. T. Washington founded a school at Tuskegee which 
has served as the one beacon-light in all that land of dark- 
ness. More than six hundred pupils have studied there. 

Three hundred earnest girls bade me God-speed as I left 
them to come to this Congress. And if you would have a 
slight idea of the work they can do, they instructed me to 
say that you should look at the gown their representative 
wears, made by girls who six months ago could handle only 
the hoe and the plow. The whistle of the engine, the ring 
of the hammer, the buzz of the saw, the spinning of the 
wheel serve as music and inspiration to this school. 

The gospel of honorable manual labor sinks into the 
mind with every stitch that is taken, with every nail that is 
driven. The dignity of labor is taught with every lesson 
in domestic econofny, cooking, dressmaking, tailoring, nurse- 
training, and carpentry. 

What more is needed ? 

Time and an equal chance in the race of life. 

Ages of savagery and centuries of bondage weakened the 
intellect and dwarfed the faculties. The proper develop- 
ment of the mind, like the formation of character, must 
come by a slow and steady growth. What are thirty years 
in the history of a nation ? It is but a day since Freedom 
blew her blast proclaiming liberty to the slave. The sound 


of the cannon's breath has scarcely died upon the passing 
breeze; the smoke of the battle-field has hardly cleared 
away ; the earth seems yet to tremble *' neath the mighty 
tread of Sherman's march to the sea." 

Talk not of the negro woman's incapacity, of her inferi- 
ority, until the centuries of her hideous servitude have been 
succeeded by centauries of education, culture, and refine- 
ment, by which she may rise to the fullness of the stature 
of her highest ideal. 

God speed the day when the white American woman, 
strengthened by her wealth, her social position, and her 
years of superior training, may clasp hands with the less 
fortunate black woman of America, and both unite in 
declaring that " God hath made of one blood all nations of 
men for to dwell on all the face of the earth." 

Woman's War for Peace — An Address by Nico Beck- 
Meyer of Denmark. 

Peace ! What is peace ? It is not rest, but growth. Peace 
is the condition which will be brought on when love is 
reigning and justice is fulfilled. The best of all ages have 
been dreaming about this perfect time to come. That is 
what is meant by the prophecy that people of every race 
and denomination shall gather together under the shadow 
of the tree of life, that the lion and the lamb shall lie down 
together, and the sword shall be put away forever. The 
most solemnly beautiful peace-hymn ever written was born 
, of the Gothic nation, and written in the old northern lan- 
guage. Those warriors before whose weapons Rome and 
Paris were trembling had still, deep in the consciousness of 
the nation, preserved the inheritance from the childhood of 
the race. 

When the Gothic tribes left Asia they brought with them 
as the common inheritance of humankind the beautiful 
philosophy of truth and justice as reigning powers, of peace 


as the end of all. It was laid down in their mythology and 
their folk-lore; that they never lost their inheritance in 
their cold northern home this peace-hymn will show. The 
hymn is part of the great poem, " The Old Edda/' and the 
last part of it tells how the world will look when human- 
kind has reached its destination. 

This poem was born centuries back in the early time of 
the Gothic nations ; it was written down in the language 
then common to Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, and was 
found in the thirteenth century in an old convent in Ice- 
land. Who the author was nobody knows certainly — prob- 
ably a man ; but if it was a man it was one who had loved 
a woman whose soul-life was peace. 

Such were the dreams and vaguely felt ideas of the 
human race, but it was ^iiffiing--«lojvly, as a child grows 
from childhood to manhood ; and the age of peace will be 
the last to be reached, as the ages of love and justice must be 
passed through first. The countries of the Old World were 
drenched in blood ; it was admitted to be a great calamity, 
still it was even by the best thought a necessary evil. The 
first time when history tells us how a woman lifted her 
voice against war was at the seven years' war in Europe, 
when the army of Frederick the Great had made the state 
of Mecklenburg almost a desert. The Princess Anna Char- 
lotte of Mecklenburg wrote an earnest letter to King Fred- 
erick, showing him the inhumanity in war, and imploring 
him to spare her country. The letter moved the old war- 
rior so that he withdrew his army from her country and 
sent her letter to his ally. King George the Third of Eng- 
land, at that time crown prince. The prince made up his 
mind that he wanted the woman who wrote the letter for 
his wife. Anna Charlotte became the Queen of England, 
and made the nation forget for awhile that the Hanoverian 
kings were not always a blessing to the country. 

The nineteenth century came, with its fuller understand- 
ing of love and justice, and the nations were at last awak- 
l ened to understand what it meant that peace should reign. 


Now what position did the Danish nation, which gave to 
the world this classic peace-hymn, take in the war for peace 
when the other nations woke up ? 

About eight years ago ten persons were sitting around 
the table in the parlor of Mrs. Olesen, one of the Danish 
delegates to the congress. They called themselves mem- 
bers of the Danish Peace Union. The founder of the 
union was a member of the Danish Parliament, Frederick 
Bajer, afterward vice-president of the Universal Peace 
Union. But many a time has he been heard to say that if 
his wife had not stood unflinchingly by his side he did not 
know how he ever should have kept up the work, laughed at 
and derided as the peace cause was at that time in Denmark. 
There those ten members met week after week, through 
months and years, around the table, half-ashamed, some- 
times hardly daring to look at each other ; still they could 
not and would not give up. 

Those ten members kept on meeting until they became 
twenty, until they became one hundred. When they were 
strong enough they called from Norway the great author, 
BjSrnstjeme Bj5mson, an earnest peace friend. He spoke 
so loud that the Danish women were aroused, and from 
that moment the peace cause has gone from victory to 

From the room with the ten half-ashamed members, we 
turned our eyes this last April to the king's palace, where a 
deputation walked in carrying an address asking the king 
to give the peace cause his consideration. The address 
was signed with but three thousand names, but we are a 
nation of only two millions. 

Between the modest room and the king's palace lay the 
work of the Danish women. Addresses were sent to mothers 
to work in home and school for the cause ; lectures were 
given all over the country. Mrs. Johanna Meyer, president 
of the Danish Women's Progressive Association, did espe- 
cially good work. 

Once more Bj5mstjeme Bj5mson had been called to 


Denmark. The meeting was arranged to be in one of 
the great forests belonging to the government, a forest 
which always was used for public meetings. People came 
from every part of the country, but at the last moment 
officials of the government refused to lend the forest for 
this purpose. The immense assemblage turned away^ 
promising themselves that the joy of the day should not be 
taken away from them on that account. Wading along the 
dusty roads, they gathered on a plowed field, with their feet 
deep in the soil, the rays of the sun over their heads ; and 
they forgot time and place listening to the words of the 
mighty orator. After that it was that a movement for an 
address to the king was started. It was not really expected 
that the king would sign himself as a member of the Peace 
Union ; the nation wanted only to show how its heart was 
with the peace cause. 

Now it must be remembered that American women have 
your glorious constitution, your free institutions to work 
under. If we compare the work of Danish and of American 
women, we must consider that everjrthing must be looked 
at amidst its surroundings. We can not tear a thing away 
from its place and arrive at a true view of its qualities, its 
power of life. We must look at things in the soil where 
they are bom, with the light and shadow over them under 
which they have existed. If we do thus, we shall see that 
the Danish woman has done noble work for the peace cause, 
as for all other causes of progress. We all know that the 
women of England and France have worked for the peace 

Thoughts are flying invisibly in the air around us, unit- 
ing to do their silent work, a creating power which can not 
be resisted. They come from the Pacific coast and reach 
the soul of some one in New England, calling forth half- 
bom thoughts, turning them into words and deeds. 

What an intellectual age with its great inventions, its 
tools and machinery, never could do, a spiritual age, created 
through woman's unity with man, will carry out. We might 


then ask, ** What country will be the first to carry the peace 
cause to victory?" Some may guess England or France ; I 
say the United States ought to be the country to do it. 

You, with the liberty for which centuries have cried, with 
a language which is that of the world, with the strength 
and intellect of the oldest nations transplanted into your 
young veins, with the soil of an Eden, with tools and outward 
forces to make you the lords of the earth — what is it really 
you intend to do with it all? To whom a great deal is 
given, of him a great deal shall be asked. You owe more 
to the nations of the world than the display of your 
machinery and tools, your railroads and bridges, and all 
the wonders of your Fair. You owe them even more than 
to show them a Fair where woman's work stands side by 
side with man's. You owe to the whole human race that 
liberty for all, that peace among men, that human life in the 
fullest sense to every human being who shall be bom inside 
your borders. 

If this spirit should be shown throughout the immense 
vastness of this country, corrupt political struggle would 
cease, capital's poisoning breath would be swept away, a 
new era would be born to mankind. The only cosmopoli- 
tan nation is the nation that can do it ; the only cosmo- 
politan nation, and yet a nation with so strong an individu- 
ality that it has power to assimilate all other nationalities. 
When, then, are all those things going to be fulfilled? 
When the American woman — she who shall bring to us the 
spiritual age, she who edits a paper like T/ie Parthenon — 
when she gets her vote. May the hours before morning be 
short ! 

Woman's War for Peace — Address by Rev. Amanda 
Devo of Pennsylvania, Representative of the 
Universal Peace Union. 

I stand before you as the representative of the Universal 
Peace Union. This association has thirty branch societies 




in America and six branch societies in Europe. Frederika 
Meyer, of whom my sister from Denmark spoke, I had the 

^^leasure of meeting at our World's Peace Congress in 1889, 
at which there were one hundred representatives from the 
various peace societies of the world. Now peace is so good 
a thing that we do not expect it is going to come of itself, 
without any effort on our part. I am glad ^r heavenly 
Father has held us, as women, back from participation in 
government until we can come with our souls drinking in 
the mighty power of the gospel, of the living truths of 

vf^hteousness. The word of God shall go forth, and it 
shall not return void— t ha t is^the^reat truth given us by 
the prophets of old. It is seconded by the great truth of 
Christ, " If ye love me keep my commandments ; and these 
commandments give I unto you, that ye love one another." 
Why should we not as women, from Denmark, from all 
the nations of the world, raise our voices and in one mighty 
chorus say : " God has given to man the power of reason, 
and judgment, and understanding, and we demand the set- 
tlement of the disputes of the world by arbitration; the 
settlement of all national and international differences shall 
be had through these mighty powers of the human soul." 

Now let me tell you how this society of the Universal 
Peace Union sprang into existence. When the War of the 
Rebellion was going on, the great American Peace Society 
of Boston said, " It is a mob ; we must take right hold and 
-help put it down." Lucretia Mott, the grand old Quaker, 
said : *' No ; war is never right ; war I can not take part in." 
William Lloyd Garrison said the same ; and right in the 
height of the rebellion was bom the Universal Peace Union. 
. Our president, who has occupied the chair for twenty-five 
j^ars, Alfred H. Love, was seated in the chair as presi- 
dent, with the benedictions of William Lloyd Garrison ; and 
his hand was clasped by Lucretia Mott. And so, friends, our 
^rork has gone on, reaching out into every State. 

r I beg of you that you place your names upon this petition 

\ asking the nations of the world for the establishment of a 


court of arbitration, which the Government of the United 
States has the privilege of calling together through Presi- 
dent Cleveland. How did this privilege come to him ? for 
it has been only of recent date that he has had such power 
put into his hands. The power to call together the war forced 
must come from a vote of Congress. It is now possible td 
call together the peace forces of the world for the establish-1 
ment of a permanent court of arbitration in which shall he\ 
settled all the differences of the various nations. This is 
one of the greatest privileges of the President of the United 
States of America to-day. It has come about in this way : 

In the English Parliament there arose a resolution of this 
sort, praying the United States Government to speedily 
organize a court of arbitration, with representatives from 
Great Britain, France, and the nations of Europe, who with 
the United States would enter into a league of peace, 
promising solemnly never to settle their differences in any 
other way than by arbitration. But you know how the great 
armies of Europe stood there like horrid nightmares in the 
way of this great advancement in human progress. , They 
said, " We can not start this, but you, the great republic of 
free America, you have the privilege." 

Peace is the strongest known protest against every known 
wrong in the world, and when you men and women fold 
your arms and say firmly, " We will have nothing to do with 
war," then peace will come. I tell you the Quakers have^ 
given us an example in their religion. They organized / 
themselves without killing anybody ; they maintained the 
government of the State of Pennsylvania for a period of/ 
seventy years without any one being killed. Now that is[ 
a precedent for all times. If you have any doubt that peace' 
is a greater power for good than war, look to William Penn, 
with his idea of justice and righteousness by which he 
maintained peace through those seventy years. 

When there comes a time for men to go to war they do 
not call for men with crooked backs, or with teeth out, or 
eyesight impaired, or any sort of blemish, but they take 


the men of brawn and muscle, strong and perfect, and place 
them to be shot down by their fellow-men. It is not to-day 
the survival of the fittest, it is not the strong man pitted 
against another strong man, but it is the strong man, the 
flower of the land, pitted against the horrible enginery of 
war. It is men against instruments; men against the 
dynamite bomb ; men against electricity. The very horrid 
enginery of war to-day makes men reflect and not go into 
war readily. 



Is not this world's congress an earnest of the bond of 
sympathy and fellowship which shall be established among 
all nations and among all men ? I would like only to say 
that as woman is a sufferer through the ravages of war, 
it is but meet that woman should unite her best efforts in 
the bringing in of 'that glorious time when even nature 
shall feel the influence of peace ; when " the lion and the 
lamb shall lie down together," and the liberty that comes 
from goodness and kindness shall confirm the prophecy. 
This seems to me the outline of a Utopian dream, the 
vision of an idealist, but yet " the mouth of the Lord of 
Hosts hath spoken it." 

Woman as an Explorer — Address by May French- 
Sheldon OF Pennsylvania. 

An apostle has certain tenets of faith to expound or to per- 
petuate, and may advance a cause and belief with zealous 
fervor, having fixed upon the basis of his arguments. 

Every time a woman takes the initiative and ventures to 
step out from the circumscribed ranks of her conventional 
sphere ; every time she defies tradition and prejudice, achiev- 
ing by earnest effort, ability, and self-dedication a new sue- 


cess, she thereby sets aside some of the many limitations that 
possibly were appropriate to the women of the Middle Ages, 
but certainly can not apply to the educated, progressive, able 
women of the present day. 

Woman needs must make great personal sacrifices, sub- 
due her inherent sensitiveness, and meet the adverse criti- 
cisms of not only the opposite sex, but likewise the narrow- 
minded of her own sex. Too frequently she is denounced 
as unwomanly or fond of notoriety ; her real motives are 
questioned. When she first seeks to solve some of the 
vital problems of life apart from the leadership of men, 
when she makes a new departure, she is confronted on all 
sides by the query, " To what purpose ? " albeit she has done 
a work the benefit of which will be shared measurably by 
all other women, if indeed not by all mankind. 

History grudgingly relates the lives of noble women who 
at some most critical period rendered a service securing 
everlasting fame to the world's most renowned heroes. 
However, if other proof were wanting, the present Woman's 
Congress is pregnant with the assurance that ability is sex- 
less. Under the same conditions, with the same physical 
training, similar education, same environment, animated by 
the same impulse, given the same opportunity, the sex is a 
matter of indifference. 

No one doubts woman's moral courage or powers of 
endurance and marvelous adaptability to circumstances; 
and while she may have no ambition to be a competitor 
with man, she now desires to have her work placed in jux- 
taposition with his, to work shoulder, to shoulder beside 
man, and with him, or even alone, and to wear well-merited 
laurels without feeling that she is insulted by having honors 
bestowed upon her simply because she is a woman, or on 
the contrary by having them withheld because she is a 

Until exploration can be entirely peaceful, I think I may 
say with assurance that exploration by women, although 
possible, will be rare. 


I would rather that women be regarded as pioneers than 
as explorers, and wish, if a woman accompanies her hus- 
band, as many brave women have done, and by her devo- 
tion helps him to win laurels, that she at least may share the 

A difficulty in a woman's taking the leadership in an 
exploring party is found in the fact that she would have 
none of her own sex to cooperate with her. At first sight 
there seems a contradiction between the natural delicacy of 
a woman and the work of an explorer. My own experience^ 
however, as an explorer is a proof that a woman may be a 
leader in an exploring expedition. But I can not discuss 
the subject without entering into personalities that have no 
place in this congress. I, however, believe that woman is 
peculiarly adapted to the study of ethnology, because a 
woman recognizes that all peoples, whether black or white, 
civilized or uncivilized, are God's creatures, and no woman 
would think them proper targets for the explorer's guns or 
the colonizer's severity. I believe that women would intro- 
duce into exploration, as they have into other departments 
of labor, that sympathy which is essential to the best sue- 
cess. I believe it to be woman's business as an explorer to 
introduce the industrial arts among savage peoples. 

The Organized Development of Polish Women — 
Address by Helena Modjeska of Poland. 

First, I must ask your permission for a personal remark. 
When I was invited to appear in the congress as one of the 
representatives of women on the stage, I was not aware that 
two days later I should again step on the platform as a 
representative of Polish women. 

This task fell to my share very unexpectedly, and found 
me unprepared. The regular delegate was prevented at 
the last moment from arriving here, and as I am one of the 
members of the advisory Polish committee, I agreed to 


appear before you in her place, taking upon me the risk of 
coming before you unprepared, rather than suffering our 
Polish womanhood to remain unrepresented at this great 

Being deprived of its political independence, Poland is 
hampered in every manifestation of its vitality. Those who 
have taken away from us our national existence try to make 
the whole world believe that there is not, that there never 
was, such a thing as a Polish nation. They endeavor to 
obliterate from the annals of humanity the history of 
Poland ; to restrict, if not entirely prohibit, the use of our 
language ; to hinder the development of every progress, 
be it economic, intellectual, or social. 

In such conditions it is only natural that any organized 
movement of women toward improving their situation 
should be considered as a political crime, and punished 
accordingly. Whatever is done must be done in secret, and 
therefore I am prevented from giving you evidences of the 
work done by my countrywomen, and must confine myself 
to generalities, for fear that any personal allusion may bring 
on very serious consequences. 

And yet we have in our country a splendid array of 
women, distinguished in every branch of human activity, 
with great minds and greater hearts, who work both indi- 
vidually and by combined efforts with the view of raising 
the level of Polish womanhood. Some of them would cer- 
tainly be invited to figure on the Advisory Council lists 
of the divers empires to whose governments they are sub- 
jected, but they scorn to be enlisted otherwise than as 
Polish women. They would a hundred times prefer to 
have their names remain in oblivion, and left out of the 
golden book of deserving women, than to appear there as 
representatives of the nationality of their oppressors. The 
greater number of the Polish women who would be entitled 
to appear here are subjects of the Russian government. It 
is well known that even postal communication is far from 
being safe there, which may explain the scarcity of the 


documents sent for the occasion. I have, however, with me 
some papers from which I will take the liberty of reading 
you a few translated extracts. 

Woman's situation depends upon the general level of her 
country and epoch — the higher the intellectual develop- 
ment of the community, the higher the rank occupied by 
woman. The economic conditions exercise a similar in- 
fluence, because the widening of commerce and industry 
o|Jens new fields of activity, and therefore new material 
advantages to our sex. Race, customs, and traditions are 
of paramount importance in this regard. They define the 
character of woman's influence. In some countries it 
asserted itself mostly in the direction of worldliness or 
sentimentality, and it was exerted by cunning or by per- 
sonal charms, a state of things not very favorable to mor- 
als; in others it was based on the universal respect for 
women, the award of her higher qualities, the earnestness 
of her mind, the strength of her will. 

This was the case in Poland. In old times the intellect- 
ual vitality of the nation was concentrated in one class — 
the Polish gentry. They resided in the country, and were 
given up to agricultural pursuits. There woman occu- 
pied a prominent rank. Each noble's mansion was eco- 
nomically a little world of its own. Its inhabitants were 
living entirely on home products — those of the field, the 
stable, the poultry, dairy, and garden. They drank home- 
brewed beer and mead. They were clothed in home- 
spun and home-woven cloth and linen. Even the costly 
garments, the pride of the family, were manufactured 
at home. The management of all these home indus- 
tries was entirely in the hands of the lady of the house. 
Like the strong woman of the Scriptures, she fed and 
dressed everybody in the house and village — she had the 
care of their food, their comfort, and their health. Physi- 
cians were almost unknown ; she had to take their place ; 
she knew qualities of plants, and she composed the healing 
salves and drugs which up to to-day form the basis of our 


so-called home medicine. There remains yet an unmis- 
takable trace of her medical pursuits ; the house pantry, des- 
tined for the safe-keeping of the groceries, is called still 
to-day in Polish houses the little pharmacy, " Apteczka." 

The usefulness of the Polish woman increased her impor- 
tance, and endowed her with rights which were refused to 
women in other countries. By a natural process she came 
to take a predominant part in the business affairs of the 
family. This participation tended to educate her mind, the 
habit of commanding a numerous retinue of servants gave 
strength to her character, and the variety of her occupations 
widened her practical knowledge. 

The latter, the practical knowledge, passed from mothers 
to daughters, and for a long time there was no other educa- 
tion. The convents, which abroad furnished the schools for 
the young girls, had a very small pedagogic influence in 
Poland. The little they possess at present they acquired 
only in the present century. There was a universal opinion, 
which is far from being extinct even to-day, that only a 
mother is a competent tutor for her daughter. 

The very nature of country life, the difficulty of com- 
munication, or the distances and the bad roads, had a natural 
result in the tightening of the family life. The intimacy 
of wife and husband was uninterrupted, and thus woman 
became initiated into public affairs and took in them a 
lively interest. Her mind, trained by activity, was pre- 
pared for responsibility by the comprehension of the most 
earnest concerns. 

Our women, even of the highest rank, had nothing in 
common with the habits of the effete European aristocracy. 
They were strong in body and strong in spirit, and our his- 
torical records, as well as family traditions, have preserved 
the names of many heroines who have battled on the 
borders of Poland against the Turks or Tartars, and often 
successfully repulsed their attacks. 

Courageous and useful, the Polish woman had a high 
standard of morality. A strong religious conviction and 


an inborn feeling of digfnity preserved her from the laxity 
of morals which only too often prevailed in the higher 
classes of other European nations. 

This feeling of natural dignity was so deeply rooted in 
our sex that during long centuries a wife's infidelity was an 
exceedingly rare occurrence. 

In the present days the instruction and education of the 
Polish woman stand on a level equal to that of man — 
sometimes above it — and yet it is admitted that our men 
are distinguished by their encyclopedic knowledge. Our 
women are great readers, and, as may be proved by the 
statistics of our public libraries, their reading is not con- 
fined to novels, but to earnest books; and therefore scientific, 
literary, social, and political questions are familiar to them. 
Public lectures on serious subjects are a prominent feature 
of our city life, and certainly women make by far the larger 
part of their audiences. 

Another element which tends to sharpen woman's intel- 
lect is the special character of Polish sociability. Probably 
social life is nowhere developed to such an extent as in 
Poland. Our men do not desert the house for the attrac- 
tions of the club, the caf6, or the saloon. They remain at 
home, or gather together with women in the houses of their 
friends. Hospitality is essentially a virtue of the nation, 
but it is a hospitality free from any kind of display, as 
frequent in the humble abodes of the poor as in the palaces 
of aristocracy and plutocracy. The old Polish proverb is, 
"A guest in the house is God in the house.** The main 
feature of these private reunions or parties is general con- 
versation, directed by the lady of the house, but participated 
in equally by men and women — a conversation turning 
on serious topics, and where personal gossip is almost 

This sociability, spread to all classes of our nation, has 
important advantages, as it reflects upon other relations 
among them, as upon marriages. In other European coun- 
tries it is only too often the case that the forming of mar- 


riages is purely a business transaction between two parties 
hardly known to each other. With u§, on account of the 
frequent social intercourse, marriages are based on thorough 
acquaintance, and concluded through natural sympathy. 
While it can not be said that money considerations are 
always the moving cause, they yet figure in a small degree 
in the tying of matrimonial bonds. Thus it happens that 
in Poland the poor girl has suitors as well as the rich one ; 
if the latter has the advantage as to their number, the 
former has a better chance in regard to the quality of her 

The unmarried girl in my country enjoys a position, if 
not so independent as in America, still much better than in 
the rest of the European continent. 

In recent times especially there has been marked prog- 
ress — her social standing and her freedom of action are 
gaining ground every day. As a natural consequence there 
is a great movement among our unmarried girls to obtain 
independent livelihood, and not to look upon marriage as 
the ultimate goal of their ambition. 

In a great part of Russian Poland, the so-called kingdom. 
Napoleon's legislative code is still in force, and according 
to it the unmarried woman of age, or the widow, has the 
absolute right to dispose of her fortune, while the married 
woman remains under the power of her husband. Without 
his assistance she can not execute any legal act. He is 
absolute master of her revenue, and is not obliged to ren- 
der any account of it. His only duty is to support her and 
her children in a way befitting his social position. He can 
not, however, effect any sale of her estates or incur any 
debts on them without her permission. 

This subordinate legal situation did not act as injuriously 
as it might upon the Polish woman of to-day. It did not 
destroy her influence nor restrict her field of action. With 
the change of economic and other conditions, and the con- 
sequent disappearance of many home industries, her circle 
of activity in the household became narrower, but her ener- 


gies were soon directed into new channels. She is the con- 
tinual helpmate of her husband in all his business enter- 
prises ; she is consulted in every financial transaction, and, 
if she becomes a widow, usually takes his place in the man- 
agement of the business. Some of our largest fortunes and 
our most important industrial establishments are directed 
and controlled by women. 

In the old times, when Poland was, so to say, a bulwark 
between Tartars and Turks and the rest of Europe, stand- 
ing on the defense of civilization against the Asiatic 
hordes, when every man was a soldier, the Polish women 
were left at home, the sole masters of the family and estate. 
This independence developed in them a spirit of national 
pride, wisdom, and courage. Forced to spend months and 
years in awaiting the return of her dear ones, left for a 
long time without news from the field of battle, and har- 
assed by dreadful persecutions and fears, still holding a 
serene countenance before the people, she attained a great 
mastery over herself, and a great patience. Thus courage, 
industry, patriotism, and patience are the most prominent 
characteristics of Polish women. 

Let us go back to the seventeenth century. What 
pictures of woman's life are impressed upon my mind 
from the records of our history ! I see through the mist 
of ages a young, beautiful bride and her manly bride- 
groom. They have just returned from church, and stand 
upon the porch of the house. Her eyes are moist with 
tears of happiness ; their hands clasped together, they 
look at each other in silence, with a great, solemn inter- 
rogation in their eyes, afraid of speaking lest they should 
break the spell of the exquisite joy of the two perfectly 
harmonious souls. From the house merry peals of laughter 
and music come to their ears, but they do not seem to hear 
it. He tenderly puts his arm around her waist and whis- 
pers words of love, when suddenly he lifts his head and 
listens. What is it ? The air is still, and yet in the far dis- 
tance a scarcely perceptible sound is heard, first footsteps of 


horses, then the clang of armor, and a few moments later 
a troop of warriors gallops to the house. A dispatch is 
handed to the bridegroom, which he reads in silence, but by 
the expression of his face she guesses that it is a summons 
to leave her and go with the others to the field of battle. 

Leave her, and now ! Her face grows deadly, pale, but 
there are no tears in her eyes. She extends her arms to 
him, falls on his breast, then, making the sign of the cross 
on his brow, she speaks firmly, " In the name of the Father, 
of the Son, and the Holy Ghost, go ! " And they part. He 
goes to the battle fiercer than ever. She stays at home, 
left to her prayers and domestic duties, ever patient, Indus- 
trious, with no other consolation but her religion, her 
national pride, and the hope to see her husband soon again. 
But he must come home with a brave record or else she 
would rather see him in his grave. Religion and her 
country first, and then love. 

Another picture suggests itself to me. A young mother, 
left alone with a little son five years old ; after the morning 
prayer and breakfast, she leads him to the yard. An old 
soldier, covered with scars, is waiting for them. He holds 
two swords in his hand, one of them a mere toy, but made 
of sharp, strong steel. The boy grasps his little sword — 
both stand in position, and the fencing lesson commences. 
The mother sits quietly watching her little one, terrified at 
moments, but with a smile on her lips. From time to time 
the veteran gives points to the little warrior. " Cover your 
head — your side. No! that's not good — try again — not 
this way — take care or I will cut.'' And he cuts. The boy 
grows pale with rage. Mother comes to him, bandages the 
slight wound. The old soldier apologizes, but she only 
says, " You have done right ; he will do better next time." 
Again she sits among her maids, spinning, sewing, or 
embroidering the church vestments. She talks to the girls, 
she tells them legends, stories of battles, or reads to them 
the New Testament and lives of saints. When the work 
is over, all unite in evening prayers and songs. 


Such a life must have developed a sense of responsibility, 
authority, and chastity. This training lasted for gener- 
ations, and its eflFects are so deeply rooted, so distinctly 
marked, that they can not be erased, either by economic 
or social changes or by political upheavals. 

The best proof that the tradition of the past still lives 
in the Polish woman's heart is the share she took in our 
constant struggle for independence. 

When the impious spirit of our three Christian neighbor- 
ing monarchies prompted them to form a so-called holy 
alliance in order to crush and tear to pieces our unfortunate 
country, which was then the only representative of self- 
government and personal liberty ; when, not satisfied with 
the annexation and division of Poland, they robbed and 
pillaged our land from end to end, stabbing the very heart 
of our national life, destroying our institutions, persecuting 
our language and religion, shutting all the gates to civili- 
zation and progress ; when our men, exhausted by wars and 
defeats, became despondent and disheartened — it was the 
Polish woman who stood like a guardian angel at the doors 
of their conscience. She it was who encouraged them, 
always ready to lay down her life for the welfare and inde- 
pendence of her country. It was she who taught her sons 
how to defy our enemies, sl^e who preserved the tradition of 
honor, patriotism, valor, and integrity, not allowing herself 
a moment to rest, but working with strange tenacity, in 
spite of bullets, the chain, Liberia, and, worst of all, the 
lash with which she was often punished, to the everlasting 
disgrace of the Russian government. 

Our enemies are making a great mistake if they think 
that they can kill patriotism. As long as there is one Polish 
woman left alive Poland will not die, and the more they 
persecute us the better it is for us now. We may have 
deserved punishment for the faults and mistakes of the 
past ; we must pay the penalty, and God only knows at what 
expense we pay it. 

A well-known French writer says that the best thing 


about Poland is the Polish mother. He spoke the truth ; 
and I take the opportunity afforded me by this congress to 
send Polish mothers a message across the ocean, a message 
of respect, love, and veneration. The world knows of the 
Roman matron and the Spartan mother. I dare claim a 
place next to them for the Polish mother. When the 
French artist, Horace Vemet, was asked by Czar Nicholas 
to paint an episode from the last struggle between Poland 
and Russia, he answered, ** Your Majesty will excuse me ; 
I never painted Christ on the cross." And he was right. 
Poland was crucified, but was there not a mother kneeling 
beneath the cross of Golgotha waiting patiently for resur- 
rection? And" is there not also to-day the Polish mother 
waiting patiently and praying for the resurrection of her 
country ? Will she wait forever ? No ; if there is justice 
on earth she will not wait in vain. 

Woman in Italy— An Address by Fanny Zampini 
Salazar of Naples, Italy. 

I will try to generalize my study and mark briefly the 
differences existing in the different parts of modem Italy, 
the north being far in advance of the south. 

This may be explained by the fact that the south was for 
long years the prey of ignorant rulers, while the north was 
governed by more intelligent, though no less tyrannical 
and oppressive^ sovereigns, who did not, however, consider 
it improper to offer means of culture to their people. And 
while this happened in the two extreme parts of Italy, the 
center was no better oflf under the dominion of popes, whose 
religious mission unfortunately changed into a political one. 
Since 1870 this political aim has increased and spread all 
over Italy, the priesthood regarding it as a duty to keep 
a control not only over souls and what regards religious 
matters, but in other concerns of life, and above all in 
politics. Feeling that men escape such control, priests con- 


centrate all their efforts to keep women under their influ- 
ence. If such influence were exercised in good faith and 
for pure religious purposes, all that is best might come of 
it; but unfortunately, the strangest anti-patriotic feeling 
rules their behavior. The ardent dream dreamt by our 
patriots in prison and in exile during the long years of 
subjection, and realized in the union of Italy, with Rome 
as a capital, leaves the priests cold and indifferent, dis- 
satisfied and angry. 

Hence a perpetual struggle to reconquer temporal power 
makes of the purest of human feelings, religion, a question 
of politics, not with a view to the welfare and the prosperity 
of the nation, but for the meanest ends of worldly ambition. 

Men influenced by women, though often quite uncon- 
sciously, are kept from taking any part in elections, which 
being left mostly to ignorant and ambitious people, are 
used for mean, personal views of obtaining power, fortune, 
and influence. 

The results are what lately created shameful scandals, 
and made the hearts of true Italians bleed with sorrow. 
And while clericals, in hopes of repressing progress and 
reconquering Rome, work in every way, extending their 
influence even over persons whose position and interest 
ought to keep them far from their reach, the Italian gov- 
ernment, as a sort of reaction, has no religious culture in 
public schools. The result of both these measures is a 
relaxation in moral feelings, to the great detriment of 
religion and politics, regarded in the highest sense of their 
noble meaning. 

Women consider themselves pious if they follow relig- 
ious practices, and men are considered good citizens if they 
look on, complaining if all does not go right in the country, 
but seldom rising to the consciousness of their political 

Uncultivated women can not understand the noble in- 
fluence they might exercise for the welfare of their coun- 
try, elevating around them family and society. The few 

Makv Joskimiini: oxaiian. Mrs. Jknkin Lu»vi) Jonks. 

Kkv. Ldrenza a. Havxks. 

Mrs. J. T. (iRAi I V. Rkv. Anna H. Shaw. 


who realize such a duty, and try to accomplish it, are tired 
to death by misunderstandings, opposition, and unfair 
criticism. Men are more easily led in general by the so- 
called feeble women who rule over them, while seeming 
entirely subjected to their will. Strong, earnest, loyaU 
noble-minded women, whose culture and interest in edu- 
cational, social, and political matters makes their conver- 
sation much prized in society, though admired, are feared 
and kept carefully apart, from a strange sort of prejudice 
about their becoming too influential in the country. 

Of course men wish to keep their predomination, and 
though disposed to accept privately woman's reasonable 
advice and moral help, they take great care not to make 
her conscious of her power. And so in society they make 
much more of light, well-dressed, insignificant women^ 
whose influence they fear not, being in this case uncon- 
scious that such negative influence leads them down to 
the lower level of such charming, useless, empty-minded 

Again, the great differences to be found in the various 
social classes make it also difficult to define a typical woman 
in Italy. We have aristocracy, from which class very little 
indeed is to be hoped. In this class only a few exceptions 
are worthy of notice for giving their life a really noble aim. 
In general, old prejudice, ignorance, pride, a sybaritical 
conception of life, considered with the most selfish views 
of satisfaction of a mere material order, reign supreme in 
that part of society, which so easily might do so much 

The middle class contains cultivated persons actively- 
busy in some sort or other of serious work in life. We 
have there a group of intelligent, learned women gifted 
with modem ideas and trying to their utmost to contribute 
to social progress. They do not turn to the higher classes 
for help ; none or very little indeed would come to them 
from that side ; but they look toward the people hopefully 
for the future moral regeneration of Italy. We have indeed 



all to hope from this much neglected and greatly oppressed 
social class. 

The Italian people have the best human instincts. With 
a little culture and much love anything might be made of 
them. But allow me to observe that we must not judge of 
the Italian by some specimens of poor emigrants, stupefied 
by the long struggle with want and sorrow before they 
make up their minds to leave the old home ties, the beloved 

In general, Italians belonging to the popular classes are 
full of heart and kindness, frugal, simple, much attached to 
their families and the place where they are born ; they need 
only the enlightenment of culture to rise strong and pow- 
erful in the full consciousness of their more sacred rights 
to a nobler life. But here again an ignorant priesthood and 
prejudice, political fears and negligence, frustrate the few 
•eflforts made in favor of their elevation. They are flattered 
when their aid is required, helped occasionally by humiliat- 
ing charity, and kept down in the dark regions of ignorance 
and poverty. 

Badly fed, badly paid, oppressed by heavy taxes, often 
without work, no wonder their life is a hard struggle, only 
kept up in sacrifice and suffering, unconscious of any 
right to a brighter one. I often tried in the southern prov- 
inces and in Rome to arouse humanitarian feelings in the 
idle upper classes, speaking and writing about all that has 
been done in England for the moral and intellectual eleva- 
tion of women and the people. I only obtained praises and 
nice words, without ever being able to begin, even on a 
small scale, something practical in the way of associations 
of cultivated persons to promote organizations of various 
kinds in favor of these neglected parts of our country 

The press in Italy encourages such a movement, but the 
fearful indifference of the people, want of means, and the 
opposition of clericals and prejudiced persons are still to 
be overcome. 


This work I consider must be undertaken by women, and 
I am glad to be able to say that we have begun to under- 
take it in the northern provinces, and I trust that it will 
bring its fruits in time. 

In Bologna, the ancient university town, where learned 
women once taught in the character of acknowledged 
professors, in Milan and in Turin, associations exist and 
are being established with a view to promoting woman's 
progress and popular culture. 

In Bologna ladies have been at work now for the last two 
years ; and indeed it is there I noticed the most important 
group of intelligent women, actively busy to promote the 
interests of their moral and legal condition. What struck 
me in Bologna was the solidarity of these cultivated 
women so earnestly at work together. It is there that the 
noble influence of one of our greatest Italians, Mazzini, 
is deeply felt, for a nobly gifted English woman, whose 
soul was given to Italy on vasiTTying Mazzini's best friend, 
Aurelio SafB, has perseveringly been at work in the sunny 
years of her happy youth and the sad ones of her widow- 
hood, always trying in all ways to elevate all those around 
her. She has established at Forli women's associations, 
whose ends are to promote culture, to give sisterly help in 
need, and to find work for all. 

In Milan we have a remarkable group of intellectual 
women, but segregated, each working in her own way. 
Still these few, just beginning to work together, have felt 
the need of establishing an association to promote the 
interest of their sex. When I was there lately Pauline Schiflf, 
a learned university teacher, of German origin, published 
the programme of an important association, to which many 
gave their names. In Milan are some very excellent 
schools for girls. I met there a most remarkable woman, 
Alexandrina Ravizza, whose life is entirely devoted to 
good works, and who has no end of trouble to go on 
with them, because she will have nothing to do with 
clericals, and is full of human feelings of pity and sorrow 


for unfortunate girls whom she tries to help and save from 

In Turin also is a very interesting group of cultivated 
women, actively busy trying to unite their efforts to estab- 
lish some useful associations of liberal character like those 
of Bologna and Milan. 

In Rome we have two societies, but of quite a different 
order, most conservative in their ends and views. One was 
lately established by the efforts of a brilliant, earnest, 
learned young professor and deputy, Angelo Celli, who 
succeeded in interesting a group of cultivated ladies of the 
aristocracy in the fate of poor women in want of work and 
help. This society in fact is called " Help and Work," and 
was organized two years ago under the patronage of Her 
Majesty our Queen Margherita. It is now prospering, and 
much good comes of it. Poor women find work and help 
during sickness or want, their young children being taken 
care of during the hours of work, in a sort of nursery 
school established by the daughters of the ladies who helped 
Professor Celli to start that society. Still, useful as it is, no 
attention is given to intellectual culture or recreation, as is 
done in America and England in similar institutions. Very 
probably opposition would arise if such a thing were pro- 
posed, and the little good done would cease. 

The other society of ladies — established in 1873, in 
Rome, with the aim of promoting woman's superior 
culture — is such a mystification that indeed it deserves 
honest criticism. I think nothing could reveal better 
the subjection of our women to prejudices and old ideas 
than this association which pretends to promote woman's 
culture by a weekly lecture, mostly regarding ancient 
history, and carefully excluding any of the modern 
questions regarding social, educational, legal or practical 

In place of awaking the mind to examine these most 
important subjects, it seems that the aim of this society is 
to put it to sleep by the constant repetition of what we 


all can read or have more or less been learning at school. 
Now and then, very rarely, a beautiful and interesting 
lecture is given, but in general they are very dull indeed. 
Fashionable ladies go because the queen goes, but often 
I noticed how all of them seemed uninterested in the 
speaker s old-fashioned theme. 

Another strange feature of this society is that lady lec- 
turers are excluded from giving lectures there, though we 
have now in Italy a remarkable number of cultivated 
women who give lectures with success. I believe that if 
the above-mentioned society were conducted in a modem 
spirit, it would indeed become the means of promoting 
women's culture, which needs a thorough, intelligent re- 
form as is felt by many interested in this important ques- 
tion. Three years ago Professor Angelo de Gubernatis, 
with a view to associating all persons interested and offer- 
ing a study of the progress made by women in Italy, 
organized in Florence an exhibition of women's work, 
and arranged that a set of lectures regarding Italian women 
should be given by ladies. These lectures were published 
in book form, and are worthy of notice for their originality 
of thought and ideas. 

Concerning women's education in modern Italy, I have 
much to say. We have public schools for elementary cult- 
ure; superior schools for girls, where a superior teaching is 
greatly required; and normal schools for those wishing to 
become teachers, but no proper training colleges for them ; 
the programmes of studies are indeed defective in almost 
every department. 

Our present minister of instruction, Ferdinando Martini, 
is fortunately a high-minded man of modern ideas regard- 
ing women's culture, and he is studying a project for the 
entire reform of superior education for both sexes. This 
work is a very hard one, for in Italy all is expected from 
the government, as we are lacking in individual initiative, 
which can do so much practical work when intelligently 


Women are now admitted to the universities, lyceums, 
and gymnasiums, but have none for themselves exclusively, 
so that, with the reluctance of parents for mixed education, 
girls can very seldom profit by these institutions. 

Schools of art are open to girls, but here also the same 
objection prevents them from joining in the classes where 
all young men are not always as refined as they should be. 
In the way of education we have still much to do, as not all 
understand that culture is one thing and education another, 
and that both should be required. 

We have also in Italy several professional schools for the 
working classes, and these answer the purpose, though I 
think they ought to provide for some more mental culture, 
and not limit their end to mere manual work. This I con- 
sider the principal defect in most of our Italian institu- 
tions — little or no regard for the moral culture, that 
culture which tends to elevate the souls of the pupils 
and g^ve them a high conception of life and of all the 
sacred duties which make it full and worthy to be lived. 
The mere teaching of reading, writing, and other subjects 
of study is nothing if with it the mind is not led to think 
and consider life's problems, its duties, and its rights to 
make it a noble and beautiful one. Some new and very 
well organized institutions answer such an end, for they are 
the work of noble-hearted and highly gifted Italians. 

There is the Suor Ursola College for girls in Naples, 
entirely reformed by the Princess Strongoli Pignatelli, a 
learned, high-minded woman, whose life is entirely devoted 
to good works. She is one of the most esteemed and 
beloved ladies of honor of Queen Margherita. Princess 
Strongoli Pignatelli has also established in Naples, together 
with Countess Lauseverino Vinercati Tarsis, another college 
for poor orphan girls. 

A beautiful college for the daughters of the public teach- 
ers was also lately organized by one of our greatest Italians, 
Ruggero Bonghi. He had visited England, and wished to 
establish some girls' colleges, such as he had admired there. 


With persevering efforts, through many material difficul- 
ties, but supported by a strong will and by the influence 
of his position, he succeeded at last. This college is near 
Rome, in a pleasant, old-fashioned country place, Anagni, 
and is progressing fairly. Her Majesty the queen of Italy 
patronizes it, and it bears her name, " College Margaret of 

In Naples we have other remarkable old colleges for girls, 
bound to old-fashioned, conventional systems of education; 
but to give you an idea of our customs, I only state that 
while the entire educational staff is composed of ladies^ 
most of whom reside in the colleges, the superintendence 
of them is exercised entirely by gentlemen. Two of these 
are distinguished young writers, the Duke Richard Carafa 
D'Andria and Benedetto Croce. A superintendence by 
ladies has not even been thought of. 

That women are able to take a part in public affairs of 
any sort is still an idea hard to establish in Italy. Even 
when obliged to work, so few ways are opened to their 
activity besides teaching. And the only reason is that a 
strong prejudice exists against women ; they are not con- 
sidered fit to work, and how could they be, while even 
when they are trained to it, they are so little trusted ? If 
they follow superior studies and obtain some scientific 
degree, except as medical doctors, they are actually pre- 
vented from competing in any of the high professions fol- 
lowed by men. A young Turinese lady. Miss Lydia Poet, 
following with success the university courses, obtained some 
years ago her degree in law. Well, men got so frightened 
at such a competition that they managed to exclude her 
from the exercise of her profession, stating that it would 
demoralize the tribunal if women were allowed to work 
there. The press tried to explain the injustice and ille- 
gality of such a proceeding, but with no result at all. No- 
other woman went in for university legal studies, and the 
noble girl who had a right to the independent profession 
she had chosen was obliged to give it up, though privately 


she works in the legal office of her brother, who considers 
her help most useful. As medical doctors, women could 
have a large practice and a most important field of action, 
but here again prejudice is against them, though our queen 
gave her moral support to the profession, naming as her 
honorary medical attendant a Turinese lady, Miss Mary 
Valleda Fame. This learned and well-known woman 
would have had a brilliant career anywhere else, as she 
was also appointed medical assistant at the principal hos- 
pital in Rome, by one of our greatest doctors, Baccelli. 
But she could in no way overcome public prejudice against 
a woman doctor, and she must be satisfied with her very 
select though small practice. 

Music is a profession allowed to women in Italy, and sev- 
eral struggle on as music teachers, and a few rise to the 
summit of art as opera singers or concertists. We have in 
Italy very good conservatories, where, besides music (sing- 
ing), a proper literary education is given. The most 
remarkable and important Italian conservatories are in 
Naples, Rome, and Milan. 

In public business, women may occupy only post, tele- 
graph, and telephone offices, but competition is so great 
in these branches that now it is most difficult to find there 
some free place to be got. 

So the highest places that a woman may hope to obtain 
are only educational, the highest being those of inspect- 
resses or principals of the best government schools ; and 
all those places are much sought after, notwithstanding 
that they seldom pay more than about one thousand 
dollars a year at the very most. Liberal professions, such 
as writing, painting, music, acting, singing, are full of 
difficulties, and require a first-rate talent, much perseverance 
to overcome the beginnings, and also a great good chance 
to succeed in living on them. 

However, we have now a remarkable number of women 
struggling for their economic independence with their 
own work. The larger number of these are writers, some 


of whom succeed in making a living, though a very modest 
living indeed. Publishers seldom pay more than from one 
to four hundred dollars for a book, which they sell in not 
less than a thousand-copy edition, getting about eight 
hundred dollars for it when it has little or no success, but 
when three or four thousand copies are sold, usually the 
publisher alone profits by the sale. The printing expenses 
are not very high, so we have in Italy rich publishers, 
but I know of no writers who have made a fortune with 
their pen. 

Woman's intellectual work in Italy is not encouraged 
even by those who ought to regard it as a duty. So, of 
course, without encouragement or organization our group 
of distinguished, cultivated women could not manage to 
send all their literary productions to swell the library in 
the Woman's Building. 

As for industry, if the beautiful, artistic lacework they 
do appears to its full advantage, all the honor is due 
to your noble countrywoman's efforts, Countess Cora di 
Brazza, for it is to her alone that we owe all that is to 
be admired in the Italian section of the Woman's Build- 
ing. The rich, historical laces of our royal family she ob- 
tained herself from our queen, and many others from per- 
sonal friends. But her perseverance in teaching and in 
organizing schools for lacemaking, to give easy and beau- 
tiful work to the Italian peasant girls, is indeed worthy of all 
praise. Many noble ladies have lately been interested in 
this industry in Italy, foremost the late lamented Countess 
Andriana Zon Marcello, who revived the old lace manu- 
factories in Venice, and the Countess Maria Pasolini, one 
of the few ladies in the Italian aristocracy remarkable for 
her culture and interest in the girls of the working classes. 

We still want some of these cultivated women to take a 
serious, active, large-minded interest in intellectual prog- 
ress. But you must kindly take also into consideration that 
we belong to a very young nation, and though we can boast 
of a splendid past we suffer still from the consequences of 


a long, hard period of subjection and spiritual darkness. 
Time alone can help Italian women to develop their intel- 
lectual and moral faculties so as to rise to the standard they 
have the right to attain. 

As for women's papers, we have now a few nicely written, 
but of a light literary kind, and several stupid ones exclus- 
ively regarding French fashions. Having dared, some 
years ago, at my own expense alone, to establish a Review 
for promoting the intellectual, moral, and legal interests of 
women, I was obliged after twenty months to give it up, 
though I had ventured to interest our queen in it, and also 
a number of cultivated people. But the review did not 
please those clericals who energetically oppose woman's 
progress, and they managed things so well that the paper 
had to come to an end. Tired, I would have given up my 
work, but a deep feeling of duty to go on with it made me 
publish lately a book in which is an account of all the 
struggles endured during the best twelve years of my life, 
spent in earnestly trying to elevate woman's intellectual 
standard in Italy. In the same volume are published the 
lectures I gave on the subject, and my account to the Italian 
government of woman's culture and work in England. 

This book cleared many misunderstandings, and was con- 
sidered by many eminent writers of both sexes to contain 
the true conception of the ideal womanhood we have to 
attain in Italy. Indeed, I am happy and proud to say that I 
owe to that book the venture of being here, as the Italian 
minister of instruction asked me to write a like report 
regarding woman's institutions in America, when he heard 
I had been invited to the Woman's Congress. During my 
last tour in Italy I had the pleasure of observing a remark- 
able change in the general public opinion regarding the 
woman question. Many ideas, not understood ten years ago, 
are now perfectly admitted. So I look forward hopefully to 
our future, trusting in the revival of education to elevate 
culture, and in the much needed reforms in our laws to 
control the fearful injustice bywhich women are oppressed. 


This leads me to say a few words about the legal condi^ 
tion of women in modem Italy. If we look at the civil and 
penal code of Italy, at all laws which relate to women, their 
rights, their culture and work, we easily perceive that a 
general opinion of their moral weakness inspired all these 
laws. It is commonly believed in Italy that a woman is 
intellectually, morally, and physically inferior to man ; that 
she ca;n not stand by herself in life, nor presume to be 
respected and considered if she is not supported by the 
protection of man. 

What this protection often means is misery to reveal. Ital- 
ians, both men and women, have very distinct characteristics, 
of which also we must take notice, to understand better 
their present condition and the reforms required for their 
social and intellectual progress. Above all, they are in- 
tensely passionate creatures, and the family links are very 
strong ; this much more to the south, where woman's indi- 
viduality rarely exists. Woman lives the life man makes 
for her. As a child and girl she obeys blindly her father ; 
as a woman her will submits entirely to her husband, whom 
she regards as the absolute master of her body and soul. 
If she does not marry, old as she may become, she remains 
always the obedient child of parent or brother, and never 
dares to regard herself as a free human being. This is the 
worst of it all, the general want of consciousness of one's 
own individual rights. Very often I tried to arouse such 
feelings in some naturally intelligent woman of our south- 
ern provinces ; she looked at me with wide-open eyes as if I 
spoke some unintelligible language. The idea of breaking 
the chains which bind her in total subjection to man 
seemed to her mere madness. In the northern provinces 
the chains exist too, but of a different sort, lighter because 
women have a relative liberty, and easier to bear because 
more apparent than effective, more in form than substance. 

Of course we can not expect every one everywhere to 
take the same course in life, and having well studied Italian 
women, I think they should be principally trained to 


become good mothers, which means, as I regard it, to 
develop in a noble sense their natural instincts and make 
them capable of generous, kind, motherly feelings for 
human kind in general, when they are not blessed with 
children of their own. Humanitarian feelings are latent 
in the souls of Italians, and intelligently developed would 
become the best agents for elevating the people. It is, I 
fully believe, by kind, affectionate, earnest interest and 
sympathy in each other that life could be made easier and 
brighter for all, all over the world. As Giorgina Saffi 
beautifully expresses it in an address to young Italians, 
" Passions and the power of life which give us such inten- 
sity of feeling should be turned in active efforts for the 
welfare of our country people. Then young people would 
find more strength to work with, more love to promote 
the greatness, the power of a glorious future for Italy. 
The generation which has preceded us has accomplished 
great and noble facts on the ground of material action. 
Far from having reached entirely the ideal of our patriots, 
still the geographical union of Italy is almost realized. 
Though full of difficulties, a not less grand and glorious 
undertaking is left to us, to consecrate all our strength and 
energy for the moral regeneration of our country." * 

United all round the world in noble efforts, we must 
feel sure of winning gloriously at last, in the name of the 
highest and purest ideals of human brotherhood, the holy 
battle of individual liberty and independence. The dream 
of the age lies in the enfranchisement of the human race, 
without consideration of class or sex. 



The Italian ideal of womanly excellence may be gath- 
ered from the characters of those women who are praised 

* Giorgina Saffi, Pensieri di una Madre ripografia Democratica — Forli. 


and admired. These are held up as models to the major- 
ity, whose minds, it must be confessed, are vitiated by the 
reading of corrupt French novels and by the theater. Yet 
the examples of heroic self-devotion, of conjugal fidelity, 
and of the long-enduring, patient, and humble domestic 
virtues are so numerous that these may be considered, after 
all, the true type of Italian womanhood. When Clementina, 
the wife of Giovanni Lanza, the Spartan-like statesman who 
lived and died in poverty, although he might have accepted 
more from the government which he served, refused in her 
widowhood and need any help from the king, because " he ** 
would not have approved, there was a cry of approbation 
from every part of Italy. 

When Elena Cairoli, who for months nursed her dying 
husband as the giiest of the king in one of the enchanting 
royal palaces at Naples, and then accompanied the honored 
dead from Naples to Groppello, being received like a queen 
at every station, shut herself up with her grief in the coun- 
try house of the Cairoli family, senators and deputies in the 
senate and in parliament, and the king himself, sent her 
messages of reverence and praise. 

She who had been the "beloved consort" of Benedetto 
Cairoli, and remains still beautiful and in the maturity of 
life, the last to bear that honored name, must continue the 
traditions of the family. ** I bless her," wrote Benedetto in 
his last days in a letter to a friend, ** and hope that she will 
find the courage to live on for duty and in memory of her 
love for me. The mission of my Elena does not end when 
I die, for she must live to imitate my revered mother.** 
The name of Adelaide Cairoli, who gave her five sons to 
Italy, four of whom were killed in battle, is precious to 
Italian patriots. 

Another widow who remained sole guardian of a cele- 
brated name was Isabella Sclopis, wife of Count Frederick 
Sclopis, the president of the Committee for Arbitration 
of the Alabama Claims. Her death lately in Turin recalled 
the part she had in the labors of that negotiation. She 


assisted her husband in the correspondence, so that he was 
enabled to dispense with a secretary, and received from 
the English government a splendid service of silver for 
what she did. " She had no children, but adopted the 
poor," was the eulogy given to her when she passed away. 

Queen Margherita of Italy is praised not so much for her 
beauty and grace, her skill in court etiquette, and her intel- 
ligence, as for her courage, patriotism, and charity. The 
•excursions she makes on the Alps, near Courmayeur, at the 
foot of San Bernardo, are considered as an example to her 
subjects, and the unfeigned interest she takes in schools 
and asylums makes her generally beloved. 

Maria Fazzari, mother of three well-known soldiers of 
Garibaldi, who lately died in Calabria, at eighty years of 
age, was a woman of great strength of character and rare 
domestic virtue. Left while yet a young woman, by the 
perpetual imprisonment of her patriot husband, to gain 
bread for herself and children, she supported the long pov- 
erty and pain with patience and courage, and lived to be 
honored and blessed in a good old age. 

Santa Cadet was a woman celebrated for her eccentrici- 
ties as well as for her patriotism in the times that tried 
men's and women*s souls. She conspired against the pon- 
tifical government, but was not molested by the police, 
partly because she had a brother a professor in the univer- 
sity, and because they did not fear that the " Sora Santa" 
coufd overturn the temporal power. In 1849 she assisted 
the wounded in the battles with the French on the Janicu- 
lum, and afterward to the end of her life admired Gari- 
baldi and Mazzini. She took part in every republican and 
anti-clerical demonstration, as -well as the public patriotic 
celebrations, marching with the rest and wearing her black 
and white check shawl and large close bonnet. The tele- 
grams which she sent to other countries were often read on 
these occasions. She was a woman of culture and great 
activity, and charitable to the poor according to her means. 
At the funeral her body was wrapped in the flag of the 


anti-clerical society, the cross was removed from the 
hearse and replaced by a bunch of red flowers, and no 
priest, either Papal or Protestant, read prayers above her 

This passion for public life is exceptional with Italian 
women in times of peace, although they are ready for any 
heroic deeds in war. 

Rosalie Crispi, who still sometimes walks in Garibaldian 
processions, was one of the " Mille," or Thousand of Mar- 
sala, and is the only woman entitled to wear that honorable 
medal. The activity of Italian women is generally shown 
in acts of benevolence. The Duchess of Galliera founded 
hospitals at Genoa; the Duchess of Ceri — the daughter 
and heiress of Prince Torlonia — gave lately forty thousand 
dollars for an aqueduct to provide water for the town of 
Avezzana, near the Lake Fucino, drained by her father ; 
and the Signora Gola presented her own magnificent villa 
near Turin for a gymnasium for the children of the schools 
and asylums of that city. The Nathan family in Rome has 
founded an institute for finding places for girls out of work, 
and the burden of its direction is borne chiefly by Signora 
Virginia Nathan. 

Another woman, educated and cultured, after spending 
all of her own little patrimony in founding a refuge for the 
poor and forsaken, betook herself to asking charity at night 
for them in the caf^s and public squares. Signora Maria 
Capozzi, dressed neatly in black, distributes the prospectus 
of her institute at night among the frequenters of the caf^s, 
and with a smile receives the '* soldo '' or more which they 
give her. She is universally respected, but as there is a 
law against mendicancy, even when it is done in the holy 
"name of charity, she was advised by the police to procure a 
license for selling matches or something similar. 

Amalia Prandi has been the directress since its founda- 
tion of the Professional School for Girls, which has now six 
hundred pupils. This is a municipal institution, but its 
great success and usefulness are due to the executive talent 


of this woman. She also had an important share in found- 
ing the School for Nurses, now in operation on the Jani- 
culum, by persuading many of the scholars at the Pro- 
fessional School to go there. This institution, supported 
by the city, was founded at the suggestion of the eminent 
surgeon Durante, who was sent by the government to study 
sanitary establishments in the United States. 

In June, 1890, a national exposition of feminine labor 
was held in Florence. The sculptors, the painters, the 
writers of prose and poetry and plays and school-books ; the 
workers in gold and silver thread, on velvet, on satin and 
on linen ; the tapestry workers, the flower makers, the glove 
makers, all sent specimens of their skill to Florence. The 
actresses recited, the singers sang, the musicians played on 
harp, and piano, and violin ; the teachers taught to show 
how they did it. There were lectures on the Italian woman 
in the thirteenth century, at the Renaissance, and in the 
seventeenth century; on the character of woman in the 
various regions of Italy ; on woman in the family, in 
society, and in charitable deeds. All this fervor was not 
so much to hold an exposition of women's work as to cele- 
brate the sixth centenary of the death of Beatrice Portinari, 
the inspirer of Dante. This idea was considered by many 
a mistaken one, and serious opposition was made to calling 
the exposition by that name. Some even doubted that this 
Beatrice had ever really existed ; others, among whom was 
the poet Carducci, averred that the Beatrice of the Divina 
Commedia was only theology, and others thought such 
honor were better given to the mother or the wife of the 
famous poet. 

The fourth centenary of the birth of Vittoria Colonna 
will be celebrated in a short time at Marino, a town on the 
Roman Campagna, in the ancient castle of the Colonna 
family. The monastery where this celebrated woman ended 
her days, and the church where she was buried, have been 
demolished in the recent changes in Rome, but the palace 
of the Colonna, much altered from her time, occupies its 


Carrie Lane Chapman. 
Amelia Stone oiinton. 


old place in the Piazza dei Santi Apostoli, and the tower of 
the family may yet be seen in the Via Tre Cannelle. 

The question of woman's right to vote was raised in par- 
liament three years ago by several members who have long 
openly espoused this cause. Minister Crispi opposed it, 
saying that the question was not yet ripe, although it has 
been discussed since 1861. The eligibility of woman to take 
part in public charities was also discussed in the Senate, 
but the old idea that woman's place is exclusively at home 
prevailed. All women, however, do not stay there. The 
force of her genius as Improvisatrice made Giannina Milli 
known all over Italy. 

Guiseppina Cattani, thirty-one years old, is now professor 
of bacteriology in the University of Bologna. Fanny Zam- 
pini Salazar and Celia Folchi give public lectures. Caterina 
Pigorini Beri is well known for her numerous writings on 
political and educational subjects. Her sister, Countess 
Angela Ferraris, the wife of the ex-minister of grace and 
justice, was only a few years ago a teacher in the public 

Women in Agriculture in Siam — An Address by Lady 
linchee suriva, official representative of slam. 

Before entering upon the subject on which I am requested 
to write — the share of work done by Siamese women in 
agriculture — I deem it necessary to say a few words as 
to the general condition of my country in relation to 

The area of the kingdom of Siam extends, approximately,, 
from the fourth to the twenty-second degree of north lati- 
tude, and from the ninety-sixth to the one hundred and 
ninth degree of east longitude, and contains about two 
hundred and fifty thousand square miles, with a small 
population estimated from ten to twelve millions. Of 
these only about two-thirds are purely Siamese, the rest 



being formed of different races, such as Lacs, Karens, 
Anamites, Cambodians, Malays, and Pegnans, who are 
descendants of captives from different wars, or of people 
of the various dependencies of Siam. The Chinese popu- 
lation also forms a large percentage. Under the influence 
of the tropical climate and the favorable geological for- 
mation of land, coupled with the abundance of water 
supply by natural streams and rainfall, every part of 
the country, with hardly an exception, presents a very 
fertile soil, producing the most exuberant vegetation, 
unsurpassed by any other country on the face of the earth. 
Such a degree of productiveness of the soil naturally 
affords all the year round an abundance of a great variety 
of vegetable and animal food, and enables its inhabitants 
to live in perfect ease and contentment. By a liberal law 
every one has a right to appropriate for cultivation any 
area of waste land by paying, once for all, for securing a 
title deed, a small fee of one tical (equal to about forty 
cents of United States currency) per rai, equal to seventy- 
seyen thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven square 
feet. The extent of the area of land thus appropriated, or 
even owned by right of purchase, or by any other means, is 
limited somewhat indirectly by a law which recognizes all 
claims to appropriation of land not under actual cultivation 
for more than three years. As agriculture is the chief pur- 
suit of the Siamese nation, the inhabitants are naturally 
fond of living near rivers, which not only irrigate and ferti- 
lize their fields by periodical inundations, but afford the best 
and simplest means of transportation. Consequently, the 
density of the population of Siam is almost entirely con- 
fined within the limits of the basins of its principal rivers, 
along which towns and villages are scattered, vsirying in 
size and distances apart according to the greater or less 
productiveness of the land and the conveniences of traffic. 
The greater part of the population of Siam occupies itself 
in cultivating field crops, chiefly rice, and the cheapness of 
the land, coupled with the ease and little labor required in 


its cultivation, makes it necessary for a man, in order to 
keep himself busy all the season, to own a large acreage of 
land, increasing thereby the distances between separate 
homes. Moreover, among these peasant proprietors, hired 
labor is almost unheard of, for every one has his own ground 
to till and his toil laid out at the same time. Under such 
circumstances the share of women's work among the labor- 
ing class attains its maximum. 

A girl's education is very often neglected entirely, unlike 
that of her brothers, who, being sent to live with the priests 
in the temples, derive some benefit from their sojourn 
away from their homes. At an early age a girl begins 
already to be of some use to her parents. When they 
are out working she remains at home to take care of her 
little brothers and sisters, or goes out with them to 
watch the cattle graze, or to scare birds when the crops 
begin to bear fruit. As she grows up her parents take her 
out in a boat, in which they paddle about with the products 
of their labor for sale. She soon learns to manage the boat, 
and to sell goods without her parents' aid. During her 
leisure hours her mother teaches her how to spin, weave, 
and to use a needle, as women generally make all the cloth- 
ing for the family. After her marriage she either remains 
with her husband at her parents' home or follows her hus- 
band to live with his parents. Only in cases where the fam- 
ilies on both sides are already large must the married 
couple find a new home for themselves. In such cases the 
burden of work that falls to the share of the wife is nearly 
as heavy as the husband's, for they must necessarily engage 
together in almost every kind of work of the field. As a 
general rule, however, the couple takes one or two young 
relatives to help them in their toil. Hard as may seem 
the lot of women among the poorest class, yet the hardships 
they have to contend with are only during the planting 
season, which lasts about six months of the year, and the 
remuneration for their labor is sufficient to enable them to 
remain idle during the remainder of the year, if they so 


desire. Moreover, their toil is lessened in a great degree 
by a sort of cooperation which they adopt. This simply 
consists in each peasant by turns inviting his neighbors 
to assist him gratuitously in the heaviest parts of his work 
on the land, such as plowing, planting, harvesting, or 
threshing. The hostess, on this occasion, with the aid of 
her friends, prepares a good feast to entertain her invited 
guests ; men and women come with their own implements 
and their best team of oxen. They set to work systemat- 
ically from morning till noon, when lunch is served ; then 
after a short rest they continue to work till nearly sun- 
set. The scene on such a day is beautiful indeed. Groups 
of men and women, gaily dressed in bright colors, are to 
be seen scattered over the fields, earnestly working with 
their utmost energy and striving to compete with one 
another in skill, while pleasant songs, cheers, and laugh- 
ter are to be heard on all sides. After the day's work is 
over they assemble at dinner; drinks are freely served, 
and all kinds of merry-making takes place until late at 
night. In this manner the plowing, planting, harvesting, 
and threshing are done each in one day, thereby lessening 
in a very great measure the hardships of toil. In the field 
women, as a rule, take part only in the work of sowing, 
planting, harvesting, and threshing ; men do the rest of the 
heavy work. 

There is another class of agricultural women distinguish- 
able from that already mentioned. They belong to the 
garden districts that are located in the vicinity of the towns 
and cities. Here their condition is much better. Having 
constant relations with the town people, their education is 
not neglected, and they generally give proof of greater 
intelligence, culture, and refinement than the women of the 
fields. Their complexion is fairer, as they do less physical 
work, and are not so often exposed to the heat of the sun. 
Now and again they help the men to water their fruit-trees 
and do some weeding, mostly in the shade of the trees. 
Their chief occupation is to gather fruit and vegetables. 


to take them to market, and as they plant a variety of 
these in order to make the land yield in all the seasons of 
the year, they are kept busy almost every day. In addition 
to this, they make cakes, conserves, and pickles, and dis- 
pose of them together with the produce of the garden. 
There are many who keep small shops in front of their 
orchards on the river side, and sell, besides their fruits, 
groceries, sweetmeats, cigarettes, and many other things 
either made at home or bought from wholesale dealers. 
The women of this class are diligent and most economical. 
They rise at as early as three o'clock in the morning, and 
before the townspeople are up their goods are all ready for 
sale in their boats at the floating markets. 

Although as a class they are considered extremely eco- 
nomical, yet they are as liberal as the townspeople in their 
contributions to charities. They have good houses to live 
in comfortably, and sufficient means to be considered as 
belonging to the middle classes. Of course, among these, 
as among the class of farmers above described, there are 
many who are really rich, and who own considerable 

Besides these two classes, there are many other agricult- 
ural women of the various tribes that are tributary to 
Siam, having their peculiarities of character and their cus- 
toms, but as they do not belong to the Siamese race proper, 
I will not deal with them here. 

It would be out of place for me here to compare the con- 
dition of Siamese farmers with that of those of any other 
country, but the fact that nearly every one either works 
upon his own land or that of his family, will itself explain 
in what state of happiness and contentment they are. The 
price of rice-growing land is not beyond the reach of the 
poor, and therefore it does not pay the rich to buy land for 
the sole purpose of renting. . If the rich man works his 
land himself on a large scale, somehow or other he will 
find that he can not compete with his small neighbors, and 
generally in the end he is obliged to let his land at a nomi- 


nal rent, which amounts ordinarily to about one-sixth part 
of his tenant's net produce, and out of this he has to pay 
the tax on land. Labor-saving machinery is yet in its 
experimental stage. 

The Position of Women in Iceland — Address by 
SiGRiD E. MagnOsson of Iceland. 

I will try to give you a brief, and necessarily a broken, 
sketch of the present social conditions of Iceland, a country 
almost devoid of all the means by which sunnier countries 
have been built up. The land yields no grain of any kind, 
no fruit except a few blueberries, no timber but that 
thrown upon the coast, no coals. It has no roads, in the 
general sense of the word. Bridges are few and far be- 
tween, although dangerous rivers in hundreds tumble 
headlong in a mighty rush to the sea from the stupendous 
masses of inland glaciers. Wheeled vehicles are unknown. 
All inland communication is effected in summer by means 
of the enduring, sure-footed little ponies ; in winter mostly 
on foot. 

In consequence of this difficulty of communication, the 
education of children and women in the country is very 
difficult, and added to this, the people are very poor. 

The area of Iceland is forty thousand square miles, and 
the population is only seventy thousand. Day schools are 
practically impossible in the country, so the instruction of 
children takes place at home, and, as a rule, falls to the 
mother's lot, in addition to her many other duties. It may 
be said, with perfect truth, that the Icelandic mother has 
been the universal schoolmistress of the land, at least as 
far as girls are concerned. Instruction in reading and 
religion is compulsory. 

In the autumn the clergyman visits every house in the 
parish, for the purpose of examining the children in read- 
ing and the catechism, and if he is satisfied with their 


progress he invites the parents or the guardians to send 
children of twelve to fourteen years of age to him during 
Lent, for further instruction, that is to prepare them for 
confirmation. Confirmation is compulsory at the age from 
fourteen to sixteen, and by law the priest is forbidden to 
confirm a child until it knows the catechism by heart, as 
well as the " Lerdomskver," a small book containing the 
essence of the Bible, and has made such progress in the art 
of reading as to be able to perform the family service with 
decency. Here, as a rule, ends a girls education, except 
that in some cases a little writing may be added. 

For boys a very different provision has been made. A 
splendid Latin school or college, an old endowed institu- 
tion, is at Reykjavik, where boys and men can enter and 
have six or seven years of thorough training by eminent 
masters. They are sent to a tutor for one or two years to 
prepare for the examinations, which they have to pass 
before entering the college. Then there is also a medical 
and theological college for men who have passed through 
the Latin college. Those who wish to study law, philology 
or science, have to go to Copenhagen University for their 
studies, after leaving the Latin college, as there is no pro- 
vision made for those studies in Iceland. All these institu- 
tions are endowed, so that most of the scholars, all who are 
in need of help and show themselves worthy of assistance, 
receive a stipend. 

Although the question of providing education for women 
has of late years engrossed much attention, owing to the 
poverty of the people and the miserable means of communi- 
cation, as already stated, very slight progress has been 
achieved. A few private attempts have been made to 
establish schools for girls over fourteen years of age, or 
after confirmation, but these schools are very narrow in 
scope. The girls go there for one or two winters. Hand- 
work and household duties are taught, and, of course, this 
is better than no education at all for the few who can avail 
themselves of it, but it is entirely insufficient. Women who 


live in Reykjavik have comparatively very little difficulty, 
as they can get instruction free at the " Kvermaskoli," and 
those who can afford to pay for private lessons can easily 
obtain them from the college tutors and students. 

There is also an excellent children's school at Reykjavik, 
for boys and girls from the ages of eight to fourteen, con- 
ducted by a very able and excellent master. 

I have frequently heard since I came abroad, in both 
England and Scandinavia, that women in Iceland were so 
well educated that they even spoke Latin ; that they were, 
indeed, favored with suffrage. There is not a woman in 
Iceland who can speak Latin. The origin of this idea is 
that Lord Dufferin, who visited Iceland, said in his book, 
^* Letters from High Latitudes,'* that the women in Iceland 
had spoken Latin to him. But this distinguished man did 
not expect people to take every word literally, and when 
he was used as authority for this statement, he said, with 
his usual humor, that he had not understood them, so he 
supposed it was Latin. 

Women have not general suffrage, but they have the 
municipal vote. This is, however, rarely used, for they 
have not the necessary education or training for making 
use of it, and old prejudice and fear of being laughed at 
certainly would prevent them from exercising this right 
at present. Some years ago a bill was brought to our 
** Althing," or Parliament, urging the necessity of higher 
education for women. When it came to the Danish gov- 
ernment it was so well received that a law was passed 
permitting women in Iceland to study at the theological 
and medical college with men. But it was stipulated that 
they should not receive any appointments, either in the 
church or as medical practitioners (doctors are appointed by 
the government, and receive a fixed salary), since the law 
does not provide any preliminary education for women to 
enable them to avail themselves of it. 

What is now absolutely needed is a high school or col- 
lege for women in Iceland, with the same standard as the 


Latin college for men, where women who wish to take up 
university studies can have the same preparatory training 
as men. For some years I have been trying to establish a 
school for g^rls in Reykjavik, in the country, and by the 
assistance of kind friends in England succeeded so far as 
to build a house, and even to start .a school two years ago 
with fifteen g^rls, but as only a few could pay the full fee 
(about twenty-seven cents a day for everything), and the 
others not even half of that sum, my small funds were 
exhausted at the end of the first year. 

The Position of Women in Syria — Address by Hanna 
K. KoRANY OF Syria. 

The tide of modem progress is sweeping away in its 
mighty flow many of the prejudiced, fanatical ideas con- 
ceming woman's sphere in the east. Records of the far- 
away past teach us that woman in ancient Syria, Egypt, 
and Arabia held a prominent position in art, poetry, music, 
and literature. Our Arabic language is rich with feminine 
poetry and prose ; and woman's literary products, though 
less in quantity than man's, are, I am proud to say, equal in 
quality. The present educated woman is striving to bring 
back the happy, prosperous times, and renew her pur- 
suits in all the fields of high attainments with men. Her 
position is held higher, and is greatly improved in many 
respects these last years. Fifty years ago women who could 
read and write their native tongue were ver}'- scarce, and 
the fathers and mothers of that period, both ignorant, 
shrank with horror from educating their daughters. They 
supposed, poor creatures, that a girl who learned to read 
and write would use her knowledge in writing love letters 
to men, and that she would be utterly ruined as a good, 
obedient wife and a good, thrifty housekeeper. It does 
seem strange that her office and calling as a mother was of 
no consideration, or less considered than her being a house- 


Oriental women are naturally timid, and shrink from 
public notice. The long established customs of the country 
which place them in seclusion keep them from asserting 
their rights. They live in the shade, contented to be un- 
known except to their families and intimate friends. As 
a rule they take life easy, and make no effort to change the 
order of things. Education is awakening them from their 
long slumber, is opening their eyes to the sorrowful condi- 
tion of the country, and is stirring them up to shake off 
these old monotonous habits and to introduce better ones. 
Their work is beginning at home, where every improve- 
ment should begin, and they are now more able to fill the 
office of wife and mother, and better fitted to become the 
companions of educated men. Their advantages are far be- 
hind the advantages of the European and American women, 
but still you find many who are intelligent, intellectual, 
and refined. The oriental woman is naturally, notwith- 
standing what Mark Twain said, beautiful, modest, and 
sensible. All she needs to raise her to the plane of her 
western sisters is a good liberal education, which she is 
now partly enjoying. 

The orientals have been cured of many conservative, 
prejudiced ideas concerning woman's sphere, and have 
come to acknowledge that in order to uplift and elevate 
humanity, woman, the mother, should be well educated. 
We have several schools for girls, both foreign and native, 
and these schools are crowded with students. The educa- 
tion in these schools is what might be classed as elementary ; 
the girls are instructed practically, instead of in science and 
letters. They study their own language, one or two for- 
eign languages, elementary geography, mathematics, and 
science. But every woman, no matter how ignorant, how 
learned, how rich, or how poor, consecrates herself to the 
home and its requirements, and exerts her energies to make 
it pleasant and beautiful. Women doctors, lawyers, clerks, 
newspaper reporters, presidents of institutions, and the like 
are yet unknown to the country. Rich, leisurely women, as 


a rule, occupy their time in presiding over their household 
duties, meeting the demands of society, and making their 
toilet. It is usually the lot of the poor who are thrown 
upon their resources, or the mission of the few energetic, 
aspiring women, to face the public and carry out their diff- 
erent projects. In such cases as the former, when poverty 
stares them in the face they help their husbands in all farm 
work, and go about the city selling flowers and fruits, and 
some of them resort to the various branches of needlework, 
and earn livelihoods by the beautiful embroideries they 

When I was traveling in Mount Lebanon last summer, I 
was struck with the contentment and simplicity of poor 
hard-working women, whose lives are a perpetual strife, a 
daily combat with poverty, yet who in their innocent hearts 
do not realize its bitterness and hardships ; they take it as a 
matter of course, and never stop to argue with fate. 

Such hard-working women, placed often in the remotest 
parts of the country, where modern improvement does not 
penetrate, where discontent, which is to me the strongest 
stimulant to progress, does not try to break the sad monot- 
ony of their lives, are less to be pitied than those who are 
starving for knowledge and can not easily get it. 

As for those who are not driven by poverty to exertion, 
the government does not encourage their advancement, and 
the public regards them with prejudice and suspicion, op- 
poses their objects and mercilessly criticizes all their efforts 
to be of any consequence in the world. Our present sultan, 
his majesty Abd-ul-Hamid, has recently established several 
schools for girls in different parts of the country, and 
although education in these schools is limited, yet we hope 
— we can do nothing but hope — that these schools will grow 
in number and efficiency, and lead to a free public education. 

Woman's position in society varies with her religion. Ori- 
ental society is the reverse of western society ; it is slow and 
monotonous. Religion governs our society, and while the 
Christian community is improving by European influence, 


the Mohammedans will long continue to exile women from 
their circles, and for this reason progress among them is 
much slower than among the Christians. Social gatherings, 
on the whole, are very few ; they consist mostly of dinner 
parties, card companies, home concerts, and weddings. 
Public receptions, lectures, literary organizations, and pleas- 
ure clubs are unknown ; but balls and soirees, k la mode, are 
beginning among our communities. They are not consid- 
ered the right thing, and justly so, for the country needs 
intellectual entertainment and not dancing. The seclusion 
of the houris of the harem casts a shadow of dullness 
and reserve on the social intercourse of the Mohammedans. 
It is a great mistake to suppose that the Mohammedan 
women are unhappy because of their seclusion ; they are not, 
and would not wish it otherwise, and they have many 
occasions to which they look forward with ardent pleasure. 
Religious feasts, wedding ceremonies, and boys' birthdays 
are great events in their lives. The house that has been 
quiet for months bursts forth as if by magic with oriental 
music and singing, and the marble halls and the receiving 
apartments of the harem are crowded with beautiful faces and 
willowy forms, adorned with precious gems and dressed in 
purple and gold. Coffee, sherbet, and choice unintoxicating 
oriental drinks are then served. The whole scene is enchant- 
ing, brilliant, happy, and joyous ; and the Moslem women 
take great pleasure in these occasions. Notwithstanding all 
the religious restrictions, the innocent, simple occupants of 
the harem are peeping from out the veil to catch a glimpse 
of modem enlightenment, and many of the inmates are well 
educated and devote much time to literary pursuits. 

There is no doubt that in the future Moslem men, missing 
the charm and refinement of feminine society, and cured 
of many old ideas, will thrust back the thick veil of seclusion 
and lead woman to take possession of her place as the equal 
companion of man. 

Writers have, all of them, misrepresented the oriental 
woman in their sketches — her sphere, her capabilities, and 


her person. Foreigners who travel in our country for two 
or three weeks, or a month, come in contact only with the 
lowest class, and consequently their opinion about our 
women is not reliable. The general condition of women is 
not so favorable as in Europe or America, but it can not 
be classed as pitiable. Many of them rule as queens, and 
are loved, revered, and respected by their husbands and 

Americans, who are enjoying the advantages of independ- 
ence, freedom, and equality, can not readily comprehend 
the many obstacles that stand in the way of the oriental 
woman's progress. What she has achieved so far, though 
very little, promises far greater achievements in the future. 
Although she has not yet learned that unity is power, and 
therefore no great movement can be carried out by organ- 
ized bodies, yet by concentrated effort she has lately estab- 
lished a native school for girls, supported by her funds and 
directed by her intellect. Of course, this is no great thing 
in America, but in Syria this means a great deal ; it means 
that the women have come to see the necessity of education, 
and the need of native schools, and that above all these 
they recognize the individual responsibility to work for 
the uplifting of the masses. 



Editorial Comment — Abstract of an Address Delivered in the Depart- 
ment Congress of the International Kindergarten Union, by Sarah 
A. Stewart — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Depart- 
ment Congress OF THE Association of Collegiate Alumn/e, by Marion 
Talbot — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Department 
Congress of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, by Lucilia 
W. Learned — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Depart- 
ment Congress of the National Women's Relief Society, by Emme- 
line B. Wells — Abstracts of Papers Presented in the Report 
Congresses, by Laura Kieler, Belle Grant Armstrong, and John 
Strange Winter (Henrietta E. V. Stannard). 

WITH the preceding chapter the report of the Gen- 
eral Congress is closed. The remainder of this 
volume will be devoted to reports and addresses 
delivered in the subordinate congresses. Without these, 
the General Congress is to a degree unintelligible ; for it 
is in these smaller congresses that one finds the springs 
from which the General Congress was fed. As all of the 
papers delivered in the latter could be classified broadly 
under a few heads, so all those given in the former can be 
brought under the same general divisions. 

The degree to which the education of the American 
people is committed to women is indicated by the addresses 
given in the Kindergarten Congress. The opportunities 
for the higher education, the degree to which such oppor- 
tunities are used, the conscientious application by college 
women of their developed powers to practical problems, 
and the sense of responsibility resulting from college train- 
ing are admirably demonstrated by the address of Miss 



Marion Talbot, concerning the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae. That the intellectual aspiration which character- 
izes young women of the higher circles in the United States 
to-day is by no means limited to any class or any country, is 
shown in the admirable papers relating to the education of 
women in Sweden, Germany, and in New South Wales, 
which were read in the Congress. The club, popularly 
known as a post-graduate school, is classified with other 
educational forces ; and as the press is merely the platform 
from which public teachers can address the largest num- 
bers of pupils and students, the report of a press club finds 
also here its proper place. When one realizes the degree 
to which the newspaper makes public opinion, and also 
considers the degree to which women make newspapers, 
one must feel it a public necessity on the one hand that 
women shall have every opportunity for education, that 
their own opinions may be intelligent; and on the other 
hand that they shall be equally with men amenable to law, 
that their opinions may be responsible. 

The Conference Congresses were, as explained in the 
introduction (Volume I), quite informal, but they were 
among the most profitable meetings of the week. To indi- 
cate the catholicity of spirit with which such congresses 
were conducted, and the wealth of material which confer- 
ence committees had to draw on, the programme as actually 
rendered in the Conference Congress on Education is ap- 
pended to the report of the addresses given in the more 
formal meetings. — [The Editor.] 

The International Kindergarten Union — Address 
BY Sarah A. Stewart of Pennsylvania, Secretary 
OF THE International Kindergarten Union. 

The International Kindergarten Union is now one year 
old. It seems fitting that a statement be made of its aims 
and purposes, its growth, and its prospects for the future. 


It was organized at Saratoga, in 1892, in the interests of con- 
certed action among the friends of the kindergarten cause. 
As a beginning, four distinct aims were stated : 

1. To gather and disseminate knowledge of the kinder- 
garten movement throughout the world. 

2. To bring into active co5peration all kindergarten 

3. To promote the establishment of kindergartens. 

4. To elevate the kindergartner's standard of profes- 
sional training. 

As stated in the preliminary circular : 

The principles underlpng the kindergarten system are the groundwork 
of modem primary education. An intelligent interpretation of the philoso- 
phy and method is being presented by many independent workers in 
various parts of the world; something like a complete system of primary 
education is being slowly evolved from the repeated experiments of these 
investigators. Much of value to the world is being lost from the lack of 
coordinate effort and some common channel of communication. 

The International Kindergarten Union was formed to meet this need. 
It seeks to unite in one stream the various kindergarten activities already 
existing. Its function is to supplement, not to compete with, to coordinate, 
not to supplant, the agencies which are already at work. It combines the 
advantages of central council and suggestion with local independence and 
control. Its mission is to collect, collate, and disseminate the valuable 
knowledge already attained, and to inspire to greater and more intelligent 
efforts in the future. It falls naturally into the spirit and method of the 
times, which is no longer that of isolated effort, but of concentrated, har- 
monious action. 

In most of the States the kindergartens are outside of the public school 
system, and in the hands of private societies. It is obvious that an Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union can deal only with large units. It is hoped 
that all of the kindergarten societies in each State, whether public or pri- 
vate, will unite to form one State organization for representation in the 
International Kindergarten Union. The great advance which has been 
made in the growth of kindergartens in the recent past makes it hope- 
ful that the time is near when there will be no State without such an 

The International Kindergarten Union is pledged to promote such organ- 
izations, and to the establishment of kindergartens. It invites cooperation 
from public and private schools, churches, and benevolent societies of 
every kind and grade, which have for their object the educational interests 
of little children. 


The establishment of a high standard of training for the office of kin- 
dergartner has long been felt to be a necessity by those most intimately 
connected with the work. It is of first importance that some standard be 
reached that shall direct the future action of training schools in the prepa- 
ration of teachers. The time is past when " anybody can teach little chil- 
dren;'* we are no longer in the experimental stage. No position calls for 
more native ability and more thorough training. The kindergartner must 
take her place with other trained professional teachers, if she can hope to* 
hold her place in the great army of educational progress; she must be able 
to see that principles are more than method, spirit more than form, and 
organic relations to other departments of education of vital importance ta 
success in her own. 

It will be the work of the International Kindergarten Union to prepare 
an outline of study, to advise its adoption, and to give aid and counsel 
whenever they are sought. The executive committee includes the leading 
kindergartners of this country and of Europe. Their experience and 
knowledge give ample security that wise counsel will be given in all ques- 
tions of importance to the cause. 

The immediate aim of the International Kindergarten Union for the 
coming year will be to prepare a fitting representation of kindergarten 
progress at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. This time will 
furnish an occasion for an interchange of views and an organization of 
forces for future growth unequaled in the history of the yrorld. An inter- 
national congress is planned for this time, in which will be discussed ques- 
tions of vital importance to the cause by the most eminent kindergartners 
of the world. Foreign correspondence « now being held to bring together 
products of the system in countries much dlder than our own. It is hoped 
that not only finished products may be displayed, in well-graded sequence, 
but that practical illustrations of method may be g^ven with the little 
children present. 

A provisional constitution was adopted, the terms of 
which were very simple and very elastic. 

Each local center retains complete autonomy, and con- 
tinues the activities which were begun before joining the 
general union. 

So much for what was hoped to be done. Allow me to 
make a brief review of what has been done. It was early 
discovered that certain important changes must be made in 
membership and in dues. At a meeting of the executive 
board, held in Chicago in December, it was decided to 
recognize only cities as members in the International Kin- 
dergarten Union, with the exception of the original charter 



members, and that dues for membership should be fixed as 
follows : 

Each city branch shall pay into the general treasury 
twenty-five cents for each of its members. 

Sixteen of the leading cities in the United States have 
joined the union, and two others are considering the matter. 
This means that all the kindergarten societies in each city 
have united to form a membership in the International 
Kindergarten Union. The cities are the following : Boston, 
Philadelphia, Washington, Providence, Wilmington, Albany, 
BuflFalo, Chicago, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Toledo, Cleve- 
land, St. Louis, Des Moines, San Francisco, Smyrna (Turkey). 
These are called city branches of the International Kinder- 
garten Union. Indications are given that foreign countries 
will also join the union. Most of them have responded 
promptly to the invitation to give reports of kindergarten 
progress in their countries, and have expressed hearty 
sympathy with the movement. 

We are asked to answer the question. What is the advan- 
tage of an International Kindergarten Union ? Or to put 
it in the words which I overheard from one of the members 
of our branch, " What am I going to get for my dollar ? " 
Let me attempt to sketch briefly what I think one will get 
for her dollar; but first, let me say, the same arguments 
which can be urged for organization for any purpose can 
be urged with equal force for organized effort among kin- 
dergartners. The great word of the day is organization, 
and the reason for this is because the world has discovered 
that more can be done through combined action than 
through isolated effort ; moreover, it is beginning to dis- 
cover that more can be done through coordination than 
through subordination. 

But in answer to the question of my timid, short-sighted 
little friend : First, then, it is a saving in the three primal 
values, energy, time, and money, which represents the first 
two, by frequent and complete circulation of the work of 
each branch of the union ; each gains from the experience 


of all. Each center is a new field of experiment and dis- 
covery ; that which is of value can be published for a 
thousand almost as easily as for one. Each valuable ex- 
perience in one branch becomes an inspiration and incent- 
ive to renewed efforts in another ; an enthusiasm is created 
which carries the whole body much farther than isolated 
action ever can. There is strength in numbers. The moral 
sentiment of a multitude is infinitely more compelling than 
the opinions of one. 

Again, it meets a need in woman's education which is 
paramount to-day ; which is a training in organization, and 
power to act together by meeting for united action in the 
smaller centers for immediate ends; each will learn to 
cooperate with her peers and be led gradually by the most 
potent of all methods — experience — to the broader concep- 
tion of the larger well-being, and finally, let us hope, to the 
highest conception of all the universal good. By the very 
force of woman's life her vision is limited to the near neces- 
sities which press so heavily upon her, but the day is at 
hand when from her isolated position in the family and the 
school she will be called to take also the view which links 
her with others in working for the general good. What 
better way for a kindergartner to learn this all-important 
lesson than to begin where she is, with the vital interests 
which she has most at heart, and organize to secure their 
success? This organized eflFort also may bring her in touch 
with the choicest literature of her profession. It is one of 
the chief aims of the International Kindergarten Union 
to select out of the whole field of literature that which will 
bear most directly upon her profession, and mark out 
courses of reading for general culture. It is at this point 
that the selective intelligence of the whole counts for the 
most for the individual. No one has time to read even a 
tithe of the mass of literature which is put forth upon the 
subject. We want to make a journal of journals, which 
will collect and disseminate the products of the best think- 
ing of the world in the direction of the child's education, 


and make it possible for every mother, kindergartner, and 
teacher to have this journal for one dollar. 

Each also will have the published proceedings of all 
general meetings, the papers and discussions of live edu- 
cational topics by the leaders in this department of thought, 
and so keep in touch with the most recent thought and 
latest discoveries. Each will have the motive and opportu- 
nity to contribute to the general fund her latest and best 
thought, and so it becomes a training in writing and literary 
skill, and each may feel that she is contributing her mite 
toward making a profession of education possible. 

By united action the city branches of the International 
Kindergarten Union may become real estate owners ; they 
can build an educational temple which shall be forever 
sacred to the cause of little children, where each society can 
meet for social and professional purposes upon common 
ground for united action. They can collect in this temple 
a library of professional literature for the general use of 
all. They may have courses of study that will meet the 
needs of all, and command the finest lecture talent in the 
field. All this has been done by smaller agencies, and for 
lesser ends than ours, and can be done again. 

The History, Aims, and Methods of the Association 
OF Collegiate ALUMNiE — Address by Marion 
Talbot of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Asso- 
ciation OF Collegiate ALUMNi«. 

There is nothing to be seen in this world like the beauty 
of the creation on the enchanted shore of Lake Michigan. 
This new power which Americans have developed to 
express the ideal and spiritual side of man fills one with 
awe and wonder, mingled with thanksgiving that such 
forms of beauty and grace can be conceived and perfected 
in this new world. 

Rapid and wonderful as the development of the artistic 


sense in this country has been, its forerunner has been the 
general education of the people — that education which is 
neither artistic nor technical, but which is the foundation 
upon which the solidity and permanence of our greatest 
works, both of art and of utility, must rest. The progress 
of education has been the most marked and the most rapid, 
happily, where it was the most needed — among the girls and 
women of the country. It seems but a span since the 
World's Exposition was held in Philadelphia. Even then, 
in one of the principal cities of this country — and what 
was true of that city was doubtless true of many — so low 
was the standard of education that no girl was taught in 
any public school any of the elements of the higher learning 
save a little Latin. No steps had been taken in 1876 — 
none, in fact, had been suggested — to prepare girls, as they 
may be prepared to-day, to pass the tests of the higher 
scholarship. Neither were they fitted, except in a most 
superficial way, to help forward the wonderful scientific 
and industrial development of the period. Fortunately, 
this defect in the training of girls was not universal in this 
country. After arduous eflFort, a few women had fitted 
themselves to take the courses of study at Michigan Uni- 
versity, Cornell University, Wisconsin University, Vassar 
College, and a little later at Boston University, Wellesley 
College, and Smith College. Still, the number of these 
women was very small. They had in most cases taken 
their degrees in order to qualify themselves better as pro- 
fessional teachers. But time developed a new class of 
college women — women with more or less of competence 
and of leisure, who, having been trained while in college 
in definite aims, and in habits of constant and persevering 
industry, found themselves on graduation cut off by this 
training from the power to live on easy terms with women 
less systematically educated. The opportunity for acquaint- 
ance and cooperation with graduates from other colleges 
was necessarily limited. To an active and conscientious 
woman these questions soon become pressing — what 


special value had a college training been to her individu- 
ally, and how could she best help to forward the aims and 
ambitions of other students, as well as to bear that part in 
the life of her own community which was her evident 
obligation ? 

It seemed as if it should be the mission of the college- 
bred woman of the latter part of the nineteenth century, 
not only to secure for herself the highest intellectual train- 
ing, but to make such use of that training as would com- 
mend itself to her own conscience, and would satisfy the 
claim of a higher civilization that she should have a share 
in uplifting the human race. 

It was in the mind of Mrs. Emily Talbot of Boston that 
this ideal was first evolved into a definite working plan, 
under circumstances which should be narrated and become 
a part of the history of the association. 

As the mother of two college-bred girls she had often 
pondered upon these conditions and difficulties opening 
before women. One day a young woman was announced 
who apologized for presenting herself without introduc- 
tion, but, having heard of Mrs. Talbot's interest in college 
girls, she had ventured to call to see if she could get sug- 
gestions how to obtain a position to tutor a few hours 
weekly. Her family were unwilling she should teach in a 
school ; in fact, were she strong enough, there was no abso- 
lute necessity to do so, but to obtain a small independent 
income was her desire, and within her power, if she could 
be put on the right path. The situation was carefully exam- 
ined by question and answer, and thus was laid open a defi- 
nite case of the attainments and ambitions of the modem 
type of womanhood, hedged in by the old traditions and 
prejudices. In that moment, as by an inspiration, the vision 
dawned of constantly increasing numbers of young women, 
with similar training and congenial tastes, who by organi- 
zation and cooperation might advance educational methods, 
encourage girls in more definite aims, support the strug- 
gling student, formulate plans for original investigation, as 


well as learn to work together in a common interest, with 
method and harmony and a spirit of self-sacrifice. 

The vision soon became a spoken thought. Rapidly the 
idea was passed on from one to another of the few college 
women in Boston, and on November 8, 1881, a little com- 
pany gathered in the hospitable halls of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology for the purpose of considering the 
advisability of forming an association. There were present 
seventeen women, representing eight different colleges. It 
may be well to mention their names, especially since the 
early interest shown by many of them has grown with time 
and proved the source of much of the influence and power 
which the association now exercises. 

There came from Oberlin College, Anna E. F. Morgan, 
'66 ; Ellen A. Hayes, '78 ; Margaret E. Stratton, 78. Vassar 
College, Ellen H. Richards, *fo\ Florence M. Cushing, 
'74; Alice Hayes, '81. University of Michigan, Lucy C. 
Andrews, '76; Alice E. Freeman, '76; Mary O. Marston, 77- 
Cornell University, Mary H. Ladd, 75- University of Wis- 
consin, Maria M. Dean, '80; Alma J. Frisby, 78. Boston 
University, Sarah L. Miner, 77 ; Marion Talbot, *8o. Smith 
College, S. Alice Brown, *8i. Wellesley College, Harriet C. 
Blake, '80; Edith E. Metcalf, *8o. 

In accordance with a notice sent to all alumnae of the 
eight colleges thus associated, residing in New England 
and New York City, sixty-six women met at Chauncy Hall 
School in Boston, on January 14, 1882, and adopted a consti- 
tution and elected officers. 

At the meeting of the association held on March 11, 1882, 
the first after its organization, the president, Mrs. Jennie 
Field Bashford, addressed the association and outlined its 
work. The records contain the following abstract of her 
address : " She said the members have organized in order 
better to utilize their privileges in personal education and 
to perform their duty in respect to popular education. The 
immediate objects of the meeting may properly be the dis- 
cussion of topics of common interest, especially those relat- 


ing to educational matters, and methods of comparative 
education. It was suggested that a bureau of supply be 
established, through which members wishing employment 
and those seeking educated women to fill responsible posi- 
tions might be brought together. Departments may be 
formed, devoted to the study ot subjects which are fre- 
quently neglected in the ordinary college curriculum; such 
as sanitary science and political economy. The interchange 
of thought and friendly relations between graduates of dif- 
ferent colleges will be most beneficial and helpful." 

During the first two years the number of associated 
institutions was increased by the addition of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, and of Wesleyan, Kansas, 
Syracuse, and Northwestern universities. The University 
of California was admitted in March, 1886, and Bryn Mawr 
College in October, 1890, making the total number up to 
the present time fifteen only. The membership has in- 
creased to one thousand five hundred and thirty. It is 
well to record these facts, for the statement has gone 
abroad that the Association of Collegiate Alumnae is 
made up of all graduates from the colleges and universi- 
ties of the United States which are open to women. 
Many institutions besides those united in this association 
are doing honorable service in behalf of the education 
of women, and it would be as presumptuous for the 
association to attempt to represent all the collegiate work 
of women as to maintain that its membership list typifies 
exceptional intellect or attainment. We know only too 
well that many of the women in our colleges have had 
but small share in the broadest culture and widest social 
privileges of to-day. But the intellectual training which 
they have enjoyed gives them an appreciative interest in 
all the work of the world, and has placed upon them an 
added obligation to use their powers in the faithful fulfill- 
ment of the every-day duties of life, even if they can not 
aspire to the few places in the roll of honor set aside for 


The element of variety, which is a peculiar characteristic 
in the membership of this association of graduates, is the 
source of much enjoyment and satisfaction. The spirit of 
loyalty to one's alma mater is not lessened by contact with 
representatives from other institutions, but is supplemented 
by a broad interest in collegiate work, and a generous 
appreciation of efforts made by other colleges. 

Members who have had an occasional opportunity to 
attend the meetings of the association, and to take some 
part in its work, were so impressed with the stimulus com- 
ing from organized action that they took measures toward 
the formation of local branch associations. The first organi- 
zation of this kind was the Washington branch, which was 
formally recognized on October 25, 1884. Since that time 
the number has rapidly increased, and sixteen branches 
are now carrying on effective work. 

The delightful relations which exist between the branches 
and the parent association, and the spirit of good will which 
they show toward each other and the common cause, make 
them a strong factor in the influence of the association. The 
only law which limits their freedom is that which makes the 
requirements for regular membership alike for all. In other 
respects they are free to decide for themselves upon lines of 
work and methods of administration. Under their auspices 
a large number of clubs for graduate study have been formed, 
dealing with such subjects as sanitary science, domestic 
economy, political science, pedagogics, social science, Latin, 
German, Greek, classics, English literature, English, mod- 
ern poetry, fiction, general, local, and American history. In 
some of these clubs the quality of the work done has been 
so high as to receive recognition and be accepted as regular 
graduate work by some of our leading universities. 

The encouragement of graduate study has not been 
limited to the branches. The association itself has from the 
outset given special attention to the subject, and many 
papers have been read and circulars issued describing in 
detail opportunities for advanced study in this country and 


abroad. A peculiarly important result of activities in this 
line has been the establishment of fellowships. No work 
more far-reaching in its influence can be undertaken than 
the maintenance of fellowships. Members must all feel 
great pride and pleasure in the fact that they are annually 
giving to two women opportunities for advanced study and 
research which but a few years ago the wildest fancy could 
not have imagined. In 1 889, the Western Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, which had been organized in Chicago a few 
years before, was merged into the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae. It brought with it the noble record of having 
sustained two fellowships in the University of Michigan, 
which had been held respectively by Miss Ida M. Street 
and Miss Arlisle M. Young. The following year a European 
fellowship of five hundred dollars was maintained and 
awarded to Miss Louisa H. Richardson. So important did 
the work seem that the association then decided to support 
still another fellowship of the value of three hundred and 
fifty dollars for study in an American university. The hold- 
ers of the European fellowships since Miss Richardson 
have been Miss Ruth Gentry and Miss Alice Walton, and 
of the American fellowship Miss Alice Carter and Miss 
Susan B. Franklin. A partial fellowship has also been 
awarded to Miss Julia W. Snow. The record seems small. 
Its importance, not to the women only who directly share 
its ' privileges, but to womankind everywhere, is unbounded. 
It is impossible to make too strong an appeal to every mem- 
ber to see that the work is loyally sustained and enlarged 
during the years that are to come. 

It is significant that, from the outset, the association has 
laid special stress on the necessity of a sound physical basis 
for mental growth. The first paper presented before it was 
on " Physical Education," and its first work was the publi- 
cation of a circular tabulating the work done in physical 
education by the nine institutions then represented in the 
association. It pointed out deficiencies in their systems, 
and made suggestions, first, to parents ; second, to govern- 


ing bodies which grant degrees to women; and third, to 
women studying in those institutions. It is gratifying to 
note that some of the defects existing at that time have 
since been remedied, as may be seen from the tables pre- 
pared for the exhibit of the association in the Department 
of Liberal Arts of the World's Fair. The most important 
work, however, in this direction has been the investigation 
of the effect of college training on the health of women. 
The method employed was to send circulars to the women 
graduates of the colleges and universities belonging to the 
association. These circulars demanded specific answers to 
a long list of questions with regard to the health of each 
graduate before, during, and after college life. The ques- 
tions were prepared with great care, and were heartily 
indorsed by physicians and other experts. Thirteen hun- 
dred and fifty circulars were distributed, and over seven 
hundred were returned — a large proportion, according to 
the testimony of statisticians. The information thus 
obtained with care was tabulated by the Massachusetts 
Bureau of Statistics of Labor, and strict impartiality in the 
conclusions drawn was in this way secured. The untiring 
zeal of the committee, under the able direction of the chair- 
man, Miss Annie G. Howes, was the means by which a 
valuable and difficult piece of work was accomplished, 
whose interest and significance seem to increase as time 
passes. All friends of the better education of women 
rejoice that the tendency of the testimony was that system- 
atic mental training helps, not hinders, bodily health. 

The statistics showed that the conditions of life during 
childhood and the years just preceding college life have 
an important influence. The association has therefore 
devoted considerable time to the consideration of the gen- 
eral subject of health. Various aspects have been discussed 
in papers on " Physical Training in Preparatory Schools, 
with Special Reference to Habits of Sleep and the Relation 
of Diet to School Life," " Physical Training as a Factor in 
Liberal Education," "The Effect of the Amusements and 


Occupations of Girls on their School Life," " The Study of 
New Methods of Physical Education at Wellesley College," 
" The Development of Children." 

Following close upon the investigation of the health of 
women college graduates, came the publication and distri- 
bution of a leaflet calling the attention of parents, guardi- 
ans, and teachers to some of the chief hindrances to the 
development of healthy bodies in school-girls, and suggest- 
ing remedies. In connection with this an effort was made 
to obtain in a statistical form some definite information in 
regard to the life of school-girls 'before entering college. 
Although planned with great care, this effort was not fully 
carried out. The same may be said of a proposed investi- 
gation into the causes which lead girls to abandon the col- 
lege course before its completion, with the special purpose 
of ascertaining the. eflfects of varying physical conditions 
on the mental life, and of seeking to point out those factors 
which tend to lessen the benefits of thorough intellectual 
training. Many of the preliminary steps have been taken 
by the committee in charge of the work, but it is obvious 
that a great deal of labor is involved, and much time must 
elapse before any definite results of the inquiry can be 
made known. 

These discussions and investigations made the fact clear 
that hand in hand with the study of school-life should go a 
similar study of infancy and childhood. Accordingly, in 
the fall of 1 890, steps were taken providing for the presen- 
tation of a plan by which those members who were inter- 
ested could unite in a systematic study of the development 
of children, with special reference to securing the best 
basis for their later intellectual life. The special commit- 
tee has studied the problem with diligence and care, and 
has had the active cooperation of eminent specialists. The 
schedules for observations on child-life which have been 
prepared are now ready for use, and it is extremely desir- 
able that as large a number of careful and intelligent 
observers as possible should join in the study. 


In January, 1883, a communication was received from 
the Massachusetts Society for the University Education of 
Women, asking the association to establish a teachers* 
registry for college-bred women. After careful deliber- 
ation it was decided to be impracticable to carry out the 
plan at that time. The members of the association, how- 
ever, did not lose sight of the suggestion. The idea, as 
developed, has been somewhat modified, as the result of 
experience, observation, and discussion. Papers on " Indus- 
trial Education," ** Occupations and Professions for College- 
bred Women," " Work ' for Women in Local History," 
** Librarianship as a Profession for College-bred Women," 
"Occupations of Women College Graduates," "Sanitary 
Work for Women," " Women in Philanthropic Work," 
" The Relation of College Women to Progress in Domestic 
Science," " Educated Women as Factors in Industrial Com- 
petition," " The Relation of College Women to Social 
Need," have shown that many and varied opportunities 
for useful employment are open to women. As recently 
as the time when the suggestion to establish a teacher's 
registry was made, teaching seemed the one occu- 
pation open to all women graduates, regardless of their 
fitness or ability. The changed condition of aflfairs made 
it essential that the association should join in the en- 
deavor to elevate the profession of teaching by making 
known other occupations to women who feel themselves 
unqualified for teaching, but look upon it as their inevitable 
vocation. In 1890 the plan of conducting a bureau of 
occupations was adopted, and, under the able management 
of Miss Eva M. Tappan, much good work has been done, 
which may be still further extended in the near future, if 
the members should do all in their power to increase its 
efficiency and make known its aims. 

Papers on " Women's Gifts to Educational Institutions," 
" Endowments and Needs of Women's Colleges," " Work 
of Alumni for Their Colleges," " The Idea of the College," 
and " Educational Progress in America," have corroborated 


the observation and experience of neariy every member of 
the association, and have shown the importance of endeavor- 
ing to attract public attention to the financial needs of 
American colleges and universities. A glance at the list of 
institutions legally termed colleges, which is given in the 
report of the bureau of education, is a sufficient proof that 
better colleges, not more colleges, are demanded. The 
committee on endowment of colleges has the difficult but 
important task of representing the association in its desire 
to strengthen already existing institutions for women, 
and to discourage the establishment of institutions with 
inadequate endowment. Their work is one which can and 
should be sustained by each and every alumna. 

A bureau of collegiate information has been established, 
under the direction of Mrs. Kate Morris Cone of Hartford, 
Vt. Its aim is to gather information on the various topics 
allied to the higher education of women, for the use of 
persons making investigations into the different phases of 
the subject. There is a great demand for articles which 
treat this subject from the point of view of fact rather than 
of theory. The cooperation of the members is needed in 
supplying the bureau with information of a definite charac- 
ter, in order that its usefulness to inquiring correspondents 
may be constantly increased. Closely allied with this work 
is an attempt to make a complete bibliography of the litera- 
ture pertaining to the higher education of women. This 
piece of work is nearly complete, largely owing to the assid- 
uous labor of Miss E. P. Huntington, and it is very desirable 
that its early publication should be secured. 

It is interesting to note a movement which, though not 
strictly one of the forms of activity carried on by the asso- 
ciation, is a direct outgrowth of the spirit and purpose which 
has been fostered by the organization of collegiate alumnae. 
At one of the meetings held in Washington, a paper was 
read by Miss Alia W. Foster, on " The Relation of Women 
to the Governing Boards and Faculties of Colleges." No 
definite action on the subject was taken, but since that time 


several positions of trust, both on governing boards and 
faculties, have been opened to women. Realizing the seri- 
ousness of the responsibilities which have been intrusted to 
them, the members of this association living in and near Bos- 
ton, who are serving as college trustees, have held several 
conferences. Five women, representing the governing 
boards of four different colleges; have joined in the discus- 
sion of such subjects as the organization of boards of trust- 
ees, methods of financial administration, the selection and 
appointment of teachers, the relation of alumnae trustees 
to alumnae associations, and the status of special students. 
So much benefit has been derived from the frank and full 
discussion of these subjects that this group of women has 
been asked to serve as a committee on collegiate adminis- 
tration, for the purpose of making still more effective the 
influence which this association is striving to wield in 
behalf of progress in collegiate education for women. 

It must be evident that the aim of the association, viz., 
to unite alumnae of different institutions for practical 
educational work, has been attained by simple and direct 
methods. Its influence has been quietly but constantly 
growing. Among the many convincing proofs that the 
existence of the association is justified, are the facts that 
its members are exempt from certain examinations at 
Oxford University, England; that an appeal has come 
from a high official of the government in India to place the 
resources of the association at his service in an attempt to 
reform their educational system; and that the data and 
information we have collected and can command are con- 
stantly sought by educational experts. 

In seeking for the factor which has accomplished this 
result, we find it has been a strict adherence to the funda- 
mental principle of the association. The members of the 
association, while working as individuals in other organiza- 
tions for many and varied objects, are here bound by one 
tie ; and great as are the temptations to divert the strength 
of this association from its legitimate field, the members 


have refrained from doing so, and by a concentration of 
effort, which otherwise might easily be squandered, have 
won respect and confidence, which should be jealously 
guarded and steadily increased by the faithful loyalty and 
personal interest of every woman within its ranks. It is of 
course impossible to record the many friendly ties which 
have been formed, or the helpfulness of the social relations 
between members, but all these circumstances, no less than 
more definite intellectual activities, prove the value and 
importance of the association. 

Henry Drummond has said, " The kingdom of God is a 
society of the best men working for the best end, with the 
best methods," and he pleads for its realization in the daily 
activities of mankind. It is not too much to say that the 
aim, the method, and the spirit of the Association of Colle- 
giate Alumnae should be in harmony with this thought. 

Results of Club Life Among Women Upon the Home; 
— Address by Lucilia W. Learned of Missouri. 

In judging of any work so new to woman as work in 
intellectual clubs still is, it is only fair to regard tendencies 
and possibilities as well as actual accomplishment. 

By a process of stem experiment through ages of barbar- 
ism and centuries of growing civilization, it has come to be 
one of the settled convictions of the race that the reciprocal 
love of one man and one woman, with equal morality and 
equal intelligence for both, makes the best foundation for 
that fairest blossom of human life — the home. This is 
why Goethe said that monogamy is the highest achieve- 
ment of civilization ; it makes possible the home, which is 
the source of all private morality and the safegfuard of pub- 
lic virtue. 

The home is by common consent woman's sphere ; in it 
she has a rounded whole of her own. Whatever other 
spheres she may rightly enter and fill with her activities, 


here is her first and most important province. The home, 
whatever it is, becomes the doom of every child born into 
it — makes or mars the happiness of all inmates ; within its 
walls civilization is always advancing or declining. I think 
it was Balzac who said that when man had civilized all else, 
woman would be the last to be civilized by him. If this be 
true, it can only be because in that part of his nature most 
nearly concerning his relation to woman, man himself 
remains longest a savage. But, while freely admitting 
that in some departments woman seems to be a lag- 
gard in the civilizing process, we do not grant the pre- 
mise implied in Balzac's remark, for it is not so much man 
that civilizes woman as it is woman that civilizes and edu- 
cates man. Who, in the home, receives earliest her love 
and care? The new-bom child. Who trains him — 
"young savage in his age of flint'' — if not the mother? 
So that, when as husband he begins a home of his own, 
his wife receives him civilized or barbarous, according as 
some woman has made him the one or the other. From 
that time forth no growth into higher civilization is pos- 
sible that does not come to each in and through that of the 
other. Love and equity, those infinite, omnipotent forces, 
are the great civilizers that should work in every home. 

What does the home need that club-life can give it 
through women ? 

No one doubts that the average home needs much to 
lift it from the plane of matter and physical drudgery; 
much to infuse into it a higher element of intellectual and 
moral life. It needs other and larger interests than those 
relating to provision for the body's comfort and well-being ; 
it needs finer pleasures than the ordinary amusements of 
society bestow; it requires on the part of the wife, the 
mother, the sister, some share in the larger knowledge, the 
larger activities, responsibilities, duties, even anxieties, that 
develop a noble womanhood. In truth, the woman in the 
home needs "all the aliment given to heroic souls to 
increase heroism," if she is to train heroes. If woman is to 



be an ennobling and intelligent influence in the civilization 
of the present day, she must breathe the atmosphere of the 
large common life that man has for ages enjoyed. . 

Once, whenever a wedding took place, it was ** serfdom 
and sovereignty that joined hands in marriage plight," 
and then the family lungs had but one lobe, the family 
breathed only through the lord and master, and received 
as much vicariously of the outside knowledge as his gen- 
erosity and graciousness allowed. Now comes an epoch 
which has been styled, with that mild flavor of ridicule 
which very good men love at times to use, ** the ladylike 
era, when women have it all their own way." True it is 
that noble privileges are opening to girls, such as make us 
wish (as the French woman said to Chateaubriand) ** that 
we could be our own descendants ;" and we are steadily 
departing from any ambition to merit both parts of the 
Abb6 ChoiseVs saying in praise of the Duchesse de 
Fontanges when he called her ** beautiful as an angel and 
silly as a goose." Woman is leaving her seclusion, which, 
even when lovingly guarded, she has not found enchanting, 
and is taking her place side by side with man in the enjoy- 
ment of the free air of the uplands of intellectual life. 

Nor shall the home with all its intimate and dear rela- 
tions suffer thereby. It shall be immensely the gainer. 
Think of the gain when, in place of petty aims, small 
ambitions for dress and ornament, trifling gossip that con- 
sumes heads and hearts, a woman substitutes high purposes, 
large themes that awaken thought, that lead to action for 
the common good, subjects that take her out of the fogs 
and vapors of selfishness, and stir all that is good in mind 
and soul ! There is no danger that all this, though it bring 
new duties, will develop anything but a higher sense of her 
responsibility in the legitimate business of the home. 
Where hitherto she may have been a leader in gaiety, in 
the dance, in progressive euchre, in all amusements and 
frivolity, she fits herself, by good work done in the club, 
for leadership in the highest pleasure of life — intelligent 


conversation. In the club she may learn much of the 
general aflfairs of the world's life, something of business, 
of science, of history, of government, so that she shall not 
seem ignorant to her own sons, nor sit a silent and uninter- 
ested, because ignorant, listener when men speak of these 
important matters. 

In our busy and complex modem life men are more and 
more engrossed in business. The need is, therefore, greater 
for women to see that the conversation in the home does 
not either run to " shop " — as the phrase goes — or dwindle 
into feeble gossip and uninspiring chat. " We have had 
Socrates for conversation in our house for three months," 
said a lady, a member of a club for the study of Greek 
and Roman ethics. " Indeed," said a gentleman, " I think 
that much better than talk about the prices of vegetables or 
the last new thing in gowns.'* 

A second need of the home is that women should learn a 
spirit of cooperation. If ever the day comes when anything 
like cooperative housekeeping is possible — and how much 
something of the kind is wanting to relieve the strain of 
housework ! — it will be when women have learned by the 
apprenticeship of the club to lay aside insistence on non- 
essentials — when they have learned a self-surrender that 
comes of self -development and harmonious work for com- 
mon good. " Not home less, but humanity more." When 
the somewhat superficial education begun by the club is 
continued so that every club-woman becomes as it were, 
a resident student in the university of life, educated by 
actual participation in functions of wider scope than the 
home affords, free to follow her own instincts of culture 
and ease, then woman, no doubt in some respects up to the 
present time a "fair barbarian," will learn to suppress the 
passion for personal ornament and display that exhausts the 
family purse and too often " animalizes the taste." Then her 
home will be one into which it will be an honor to be intro- 
duced, and to make her acquaintance will be a help to a 
liberal education. 


Western Women Authors and Journalists — Address 
BY Emmeline B. Wells of Utah. 

In colonizing a new country, especially one barren and 
desolate, one would naturally suppose that there would be 
very little poetry in the atmosphere or in the hearts of 
the women who had endured all the trials and privations 
incident to a journey through an unknown country. 
Indeed one would think there would be as a natural con- 
sequence a barrenness of ideas; but the grand and lofty 
mountains with snowy caps, the almost impassable cailons, 
the howling coyotes, the profound and wondrous silence of 
the great desert, the dead inland sea, all these gave the 
rude materials to both prose writer and poet. 

When the emigrants reached the great Salt Lake, when 
the dear old flag was unfurled and floated to the breeze for 
the first time on Mexican soil from the lofty pinnacle of 
Ensign Peak, the heart of the poet-patriot, Eliza R. Snow, 
burst into a song that immortalized the glorious and signifi- 
cant event. 

From that time the spirit of poesy, crude perchance com- 
pared with the finished songs and hymns of those whose 
lives were cast in more pleasant places, yet rich enough in 
rude imagery and true to life in that which touches the 
depths of the human soul, flourished. And so it was that 
woman made more endurable the lives of scarcity and 
privation because the germ of poesy, the divine sympathy 
with nature in its wildest, its serenest and most plaintive 
moods, found response in the heart of woman, whose 
prophetic inspiration wove the stirring and pathetic themes 
into song and story. The very wildness and barrenness of 
the Rocky Mountain region forced from the lips and pen 
of the poet the utterances that urged the people on and 
helped them to fulfill the simple duties of every-day life. 
The singers were unconsciously interpreting the thoughts 
of the weary pilgrims who were opening up a great high- 


way across the American desert to the Golden Gate of the 
Pacific Ocean. 

As soon as possible in 1850, three years after the arrival 
of the pioneers, a newspaper was published, The Deseret 
Times ^ and women contributed. to its columns both prose 
and verse ; but the idea that a woman's paper should be 
established seemed to have a spontaneous origin, and on the 
first day of June, 1872, the first copy of the Woman* s Exponent, 
a semi-monthly paper, was issued, with Lulu Green Richards, 
and afterward Emmeline B. Wells, as editor. This opened a 
new avenue for women poets and writers that has developed 
much talent through the twenty-one years of its publication. 
This was the first woman's paper west of the Mississippi, 
except the New North-West y in Portland, Ore., and about 
the same time that the Woman s Exponent appeared in 
Utah, The Golden Dawn was established in San Francisco. 
These three were the pioneer women's papers of the West. 

The Exponent has given a fine opportunity for women to 
express their views upon all subjects, and has made a record 
of charitable, industrial, and professional work among 
women in the West, and of current matters and events of 
importance that have been invaluable in our woman's work 
for the Columbian Exposition. 

The poems of Sarah E. Carmichael, one of our Utah girls, 
have been so widely celebrated that William CuUen Bryant 
selected from her works for his edition of " Poets of 
America.** Among the women who have been fortunate 
enough to bring out books of prose and verse must be men- 
tioned Augusta Joyce Crocheson, who issued " Wild Flowers 
of the Desert,** and one book for children. Hannah T. 
King, an English woman, published ** Songs of the Heart,** 
"Scripture Women,** and an ** Epic Poem.** Other women, 
lists of whose books would fill pages, have published books of 
their own writings and translations from the German. Of 
those who have contributed largely to the newspapers and 
magazines in Utah, of which we have a large number, are 
Emily Hill Woodmansee, Ellen B. Ferguson, Berley La- 


monte, Josephine Spinner, Annie Wells Cannon, Ellen Gale- 
man, Martha A. Y. Greenhalgh, Mary A. Freeze, Ruth M. 
Fox, Lillie T. Freeze, and a host of others. 

Education of the Swedish Woman — Report by Laura 
KiELER OF Sweden. 

A deep love of knowledge is a distinguishing feature in 
the character of the Swedes. To promote education, larger 
sums are sacrificed in Sweden than in other European coun- 
tries, in proportion to the insignificant national property of 
the country. 

The Swedish woman has not manifested less love of 
knowledge than is attributed to her nation. She has always 
been trying to obtain a degree of knowledge as high as the 
customs and the laws of the country allow. Though the 
time of the female sex has chiefly been filled up with prac- 
tical occupations, several women of learning are mentioned 
in our chronicles, and some school education has for cent- 
uries been considered necessary for woman. In the middle 
of this century claims arose for a higher standard in the 
education of women. The national school education has 
always been the same for both sexes. The object of the 
national schools is to give the rising generation the first 
elements of an education. These schools correspond to the 
primary and grammar schools here in America. The estab- 
lishment of such schools goes as far back as the end of the 
sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries. 
By the ordinance of June i8, 1842, it was settled that 
in each parish there should be at least one school with a 
duly approved teacher, and that the attendance should be 
compulsory. Between the years of seven and fourteen the 
children are said to be in the school age. 

The national schools impart instruction in the Swedish 
language, religion, writing, arithmetic, geography, Swedish 
and general history, geometry, natural history, needlework, 


drawing, singing, and g5manastics. In the upper classes 
cookery has begun to be introduced since 1889. 

Besides these there are so-called continuation schools, 
the object of which is to give, in one or two years, further 
instruction to those pupils who, with good testimonials, 
have passed the national school, and wish to increase their 
knowledge for practical purposes. 

Sixty-one per cent of teachers in the national schools are 
women. In the country the salary for male and female 
teachers is the same. In Stockholm a female teacher has 
about two-thirds as much as a male. 

Those parents who do not wish to send their daughters to 
the national schools, and who want them to get a knowledge 
of foreign languages, either send them to the higher girls' 
schools, which are entirely private undertakings, or to pri- 
vate classes, or else they have them taught at home by 
governesses. In our country there exist at the present 
moment about one hundred and twenty-four large higher 
girls* schools. Connected with most of our girls* schools is 
a preparatory school with two or three classes receiving 
beginners, generally at six years of age. The higher 
school proper has, in the large towns, mostly eight classes, 
of one year's duration each. At some schools there exists, 
connected with the higher school proper, a so-called con- 
tinuation school, having for its object, first, to prepare 
for admission to the university ; or second, to prepare for 
the training college ; or third, to impart knowledge necessary 
for a general education, or else required in practical occu- 
pations. The higher schools impart instruction in the same 
subjects as the national school, and besides in French, Ger- 
man, and English. 

Of late great attention has been devoted to the hygienic 
conditions of schools. At the larger ones school physicians 
are appointed, partly in order to superintend the hygienic 
conditions in general, partly to examine the state of health 
of the pupils, and judge whether they may be admitted to 
gymnastics. The pupils are drilled every day in Ling's 


gymnastics. The instruction in the girls' schools is chiefly 
managed by lady teachers. For the training of female 
teachers there are six training colleges, all founded by the 
state, and with instruction quite free of cost. 

For grown-up girls we have schools called " The People's 
High Schools for Women." The pupils of these schools 
belong chiefly to the farmer class. There are no entrance 
examinations, but as a rule the pupils are presumed to 
possess the standard of knowledge imparted in the national 
schools. The movement for this kind of school began in 
Denmark. The Swedish schools have developed them- 
selves, however, independently. The first school for women 
of this kind was founded in 1869. Now there are thirteen. 
The subjects of study are the Swedish language, history 
and geography, free lectures on ethical and religious sub- 
jects, hygiene, knowledge of natural science, dairy manage- 
ment (the outlines), arithmetic, domestic bookkeeping, 
singing, gymnastics, and needlework. 

The time of instruction covers the three summer months 
of May, June, and July, during which period the homes of 
the farmers are considered most able to spare their young 
daughters. The school, always being situated in the 
country, does not remove them out of their ordinary con- 
ditions of life, which remain at school quite as simple as at 
home. The people's high school is a home to its pupils — a 
large, good, loving home, where the most intimate inter- 
course of thought and feeling exists between teachers and 
pupils. The country people of the neighborhood enjoy 
coming there to refresh themselves from their everj'^-day toil 
by listening to the singing and the lectures. In this way 
the school becomes the center of its neighborhood. The 
country girl, when returning home, carries with her 
increased knowledge as well as increased practical abilities, 
and in addition a mind opened and made receptive to wider 

The superior education of women the state has seen to 
by conferring upon women the same rights as upon men 


for Studying at the universities. The two universities of 
Sweden, that of Upsala and that of Lund, were founded 
respectively in 1477 and 1668; from both the female sex was 
excluded until the third of June, 1870. Then a writ was 
issued conferring upon women the right of passing the 
examinations for the university, and of matriculating at 
the universities, and of following the profession of a 
physician. Since that time the number of female students 
has been increasing from year to year. The examination 
for the university is passed either in the classical or in the 
mathematical division. 

The classical division comprises the following compulsory 
subjects of examination: Swedish composition, theology, 
Latin, French, German, mathematics and physics, history, 
geography, botany, and philosophy. Optional subjects are : 
Greek, Hebrew, and English; one of these languages is, 
however, obligatory. In the mathematical division clas- 
sical languages are not studied, but the requirements of 
knowledge in the three modern languages, in mathematics 
and in physics, are greater than in the classical department; 
and besides, chemistry has to be studied. Most of the 
women have passed their examinations in the classical 

Of the young ladies who have passed the examination 
for the university, only about thirty-eight per cent have 
matriculated. Some have gone back into private life, and 
some have found employment as post, railway, or bank 
officials, or else as teachers. The theological faculty in the 
university is not open to women. At the faculty of juris- 
prudence there are several examinations, out of which the 
one for " candidatus juris utriusque " is the principal of 
those most commonly taken. This examination has been 
passe^d by only one lady, Miss Etta Exchelsson. 

The course of study in the medical faculty extends from 
seven to nine years from the time of matriculation. Only 
two ladies, the Misses Widerstrom and Anderson, have 
hitherto finished their medical studies and are practicing as 


physicians, but a considerable number of women are study- 
ing medicine. The medical faculty in Stockholm is open 
also to ladies, and follows the same rules for the examina^- 
tions. The philosophical faculty is divided into a philo- 
sophical section and a mathematical-scientific section. 

The examinations within both these sections are : 

First — Baccalaureate. 

Second — Licentiate. 

A licentiate, after having written a scientific dissertation 
and successfully defended the contents of it against oppo- 
nents chosen by the university, is created " Doctor of Phi- 
losophy.'* About twenty-three women have passed the 
examinations first mentioned, whereas the licentiate has 
hitherto been passed by only one woman. Miss Ellen Fries. 

The faculty of science of Stockholm, founded in 1878,. 
has, like the faculty of philology of Gothenburg, founded 
in 1890, from the first opened its lecture halls to women. 

Langa Kovalevsky, a well-known Russian mathema- 
tician, was for years attached as professor to the former. 

The New England Woman's Press Association — 
Report by Belle Grant Armstrong of Massa- 

The N. E. W. P. A., as we long ago shortened its cumber- 
some name to read, was one of the first woman's press asso- 
ciations formed in this country after the International 
Woman's Press Association had its birth. The rather feeble 
life of the latter began in New Orleans when a number of 
newspaper women, finding themselves there at the exposi- 
tion, had the inspiration to bind themselves into a fraternal 
body. If their actual life did not get much beyond the 
paper upon which it was recorded, the spirit lived on. 

The secretary of this International Press Association of 
Women was Mrs. Marion A. McBride of Boston. She was 
one of the first newspaper women in the East, and is one of 


the ablest of the guild. She has unusual executive ability, 
and this, during the past few years, has been turned to 
the propagation of the theories and possible practices of 
domestic science. To Mrs. McBride we owe the New Eng- 
land Woman's Press Association, or at any rate its founda- 
tion. In November, 1885, half a dozen newspaper women 
of Boston met at her call in Mrs. Sallie Joy White's room 
in the Boston Herald office. Besides Mrs. McBride and Mrs. 
White there were present Mrs. Merrill, then Miss Hatch ; 
Mrs. Cora Stuart Wheeler, now well-known for her lectures 
as well as for her pen work ; Miss Helen M. Winslow, and 
Miss Grace W. Soper. From this beginning the associa- 
tion, then and there formed, grew into a prosperous body, 
and one that is now among the prominent women's organi- 
zations of Boston. 

To quote from the constitution: 

The objects of this association are to promote acquaintance and good 
fellowship among newspaper women, to elevate the work and the workers, 
and to forward by concerted action through the press such good objects in 
social, philanthropic, and reformatory lines as may from time to time 
present themselves. 

It is but fair to say that, as we have grown older, the 
rather conceited notion of our youth as to elevating the 
work and the workers, while meant no less now than 
formerly, is nevertheless expressed less effusively. In the 
revised version of our constitution, now in the hands of a 
committee, the aim to elevate is to be read between the 
lines instead of upon them. The skeleton of any body is a 
mass of dry bones. How clothe them in any manner that 
shall properly be labeled a report, and yet hope to give 
them interest for you ? 

If I could usher you all, as it would give me much pleas- 
ure to do, into one of our monthly literary meetings and 
high teas, I could imagine, upon occasion, your having a 
sufficiently pleasant time to warrant you in feeling that at 
any rate the social element of the club is successful. 

" The elevation of the work and the workers," was never 


undertaken upon any definite lines of action. The meetings 
have always been planned to be productive of *' sweetness 
and light '* for all who attend them, and at this intangible 
means of improvement, personal and impersonal, the effort 

A good deal has been done indirectly, and in some cases 
directly, ** to forward by concerted action through the press 
such good objects in social, philanthropic, and reformatory 
lines as from time to time present themselves." To name 
but a single instance : It is due to the members of the New 
England Press Association, led by Mrs. McBride, and to 
Mrs. M. R. Charpiot, the founder of the first home for the 
reformation of intemperate women, that matrons were 
introduced into the Massachusetts police stations. It is a 
compliment to our possible usefulness that rarely is any 
public undertaking set on foot without our being invited — 
often importuned — as a body to lend our aid to the move- 

During the past three years, instead of holding one meet- 
ing a month as formerly, we have held two meetings each 
month from October to June, inclusive. On the first Wed- 
nesday there is an afternoon session of an hour or two for 
business. On the third Wednesday we meet in the after- 
noon to hear a paper ; this is followed by a discussion and 
an informal reception. High tea, that is practically a din- 
ner, follows, and in the evening there is an informal pro- 
gramme of music, story-telling, etc. The literary meetings 
are in charge of a committee elected annually, each mem- 
ber of which is responsible for one monthly meeting. 
Without there being any hard and fast rule in the matter, 
it is customary to devote one paper to art, another to litera- 
ture, one to the home, another to science, etc. Members 
have the privilege of inviting guests to the literary meet- 
ings and teas by paying the supper assessment out of their 
own pockets. We also frequently entertain guests of the 

The New England Women's Press Association has no 


headquarters of its own, and maintains none. We hold our 
meetings, and have done so for years, in the Parker House, 
one of the leading down-town hotels. The matter of hav- 
ing club quarters of our ow^n that should be kept open all 
the time, as are those of the men's press club, has been 
taken under advisement from time to time, but does not 
promise soon to bear fruit. The feeling on the part of the 
objectors is that women, having many more side issues 
to their lives in the way of domestic ties than men have, 
have not the time to enjoy a club-house or club-rooms as 
men do ; that they have not the time to look after them, etc. 

The initiation fee of the New England Woman's Press 
Association is three dollars, and the annual assessment 
thereafter is two dollars. Supper each month costs one dol- 
lar a plate. The association is not self-supporting, and 
from time to time money is raised for the treasury by giv- 
ing a theatrical matinee by professionals g^ven out of com- 
pliment to the association; by a course of lectures under 
the auspices of the association, etc. The actual club expenses 
for barQ existence would be met undoubtedly by the associa- 
tion fees, but extra money is needed from time to time, as for 
the contribution we sent to the sufferers by the Johnstown 
flood, the fund for the projected home for journalists, etc. 
The Ne-w England Woman's Press Association started 
with six members in the fall of 1885, increased to thirty 
during the first year, and now has one hundred and sev- 
enty members. We became an incorporated body under 
the laws of the State in the autumn of 1890. 

Our membership includes all grades of workers, from the 
young reporter whose first assignment may be to write a 
stickful about a fair, to women who own and publish their 
papers. Perhaps one-third of our members are on the staff 
of daily or weekly journals. By this I mean that they give 
all or nearly all of their time to the work done by them for 
these journals. The balance of the membership is made up 
of free lances, who write for different publications, and may 
or may not be regular contributors to some one or more 


papers or magazines. In the general run of newspaper 
work, outside of regular court and sporting department 
work, there is, I think, no phase of newspaper work that is 
not represented by some worker among our members. Of 
course the majority of newspaperwomen are still doing, for 
the most part, either general reporting or special department 
work, exclusive of financial, political, and other supposedly 
masculine specialties. But the tendency is more and more 
to allow w^omen to do anything they can do, and managing 
editors are finding out that all women can do something, 
and that some women can do pretty nearly everything. 

Newspaper women can do some things better than news- 
paper men can do them, and some things as well as the 
men can do them, and in some respects they are, by reason 
of special deficiencies, less valuable than men. Sometimes 
a newspaper woman ** beats" a man on his own ground, 
as did one member of the New England Woman's Press 
Association when she succeeded, by very reason of her 
being a woman, in getting certain evidence in a famous 
murder case, which men had been sent to get and failed 
to find. 

I do not defend the present inflated style of journalism 
that calls for such work. I refer to the fact as one of inter- 
est in placing the value to newspapers of woman's work, 
and to show that the profession as represented in the New 
England Woman's Press Association is catholic in its 

The Writer's Club — Report by John Strange Winter 
(Henrietta E. V. Stannard) of England. 

For some years a great want was felt among women jour- 
nalists in London, of some convenient and suitable place 
where they could have a foothold of their own, so as to be 
able to work, rest, and see papers, meet their publishers or 
editors on business, and enjoy in general the advantages 


which a man enjoys at his club. There were vseveral 
women's clubs already established in London, but none in 
the vicinity of the Strand and Fleet Street, which are the 
two great centers of both press and publishing business in 
this country. 

In September of 1891 a number of women, interested 
in various kinds of literature, met together at the offices of 
the Incorporated Society of Authors, to consider the feasi- 
bility of starting such a club, to be kept strictly in the inter- 
ests of women writers, and with a subscription so moderate 
that all those who most sorely needed such a haven of rest 
might not be debarred from it by reason of too great an 
expense. It was then definitely arranged that the club 
should be started at the exceedingly modest subscription 
of one guinea per year, with an entrance fee of a similar 
sum when the number of members should have reached a 
given point. 

It was also arranged that the members living in the 
country, and therefore not likely to frequent the club 
as much as the town members, should pay a subscription 
of only half a guinea, with an entrance fee of the same 

It is almost needless to say that such a club as this was 
not started without considerable opposition, while ridicule 
was freely poured out upon the idea. We were told that 
women did not need such an institution ; terrible pictures 
were drawn of hearths desolated, married happiness ruined, 
children shamefully neglected, and other horrors which 
would inevitably arise through the formation of this unholy 
and wicked thing. 

One distinguished woman author wrote, that she did not 
consider that women were "clubable" creatures; another 
wrote to me saying that if we could secure the very best 
men authors she would be pleased to join, forgetting, per- 
haps, that the very best men authors might not have been 
willing to admit her to their brotherhood, for men in this 
country have a way of cheapening the work of women in a 


manner which is anything but flattering to the sex in gen- 
eral. Another lady wrote that she did not think women 
needed a club of that kind, because she had a private room 
at the oflRce of her particular paper, forgetting that there 
are thousands — or if not thousands at least some hundreds 
— of women who are not so blessed in their daily toil for 
bread. In short, all the opposition possible to pour on such 
an undertaking was poured out with an unstinting hand 
upon the Writers* Club. In spite of this, however, the 
founder, Miss Frances Low, kept pluckily to her original 
idea, and a good many promises of membership were 
booked at the first two meetings; and then the work of 
drawing up the rules and of finding premises was pro- 
ceeded with in earnest. 

Among those who joined us and helped the club along 
more than any words of mine can tell, was Lady Jeune, 
who gave us much most valuable assistance, and by her 
energy, influence, and practical knowledge of the proper 
working of such institutions, did for us what the majority 
of us could not have done without her. 

We finally settled on a floor in Fleet Street, being more 
influenced by the convenience of the locality than by the 
position and size of the rooms. We were, for one thing, 
determined not to start in debt, and, to use an old proverb, 
we cut our coat according to our cloth. Therefore, we 
took this suite of rooms on the third floor of 190 Fleet 
Street, than which no more convenient position could be 
found in the entire district. It consists of a large reading 
or reception room — what we might call a general room — 
wherein members can receive their friends or read in com- 
fort. This room is prettily and very comfortably fur- 
nished, having three windows overlooking Fleet Street. 
Its chairs and lounges are cosy and inviting, its carpets 
and hangings soft and subdued in tone, and altogether it 
is as homelike and restful a spot as any weary soul could 
wish to find herself in. Besides the large room, there is 
a very comfortable "silence-room/* where members can 


work in peace ; and here is arranged the beginning of a 
reference library for the use of members. 

There is also a room for the attendant, a respectable per- 
son, who is always in attendance and will procure a meal 
for a member at any time. The cooking arrangements, it 
is true, as yet, leave much to be desired, as, at first, it had 
been settled that all cooking should be done upstairs ; but 
owing to the ill-health of the care-taker of the premises 
this arrangement fell through, and the committee were 
under the necessity of finding an exclusive attendant for 
the club, which deprived us of the use — for the members 
— of one of our rooms. In addition to these, there is a 
good dressing-room and lavatory, so that members living 
at a distance from the city can wash and dress in comfort 
before going to a theater or other evening engagement, if it 
is one not requiring a change of dress. This, in itself, is a 
great convenience to many members, who live perhaps ten 
or twelve miles out of town, and for whom it would be 
impossible to go home for a meal between afternoon work 
or engagement and the work or engagement which takes 
them to theater, concert, or lecture in the evening. At 
their club they can get a meal, which, if not luxurious, is at 
least sustaining, and they can make such small additions to 
their toilets as they may think necessary, or enjoy the 
luxury of freshening themselves up by a wash and a 

We do not always propose to remain in this very modest 
style. We have thoughts of larger quarters,, of a regular 
cuisine, of several silence-rooms, and a comfortable dining, 
room. But these things can come only with time, as we 
are all resolved to make the club strictly self-supporting, 
and not in any sense a bolstered-up concern. Of the first 
year of the club's existence, I can say that it has been 
conducted in absolute harmony, and that the rules and 
constitution are found to cover, with the necessity of a 
very few slight modifications, all the needs for which the 
club was started. 



And now I must say something of the usefulness of the 
club, and speak also of its social side. As to its great use- 
fulness, I can speak with certainty. I know that several 
workers have made their way in the thorny path of litera- 
ture entirely because of belonging to it. I know of others 
who have practically dated their first success from the 
lucky day on which they first entered the club premises. 
To all, it is distinct advantage to be able to say that they 
are members. 

The social side is even more encouraging than the busi- 
ness one. On each Friday in the year, except during 
August and September, there has been a house-tea to which 
members can bring their friends. These house-teas have 
been most delightful and popular. They are managed 
thus : Each member has a season ticket, for which she pays 
half a crown, which admits her to the house-teas for one 
year. The guest tickets may be bought for three shillings 
a dozen, and are available for any Friday, though not trans- 
ferable. They must bear the signature of a member. 

The te^s are managed in this way : A certain number of 
members undertake the duty of providing the sweets and 
cake necessary, having a fixed sum sufficient for the pur- 
pose handed to them by the honorary secretary, and most 
ladies bring one of their own servants with them, and also 
one or two young friends who help with the tea, and so 
make those who do not know many people feel at home and 
welcome. The attendant prepares the tea and coffee, and 
also the bread and butter, etc. In this way we find that a 
good and varied tea is given, and as those who undertake a 
tea all like the task, it falls heavily on no one, and is indeed 
a labor of love. 

Such a thing as a stranger's going to the Writers' Club on 
a house-tea day and being left to mope alone till his or her 
host appears is positively unknown. I do not know how it 
is, but the general tone of the club is one of extreme 
friendliness. I, for one, have made some of my most 
delightful friends in the pleasant and homely rooms where 


a few women started an institution for the comfort of the 
least well-off in the world of literature, amid the assurances 
of most of the women, and practically all of the men, that no 
club of that kind could possibly exist for a year. My great 
hope is that it may flourish and grow apace, but that we 
may never grow so big as. to become either formal or 



Editorial Comment — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Cath- 
olic Women's Department Congress, by Mary Josephine Onahan — 
Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Department Congress 
OF the National Alliance of' Unitarian and Other Liberal Chris- 
tian Women, by Mrs. Jenkin Lloyd Jones — Extracts from an 
Address Delivered in the Department Congress of the Woman's Cen- 
tenary Association of the Universalist Church, by Rev. Lorenza A. 
Haynes — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Department 
Congress of the Women's Baptist Home Missionary Society, by 
Marion E. Isaacs — Extracts from Addresses Delivered in the 
Report Congresses, by Mrs. E. S. Strachan, Mrs. O. A. Burgess, 
Alice May Scudder, Elizabeth M. Tilley, and Sigrid Storcken- 
FELDT — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Department 
Congress of the International Committee of the Young Women's 
Christian Associations, BY Mrs. William Boyd — Sermon Delivered 
IN THE General Congress, by Rev. Anna H. Shaw. 

PERHAPS no other single chapter in its history will 
better denote the true catholicity of the Congress 
than this, which presents the service of women to 
religion through the varied means provided by the Roman 
Catholic church and the denominations of Protestantism. 

The Catholic Women's Department Congress is assigned 
the first place from a sense of reverent respect to the 
mother church, which the most ultra Protestants should be 
the readiest to express, and also from the desire to recog- 
nize the peculiar difficulties under which the liberal-minded 
Catholics who organized this congress labored. From the 
first the committee of organization wished to secure the 
cooperation of Catholic women. (It will be understood that 
the word Catholic is used here in its restricted sectarian 



sense.) But owing to the reciprocal ignorance of one 
another's work, which has hitherto distinguished Catholics 
and Protestants, the committee did not know to whom 
among CathoKcs to appeal for this cooperation ; whom to 
invite to speak in the General Congress; or to whom to 
suggest the organization of a Catholic department congress. 
The committee's ignorance delayed action. It was finally 
through the kindness and sympathy of Archbishop Ireland 
that the chairman of the committee of organization was 
placed in correspondence with Alice Timmons Toomy, 
whose response merits equally the gratitude of Catholics 
and Protestants. 

The paper representing Unitarians and other liberals 
follows that representing the Catholics, in order that the 
contrast between those who insist upon dogma and those 
who repudiate it may be emphasized. This chapter will 
show that as much diversity of opinion upon the abstract 
side of religion exists among women as among men ; and 
that women are equally frank in expressing their opinions. 
It will also show that women of all faiths regard the con- 
crete expression of religion as the just measure of its sin- 
cerity, the accepted test of its substance. 

Any one who cherishes the belief that women have a 
genius for finance, and that in them, as a class, the execu- 
tive faculty preponderates, will find here numerous illustra- 
tions of this view. That the impecunious class, the depend- 
ents, the "paupers," can raise hundreds of thousands of 
dollars annually for religious work, shows that " making 
bricks without straw" was by no means an impossible 
task. That this class, deficient in business experience as 
in pecuniary resources, can manage financial enterprises 
which girdle the earth, is a just ground of hope that, with 
experience, they may come to "hold their own" in tem- 
poral affairs. 

The sermon, with which the chapter concludes, was de- 
livered in the General Congress, and was indeed (if one 
excepts the musical programme prepared by Mrs. Coonley, 


aided by Miss Root, and rendered on the evening of Sunday, 
May 2 1 St, see Chapter II, Volume I) the last utterance of the 
congress. It seems fitting that a chapter which reveals the 
degree to which women have entered already into the 
religious work of the world should conclude with Miss 
Shaw's inspiring analysis and application of the text, which 
the revised version lifts out of dead history, and translating 
it into current life, imbues with prophecy. " The women 
that publish the tidings," already ** a great host," are becom- 
ing an irresistible force. — [The Editor.] 

Catholic Women's Part in Philanthropy — Address 
BY Mary Josephine Onahan of Illinois. 

Philanthropy has been flippantlj' defined as a virtue that 
increases with the square of the distance. The word has, 
indeed, a grandiose sound. Far better and simpler is that 
beautiful word charity. Philanthropy is the creature of the 
nineteenth century, that century too much in love with 
itself to be genuinely great. Charity is the spirit of God 
himself that has breathed through all the ages, transform- 
ing weakness into strength, sorrow into rejoicing, sin into 

To earnest souls there is no skipping the meaning of life. 
Either it means everything ; either it is God, and work, and 
immortality; or it means nothing — "an ant-hill lost in 
space." God and immortality — they are questions which 
must often be solved in sorest peril, direst anguish. 

God and immortality, all-important facts as they are — 
facts upon which hinge all duty arfd all happiness — often, 
however, seem to us practical workers in an every-day 
world, tinged, even the best of us, by the waves of agnos- 
ticism, truths which are too far away to be of daily and 
hourly moment to us. The atheist may deny them, the 
believer may uphold them ; but however men may differ 
on these all-important questions — truths which lie at the 


very core and center of life itself — on the third truth they 
can not differ — the utility, the necessity of work. 

The world no longer asks, "What do you think?" It 
asks, '* What do you do?" Not, *'What is your creed?" 
but, " What is your practice — your daily life ? Are you 
making the world better, and stronger, and braver, and 
happier than it was, or are you making it duller, more 
besotted, and more ignorant ? " The question is not shirked 
by the Catholic church, nor is it shirked by Catholic 

Charity knows no sex. The works of women have from 
the earliest days gone hand in hand with the works of men. 
To feed the hungry, to clothe the naked, to visit the sick — 
these are duties that present themselves to women as to 
men, and women have fulfilled, are still fulfilling, them. 

A history of Catholic women in philanthropy would mean 
principally, though not entirely, a history of the religious 
orders of the church — a subject too high and too broad for 
any but the most gifted pen. Even to name these orders 
would take much time and research. In the middle ages 
for every hillside that had its monastery another was 
crowned by a convent. In the fourth century the name of 
Monica is wreathed with the memory of Augustine ; the 
gentle Umbrian St. Francis had for his spiritual daughter 
the blessed Clare. In our own day what need to tell of the 
work of women? They are everywhere, these plainly- 
garbed, gentle-voiced, energetic workers. In Africa they 
are working shoulder to shoulder with the missionary in 
the province so dearly loved by the lamented Cardinal 
Lavigerie. In Senegambia and Sierra Leone the Holy 
Ghost fathers are no move energetic in converting and 
baptizing the warriors of the savage tribes than are the 
Irish nuns in teaching and civilizing their women and chil- 
dren. Indeed, without the co5peration of the nuns many of 
the foreign missions would have to be abandoned*, as it is 
an unwritten law among many of the savage tribes that no 
man, white or black, priest or layman, can enter their 


homes or speak to their women. But the nuns can go 
everywhere unmolested. 

The work of women in China and Japan and in the islands 
of Oceania is too well known to need comment here. The 
annals of the propagation of the faith are filled with their 
glorious story. They have gone even to the leper colonies, 
where might well be written, **A11 hope abandon ye who 
enter here." They are devoting their lives to the civilizing, 
the Christianizing of the poor Indians, whose treatment by 
the United States Government is, indeed, a shame and a 

Women have kept step with men in these far-away fields 
beneath tropic skies ; they have not been outdone by 
them in more civilized lands here at our door. For every 
hundred souls that have gone bravely forth for the conver- 
sion of the savage, we have, as is fitting, thousands who 
are devoting themselves to the reclaiming of their fellow- 
creatures here in our midst. 

Nor is the work of Catholic women confined to the 
religious orders, although the most self-sacrificing are 
naturally absorbed by them. The more common work and 
sphere of woman in the home, as wife and mother, are 
equally, if not more, important. The home is the unit of 
society, of the state. Given a nation of well-ordered, virt- 
uous, happy homes, and this world would be a Utopia. The 
work of woman radiates from that home as from its most 
natural as well as from its most universal center. 

Whether as nun, as wife, or as mother, whether married 
or unmarried, the great fundamental rights and duties of 
woman remain the same — to work out the best that is 
in her. 

The ideal of womanhood has not changed. Man's equal 
and man's helpmate she was made ; man's equal and man's 
helpmate she must ever be. The ideal that calls to her to- 
day called to her also in the past. 

Christianity has been sometimes called a religion of pes- 
simism, and, in one sense, it doubtless is so ; but in another 


and a higher sense no optimism can be greater. '* Vanitas 
vanitatum," it says to the riches and pleasures and honors 
of this world, and at the touch of that magnet they crumble 
into dust ; but though on the one hand it says '' All is 
vanity," on the other it says " All is divine." The pagans, 
when they wished to confer honor on their heroes, made 
them into gods, and Olympus became their dwelling-place ; 
but it remained for Christianity to make of the humblest 
tiller of the soil, the veriest drawer of water, a child of the 
Most High, an inheritor of immortality. 

Post Office Missions — Address by Mrs. Jenkin Lloyd 
Jones of Illinois. 

One of the first, most persistent perplexities that faced 
the Western Unitarian Conference, at its very inception, 
was, how to reach the isolated ; how to carry our gospel of 
love to hearts hungering for it. All over this long, broad 
Mississippi Valley were scattered men and women toiling 
ceaselessly to found homes and rear families up to the 
stature of their high ideals. For this they had left home, 
broken old ties, cast aside dear memories and associa- 
tions and started out buoyant with hope and faith in the 
future of themselves, and of this goodly land so full of 

To touch such lives, to bring them within the electric 
circle of its influence, its fellowship, was the conference 
problem ; its first attempt at a solution of which was to dis- 
trict the whole field as far as practicable. It shall be the 
duty of each clergyman or layman to whom a district shall 
be intrusted, to ascertain in what places in his district there 
are Unitarians residing; how many in each, with their 
names ; who among them are willing to act as lay mission- 
aries by taking deposits of books and tracts for gratuitous 
distribution. This work was pushed and annually reported 
for the next ten years ; then all was changed — the rebellion 


must be quelled, emancipation from human bondage pro- 
claimed, contrabands provided for and freedmeu protected 
and taught. A few of these depositories, however, were at 
work still in 1 870. 

At the annual meeting in 1854 it was reported, as a result 
of this movement, that many books, tracts, sermons, 
together with a small volume prepared and published by 
the conference, entitled Unitarian VicwSy had been dis- 
tributed. The following year the secretary (Rev. A. A. 
Livermore) reports : " There come to us daily assurances 
that there are multitudes thirsting for our liberal religion," 
that "the demand is for living men and living books." 
About this time a colporteur (Peter Betsch) was sent out 
by the conference, a man who had studied for the ministry 
but was not available in the pulpit, so filled, however, with 
missionary zeal and enthusiasm that he was willing to do 
any work given him; and most faithfully did our little 
German ply his vocation with his peddler's cart of books, 
leaving tracts wherever a willing reader was found. But 
still the great unchurched were not yet reached. It was 
recommended that the subscribers to the Register and 
Inquirer pass their papers on when read, and the Monthly 
Journal also. A secretary was put into the field who made 
his *' headquarters in the saddle," but the ** field " was too 
extensive, and much of his time was necessarily taken up 
with centers of activity. Besides there were only twenty- 
four hours in a day.and night and no more days in a year. 

In 1872-4 The Sunday. School was published at Janes- 
ville, Wis., the first Sunday-school lesson sheet among Uni- 
tarians, and sent with lavish hand to subscribers and others^ 
the others being the longest list ; hoping thereby to start 
home or neighborhood Sunday-schools and Sunday circles. 
A few of each were started by this means, as was also quite 
an extensive correspondence. Then The Liberal Worker 
was issued and The Stinday School turned over to its pages, 
that by this combination a still larger constituency might 
be aided ; and so they were, but the number needing succor 


had still increased and covered a much more extensive 

In 1875 a secretary from "the isolated," wide awake to 
their needs and with a burning zeal to help them, was put 
into the field. About this time a new convert, with brain 
fired with the magnitude and beneficence of our religion, 
had been called from orthodoxy to the Third Church, 
Chicago. The Chicago Times, ever alert to a wise invest- 
ment, published his sermons in its Monday issue, carry- 
ing the gospel of " truth, righteousness, and love " into 
homes it had never reached before. This new missionary 
agent (the Times) brought to Mr. Powell letters of inquiry 
from many places. 

What was this religion ? Where could they get more ? 
etc. These letters forwarded to the secretary increased 
the already extensive correspondence materially, as some 
of them were from young men in universities, who grew 
zealous and aggressive, asking for documents by the fifties 
for distribution among their school-fellows. The missionary 
needs to be met through the mails had become so imperative 
in 1878 that a semi-monthly, called the Pamphlet Missiotiy 
designed to be the instrument in forming Sunday circles, 
with sermons and services, was started. This afterward 
became Unity. In the meantime the correspondence seemed 
to increase much more rapidly than the facilities for carry- 
ing it on. The sermons published in the secular papers, 
and the publication of the Pamphlet Missiotiy awakened fresh 
interest in new themes pertaining to religion. Miss F. L. 
Roberts was appointed assistant secretary, and the Chicago 
women rented and fitted up headquarters for the conference 
work and Pamphlet Mission, which had now assumed the more 
euphonious title, Unity. In these headquarters, though 
crowded and not very inviting, much good work was done ; 
the secretary carrying on his work there when not in the 
field, Miss Roberts taking up the end of the work now 
known as "post office mission work," and looking after 


the interests that came into the office, and the Chicago 
women meeting there for work, study, and consultation. 

About this time Miss Sallie Ellis entered the missionary 
field in Cincinnati, and began that wonderful work she was 
enabled to accomplish through her intense devotion and 
untiring energy, that work which has aroused so much 
enthusiasm and so strong a desire to go and do likewise. 
To her consecration and efficiency is due the interest awak- 
ened in this work east and west — a work now brought as 
nearly to perfection, it would seem, as it well can be. 

I think in this little history of the rise and growth of the 
post office mission, you will plainly see that it began in a 
crude way, away back in the fifties, groping on through 
book depositories, tract distributors, colporteurs, missiona- 
ries. The Sunday School, the Pamphlet Mission; each giving it 
an impetus until it grew so great that it required organized 
effort and a band of workers. You see that it is not the 
child of women *s conferences, but it was a large factor in 
creating these women's organizations. Man wrestled for a 
quarter of a century with the problem of " how to reach the 
isolated ** ; woman, with her pen, is solving it. 

And we must not forget that when the query was first 
put postage was expensive and railroads few. The United 
States Government and "soulless railroad corporations" 
have materially aided in the solution of this our most per- 
plexing problem. But it is only being solved. There is 
more work to do, more people are to be reached, new phases 
of thought, and new wants are awaiting our patience and 

The material used for this missionary work thirty-five or 
forty years ago was almost entirely doctrinal — a vindica- 
tion of Unitarianism vs. Trinitarianism. 

Later we endeavored to justify our position by publish- 
ing and circulating lists of eminent persons who were 
of our religious household. Now, however, we have left 
the question of our popularity, respectability even, to care 
for itself. We have grown into the higher ideal of a living, 


working, useful faith — a hoiliely faith that goes straight 
to the heart of every man and woman, enkindling fresh 
hope and courage to meet life's responsibilities, perplexities, 
and privations. 

The ideal is truer than the real. We strive for, grow to 
the ideal ; we struggle with, grow from the real into the 
higher — the ideal. To-day is only the highway to to-mor- 
row. To-morrow is our real ; it holds our hopes, our aspira- 
tions. To it we look for the realization of our longings. 

And our post office mission is to-day what it is because of 
this forward-looking tendency, this onward march. Sus- 
pended animation savors of death. In healthy life there 
must be action. The latest development in reaching the 
isolated — I mean the religiously isolated, whether they 
dwell in city, hamlet, prairie, or wild wood — is by personal 
contact and the living voice. Mrs. Dix has told us of the 
work of the New York League and its happy, hopeful 
promise. There is a trend along the line in this direction 
of lay service work. Already a post office mission recip- 
ient has begun this work in Florida, another in Texas, and 
Mr. Judy's " Church of the Isolated " is evolving. But this 
means more work, not less ; more consecration, more energy, 
more faith in far-reaching results. 

And thus will come this new gospel — a gospel that 
emphasizes the religion of household duties, the sanctity of 
cleanliness, the ethics of cooking, the consecration and 
devoutness due to parentage, the holy mission of home- 
making, the high calling of training the future generation 
to holy living ; a religion for the counting-house, for the 
farmer and the farm-hand, for the toiler everywhere; a 
religion that teaches the sanctity of work and the infidelity 
of idleness ; a religion " of the people, by the people, and 
for the people." 


The Relation of Young Women to Church Missions 
— Address by Rev. Lorenza Haynes of Massa- 

What relation have young women to the needs and 

advantages of church missions? They are an important 
factor by the fresh energy they can bring to the work, and 
by the earnestness of purpose with which they engage in 
what they are interested in. This is well illustrated by their 
coming so rapidly to the front in educational, philanthropic, 
and religious movements. Young women are related to 
Christian missions by the highest, loveliest quality of the 
heart — gratitude — which recognizes how much it owes 
to the teachings of Christianity. Great as were the bene- 
fits which Christ's doctrines brought to men, yet far 
greater were those resulting to woman as woman. The 
animus of his religion lifted her not only from spiritual 
darkness into marvelous light, but from ignorance, ser\a- 
tude, and degradation. It has raised her from man's feet to 
take her place by his side, so to be his equal, his true help- 
mate ; so to advance with him up the steps of knowledge, 
and so labor with him in extending Christianity and all the 
great philanthropies that are the outcome of it. Women 
can not overrate the debt they owe to the teachings of 
Jesus. As Christianity is its own best evidence, so what it 
has done for woman is the best proof of its claims upon 
her. Young women, alert to truth, justice, and gratitude, 
must be alive to their relations to church missions. They 
are related to this work by the law of heredity. They 
are soon to fill the places and do the work of their elders, 
and should be ready for apprenticeship before the elders 
close their labors. With the onward, upward march of the 
world's progress, and with increasing opportunities and 
obligations, the young women of to-day must do more and 
better work than their predecessors if they would hold even 
equal rank. They are required to bear the banner " Ex- 


celsior." This must be done not alone to keep the great 
moral and spiritual forces in operation, but to fulfill the 
essentials of their own development. Life's purpose can 
be attained only by living in the likeness of the Father. 
Growth into the moral likeness of G^d means growth into 
the moral activities of God. The more we work for the 
thing we love, the more we love it, and the result is the 
soul's enlarged life. The reverse is true. ** An angel's wing 
would droop if long at rest." Christianity can not mean 
much to a heart that takes no active measures to spread its 
blessings. A love of God is increased by a love of our 
neighbor, and a right love of our neighbor is increased by 
doing something to benefit his spiritual life. The earlier 
it is begun the earlier it becomes a habit of heart, and the 
character it forms is life's harvest, and all that can be 
carried to the great beyond. 

One of the chambers in the Catacombs of St. Calixtus at 
Rome is called the "Cubiculum of St. Cecilia," in honor 
of that Christian woman who was buried here after her 
martyrdom, 224 A. D. On the wall of this room is a fresco 
of St. Cecilia, a beautiful Roman lady in rich attire and 
adornments. Near it is a niche for the lamp which burned 
before the shrine. On the back of the shrine is a large 
head of Christ, with rays of glory around it in the form of 
a Greek cross. It is believed to be the earliest picture of 
him in existence. There was a silent, an impressive 
eloquence to me in those two faces on the wall, down 
among the dark tunneled streets of that city of the dead, 
where the grass never grows and the sun never shines. 
The sad, gentle countenance of him who died for humanity, 
and the lovely face of her who gave her life for his truth, 
were a touching reminder of woman in Christ's work. 

828 congress of representative women. 

Christ on the Avenue — Address by Marion E. Isaacs 
OF New York. 

A serious question for Christians to consider is, has not 
the weight and energy of Christian labor been thrown 
almost entirely in favor of reaching and saving those who, 
like the people of Christ^s time on earth, were most willing 
to hear, and consequently most easily reached ? Has not the 
more difficult and stony ground of the wealthy class been 
overlooked, and is there not danger of over-concentration 
of the work in the direction of the poorer people in the 
slums and alleys? 

It is true the great middle class, the respectable poor, and 
the low down, form much the larger part of the community. 
But this wealthy class for which we Christian people have 
never made especial effort, is it not time that we bethought 
ourselves, and prayerfully considered some means by which 
they can be reached ? It can be said of us, " This ought you 
to have done and not have left the other undone." When 
our hearts are aglow with desire to save souls, do we 
remember that one soul is as precious as another in the 
sight of our loving Lord ? He would save the ruler just as 
quickly as the thief on the cross, did he but show the same 
penitence. Can not these nineteenth century Christians 
devise some means of reaching the smaller and wealthy 
avenue class, the heathen in the brownstone and marble 
palaces ? 

Our societies are formed with reference to the wants of 
every gradation of society, from the dark and loathsome 
cellar to the attic, then on through the lanes and highways 
— until we reach the avenue ; there the work halts at the 
homes of the wealthy, each seeming to vie with the other 
in costly magnificence, looking to the casual observer as 
if every need was met, every desire gratified within 
those stately walls. 

Let us then consider the case of the wealthy, and classify 
them into three divisions. First, the avenue homes where 


Christ reigns and is welcome in the hearts of the owners 
and dwellers; whose broad halls and drawing-rooms are 
often thrown open to God's people for religious work 
of various kinds. These gatherings are among the most 
influential and practical helps to draw the thoughtless and 
godless of the avenue class to a realization of their respon- 
sibility toward their Maker and humanity. These wealthy 
and cultured Christians are a power used by God to make 
religion attractive and reach those whom Christians in a 
humbler sphere have not the opportunity to meet. It is 
an all-wise and never-erring God that has placed Christians 
in different positions in life, and given to each correspond- 
ing responsibility. Out of each and every station of life 
he calls his leaders. We have in our great metropolis^ 
noble, godly men and women from the wealthiest homes^ 
whose examples in deeds of charity, "and in their conse- 
crated lives, give us the highest type of a Christian life. 
This class clearly does not trust in riches. They will not 
go away sorrowful, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 
This class does not need our efforts, but we do need 
theirs; the world needs them; their neighbors especially 
need them. 

Two other classes or divisions we would consider, and 
it is for them we believe especial effort should be made. 
To the first of them, to whom religious observances are a 
passport for entrance into the refined circles of their avenue 
neighbors, we would give a little thought. To many of 
these religion is a beautiful sentimentality. They go to 
church on the Sabbath, especially in the morning. They 
pay some observance to the Lenten season ; the fashionable 
avenue people do that, for it is then the weary bodies and 
the excited brains give themselves a little rest from the 
round of gaieties that fashionable society imposes upon its 
votaries. Now comes the time for the quiet card-party, 
and the home dance, and the drawing-room is opened 
for entertainments for the poor. These nominal Christians 
will sometimes aid you a little in your charities if you call 



upon them, and when you commence an explanation of the 
charity so dear to your heart, that you have prayed over, 
sacrificed for, and finally consented to beg for, you are cut 
short by the gift of a pittance, perhaps — to aid in a charity 
costing thousands of dollars, and days, months, and years 
of prayerful planning and sacrifice ! Oh, how the heart 
sinks as you feel the bitter disappointment and failure of 
your hopes ! You have all experienced it. 

We pass on to the third and last class of the avenue 
people, where our dear Lord is not recognized, nor his 
name ever mentioned with reverence. These are heedless 
and godless people. There is no open immorality; that 
would not do, for they are on the avenue. The sacred day, 
which in divine wisdom was made for rest, is the chosen 
•one for their festivities. The dinner-giving among this 
class is largely done on the' Sabbath. It is the favorite 
reception-day of the ultra fashionable. In the eagerness 
for rapidly accumulated fortunes these people have over- 
looked the acquiring of those higher, spiritual qualities that 
make truly noble and respected citizens. The strife for 
pleasure and distinction, and the bartering of precious 
souls for the few brief hours of mortal life, would be ludi- 
crous were it not for the serious fact that the grand oppor- 
tunity for securing eternal life and uplifting humanity 
here is unthought of and utterly ignored. The influence 
too upon those around is one of the saddest features. 

We have said there are societies formed to reach every 
phase and condition except the godless homes of the rich. 
We have our Salvation Army for the masses; who will 
devise measures equally efficient for reaching the dwellers 
on the avenue ? We have admitted that the latter are more 
difficult to reach ; but is that any reason why we should not 
form some plan and attempt the difficult task ? We have 
the parable of the unjust steward, who was commended for 
his worldly wisdom; and can not God's stewards use as 
much shrewdness and wisdom in spiritual and immortal 
interests as the ungodly in worldly matters? It is in the 


power of every Christian to be a missionary, and God has 
given to every one a mission. There is no one fact that 
requires to be pressed upon men and women more emphatic- 
ally than this. One of the earliest lessons God taught was 
care for others, and that we are our brothers* keepers. As 
all have a mission, what is yours ? What is your station in 
life ? Are you in some position where you can reach and 
influence the godless upon the avenue ? And if so, do you 
use your power for good there ? Do you take every oppor- 
tunity to uphold the religion of Jesus Christ in whatever 
position he has placed you ? Among the lofty or among the 
lowly, the gospel is equally needed. Do you adapt yourself, 
to the different phases of life and the different characters you 
meet? Are you, like Paul, "become all things to all men 
for Christ's sake*'? As no two faces are alike in all this 
wide world, so no two characters are alike. And each one 
you plead with personally will need the adapted word that 
the Spirit only can give. 

What a fine illustration of quickness to seize the oppor- 
tunity to preach Christ is found in Paul's prison life, where 
he was chained to a guard. Little chance, we should think, 
to spread the story of salvation through Jesus Christ, yet 
there was his chance, and grandly did he improve it. 
The guard was changed every four hours, so in each twenty- 
four hours in the loathsome prison Paul taught Christ to 
many Roman soldiers during his long imprisonment. Those 
men told the wonderful story to other men, and so it was 
carried to the whole Roman guard. 

It is seldom that the heart of any woman, whatever her 
position in life, is entirely barred against softening influ- 
ences. There are channels of sympathy by which the inmost 
recesses may be reached. On meeting an ultra fashionable 
woman, who apparently thought of little else than her 
elegant mansion, her equipage and entertainments, the 
conversation turned upon a social scandal concerning one 
of the oldest and wealthiest families of the avenue. The 
daily papers were filled with the details and painful proofs 


verifying the story. The lady remarked, " They are not so 
much to blame, for their entertainments are so sumptuous, 
the wines so fine and plentiful, and they indulge so freely, 
they cease to be responsible/* What a sad picture ! That 
lady well knew what she was describing, for her life was 
much among such scenes as she had described. By the 
length and freedom of the conversation opportunity was 
given to talk of better things. Philanthropic work was 
discussed, in which some of the fashionable people were 
engaged. This interested her. Next, accounts of religious 
works were dilated upon, and the heartfelt satisfaction and 
pleasure derived from them was recounted. After listening 
attentively, she said, " Tell me more about your work. I 
often wish I could do something of the kind. I have time 
enough." And truly she had, for she had little to do but 
to amuse herself. 

We have said that work could be found wherever we were 
placed. The magnificent example of a godly woman who 
commenced work for Christ among the avenue classes thirty 
years ago is cited, by those who knew and loved her, every 
day. Her memory is fresh and her work goes on, although 
a decade has passed since her living presence was an inspi- 
ration to all who came in contact with her. An organized 
society of Christian women of all denominations is a living 
monument to her memory. This society is so broad in its 
scope that it is known all over the Christian world, for its 
members may be found in all countries. This beautiful 
lady possessed the graces as well as the virtues of a true 
Christian woman. Her position called the worldly about 
her. She felt that she must maintain her Christian princi- 
ples under all these adverse surroundings. She communed 
with her Saviour, and he pointed out the way. She took 
Christ with her into her avenue life, and was the means of 
leading many a thoughtless, fashionable woman of her own 
circle up to a higher and better life. There are many mon- 
uments to her memory in the form of Christian work and 
organized societies. This woman was as clearly selected and 


equipped for God's work as any missionary appointed by 
our boards. She was a missionary to her own people, and 
they rise up and call her blessed. 

All missionaries, ministers, colporteurs, and effective 
Christian workers of every kind will concur with the remark 
of a well-taught graduate of a missionary training-school, 
that the longer she worked the stronger her conviction was 
that the best work for the Master must be done by personal 

Have you exhausted every means in your power person- 
ally to influence the unconverted to accept the truth as it is 
in Jesus ? Will you not press home the truth that Christ 
will come to judge all, and possibly sooner than we think ? 
Should he come to-morrow, would you be ready for him 
and be one of the first to welcome him? Have you warned 
those friends of yours in those great mansions on the 
avenue that Christ is coming ? 

Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, 
Canada — Report by Mrs. E. S. Strachan of Canada. 

The Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church 
of Canada was organized November 8, 1881; hence it is now 
nearly twelve years old. It extends from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, being composed of six large branches, which 
embrace five hundred auxiliary or local societies, and two 
hundred and twenty mission circles and bands; the total 
membership being almost nineteen thousand. 

The amount raised last year was thirty-five thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-nine dollars and ninety cents, and the 
total, since organization, in the neighborhood of two hun- 
dred thousand dollars, an advance each year of about three 
thousand dollars. 

This has been raised chiefly by annual fees of one dollar 
each, life members' fees of twenty-five dollars, and by the 
contributions of young people. 


One special feature of our financial policy is that the ' 

money is raised one year and distributed the following ; , 

hence in case of special demand or emergency, we can draw 
from our own treasury without incurring debt, thus only 
lessening the amount to be appropriated at the next annual | 

meeting. I 

There are no salaried officers in our work, all being ] 

volunteers, at the same time being elected by ballot. We i 

have now in active service twenty missionaries, Canadian 
young women, with three at home on furlough, and more 
are needed. Our work is both home and foreign, and we 
are striving to teach the gospel to people of four languages, 
the French, Indian, Japanese, and Chinese. In the province 
of Quebec there is much ignorance and superstition, and 
there are many barriers to the reading of God's holy word. 

In the city of Montreal our Woman's Missionary Society 
shares with the parent. This is also the case in carrying on 
the French Institute, which was built a few years ago for 
the education of French boys and girls, and where every 
season some Roman Catholics receive the truth to the eleva- 
tion of their souls. To-day schools are also supported in the 
city, besides two Bible meetings of women. 

For many years our church has worked among the 
Indians, and many have been brought from darkness into 
light, but to secure the most far-reaching results, boarding- 
schools, where children can be removed from the influences 
of camp life, are considered the most effectual method of 
forming good. Christian citizens ; hence buildings have 
been erected, and two schools for Indian girls are sustained 
by our society in British Columbia. In these six teachers 
are engaged, and industrial teaching is in contemplation. 
From the beginning of our history Japan has had a large 
share in our plans and endeavors. Our first representative 
was sent in the fall of 1882. A boarding-school, largely 
self-supporting, was established at Tokio. During its 
second year it had to be enlarged, then another was erected 
adjacent to the first, and still more room had to be supplied. 


Over one thousand pupils have passed through this school, 
and not only have they been taught, but about two hundred 
have become professed disciples of the Lord Jesus, and in 
the hearts of many others has the truth been received, but 
baptism has been delayed, owing to the opposition of 
parents. Two other boarding-schools are maintained in 
other cities, besides day-schools, Sunday-schools, and Bible 
women's meetings. 

The King s Daughters . organization has met with great 
favor among the Japanese girls, and in many ways they are 
actively engaged in giving time, labor, and money to bene- 
fit those less favored than themselves by supporting and 
visiting a bed in a Christian hospital, by carrying on a day- 
school for poor children, making over garments for them, 
etc., and also by giving a contribution to send the gospel 
to China. The success granted us has been most encourag- 
ing, and many of the girls are now able to help our mission- 
aries by interpreting for them, at the same time learning 
the way to work for others and the joy of it. A few months 
since we extended our efforts by sending to China two mis- 
sionaries, one a physician, as far as Shanghai, there to wait 
for a favorable opportunity to proceed to the province of 
Sz-chuen (some eighteen hundred miles inland), where 
our church has recently opened a mission. 

To return to our own country : In Victoria, B. C, some few 
years ago an evil was found to exist, not unknown in this 
land of wondrous liberty — that of human beings, our sisters, 
though of another language, being sold for a price to bring 
gain to their purchasers through a life of infamy — sold with- 
out consent; sometimes children of tender years. This 
terrible evil, although curtailed, is not yet suppressed. 

A Rescue Home was opened a few years since, into which 
about twenty have been gathered, who have found not only 
food, shelter, and kindness, but education of the mind and 
instruction in the knowledge of the one true and loving 
God. Ten have been married, most, if not all, to Christian 
Chinamen, and have established homes of their own that 


form new centers of light amidst the darkness of their 
heathen countrymen. A few have returned to their friends 
in China, and nine are now in residence. Who can tell the 
results of such a work ? 

The Organization and Work of the Christian Woman's 
Board of Missions — Report by Mrs. O. A. Burgess 
OF Indiana. 

The Woman's Missionary Society of the Christian church, 
known as the Christian Woman's Board of Missions, which 
I have the honor to represent here to-day, had its beginning 
eighteen years ago last October. The beginning was small, 
with only seventy charter members from six different States, 
but the purpose was divine, and slowly but steadily the 
society has grown in numbers and influence until now over 
thirty thousand women and children are enrolled from 
thirty-one States and two Territories. The association was 
incorporated under the laws of the State of Indiana in 1883, 
with its location in the city of Indianapolis. The objects 
of the organization as defined by the constitution are, ** to 
maintain preachers and teachers for religious instruction ; to 
encourage and cultivate a missionary spirit and missionary 
efforts in the churches ; to disseminate missionary intelli- 
gence, and to secure systematic contributions for such pur- 
poses; also to establish and maintain schools and institu- 
tions for the education of both males and females." The 
intent at the time of the the organization, as the words 
** board of missions" indicate, was to do both home and 
foreign work under the same management. As the women 
of the Christian church had not at that time been trained to 
large activity in church-work and Christian benevolence, 
the first need was at home, among ourselves, and in educa- 
tional lines. We began forming the women into societies 
and the children into mission bands, cultivating a missionary 
spirit and practicing systematic giving for missionary pur- 


poses. Thus an interest in the fields beyond was developed, 
the offerings were increased, and the outlook broadened. 
All the societies and bands are auxiliary to the national 
board, and we aim to have them in every church. The 
growth of the association and the enlargement of its under- 
takings depend upon the auxiliaries. Their contributions 
to the treasury are as the rivulets to the mighty river, the 
source of supply. The work depends upon developing 
and utilizing the women of the church, many of whom are 
only awaiting the call to service. Like their sisters else- 
where, they are sitting with folded hands, not realizing 
that there is anything for them to do. Though they are idly 
waiting, yet will they gladly hear the voice saying, "Why 
stand ye here idle? Go work in my vineyard." This is the 
home side of our missionary work. 

The last annual report shows over one thousand eight 
hundred auxiliaries and bands ; and receipts for the year, 
fifty-two thousand three hundred and twenty-seven dollars 
and ninety-three cents. By way of comparison, I will men- 
tion that our receipts for the first year after organization 
were one thousand two hundred dollars and thirty-five 
cents, and the grand total for the eighteen years three 
hundred and forty-five thousand dollars. The society has a 
small endowment fund of twenty thousand dollars, which is 
kept loaned on good security, the interest of it going to 
heathen fields. This fund is made up of life memberships 
and bequests. Such gifts now go into the general fund 
and are available for immediate use, unless otherwise 
stipulated by the donor. This change has been made 
because we think it is better policy to invest in souls than 
in first-class real estate mortgages. The interest on such 
investments is sure ; there is no discounting it. 

So far as I know, the Christian Woman's Board of Mis- 
sions is unique, in that the business of the society is man- 
aged entirely by women ; the executive committee is 
composed of women, and we have our own methods of 
organizing the States, and developing our forces, and rais- 


ing money for the extension of the work, by gathering it 
in mites among the women and children. We select our 
mission fields and employ our missionaries, both men and 
women, and are in every way responsible for the conduct 
of the business of the society. For years we were not 
aware that other societies did not proceed in the same way. 
As the women of the church become interested in others, 
and feel their responsibility in the evangelization of the 
world, the society increases in numbers and in ability to 
extend its influence ; to enter fields in heathen lands where* 
our sisters sit in darkness waiting to hear the story of 
Jesus* love, that light and joy may come into their lives. 

An association corporate, the society owns its mission 
properties, some of them directly and others through a 
trustee, where the laws do not admit a title direct. 

Our foreign work is on the island of Jamaica and in 
India. In Jamaica we have seven ministers, eighteen 
stations, and one thousand six hundred members. There 
are ten day-schools and seventeen Sunday-schools, with a 
total attendance of one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
eight. There are five workers at present in Bilaspur, 
India, two of whom are physicians, two teachers, and one 
zenana worker, or house-to-house visitor. The buildings 
there are a bungalow, school-house, orphanage, and hospital. 
These were erected under the direct supervision of our 
missionaries, all of whom at that place are women. The 
money for the buildings (over eleven thousand dollars) 
was raised by the mission bands, and also that for several 
chapels in other fields. Nearly four thousand patients were 
treated by the two physicians last year, their visits and 
attendances numbering about nine thousand. The zenana 
worker had many places on her visiting list, some of them 
in neighboring villages. The women would crowd around 
her, eager to hear what she had to say ; then tell others of 
the strange things they had seen and heard, and when she 
visited them again new and curious faces would greet her. 
There seems to be a strange fascination in the heathen 


work for both teacher and people — in the missionary, the 
desire innate to help others ; in the people, a reaching out 
and longing for something better than they possess. They 
are ig^norant, and degraded, and superstitious, it is true, but 
there is that within every human heart which responds to 
the appeal for a better life. Men are not content to live and 
die like the dumb animals about them. We are told that 
God made man in his own image, and, marred though that 
image may be, it has not been wholly obliterated. 

The States of Montana and Colorado are our special field 
of operation in the United States, and it would be difficult 
to overestimate their importance as a mission field. We 
have a Chinese mission at Portland, Ore., where we have 
employed Jeu Hawk, a native Chinese, educated in this 
country at Drake University, to teach the school and 
preach to his people. He gives promise • of doing great 
good among his kindred according to the flesh — the 
heathen at our door. 

At Ann Arbor, Mich., the society built a chapel, and 
nearly two years ago started a church and employed a 
minister to take charge of it. We consider it both an 
important and a promising point on account of its location 
at an educational center. A great and influential school, 
such as Michigan University, will be the rallying place for 
the youth and culture of the land. Our aim is to make a 
church home for some of these young people while there. 
We have a flourishing school at Hazel Green, Ky., the 
Mountain Mission by name. The academy building and 
dormitory are the property of the board. Besides the 
places mentioned, the society gives assistance at Rochester, 
N. Y. ; Duluth, Minn. ; Newport News, Va. ; Sacramento, 
Eureka, and Santa Barbara, Cal., and Ogden, Utah. 

Last year the disbursements of the society for foreign 
missions were thirteen thousand eight hundred and twenty 
dollars and thirty-eight cents; for our western missions 
thirteen thousand six hundred and fifty-five dollars and 
sixty cents ; for others of the State missions, twelve thou- 


sand one hundred and eighty-eight dollars and eighty-four 
cents ; making a total of thirty-nine thousand six hundred 
and sixty-four dollars and eighty-two cents, or in round 
numbers, forty thousand dollars. You observe that the 
expenditures at home have been nearly two-thirds of the 
total receipts. 

Our papers, The Missionary Tidings, for the auxiliaries, 
and The Little Builders at Work, for bands and junior 
societies, are published every month, nine thousand of the 
one and five thousand of the other. They contain reports 
of the work, letters from workers, and programmes for the 
monthly meetings. Both papers are edited by the cor- 
responding secretary of the association. 

In comparison with the work of older and wealthier 
organizations, that of the Christian Woman's Board of 
Missions may appear very insignificant, but we must not 
despise the day of small things. The time was, and that 
not so many years ago, when an organization of women 
for any purpose whatever would have been considered an 
innovation. We trust that the same spirit that is mov- 
ing women everywhere to do something for the advance- 
ment of humanity, and especially for the elevation of 
Christian womanhood, is guiding us. We bid a God-speed 
to sister societies, rejoicing in their success, and join heart 
and hand with all who are interested in the winning of the 
world to Christ. 

Woman's Work in the Society of Christian En- 
deavor—Report BY Alice May Scudder of New 

No organization intrusted to the church has done more 
for the development of women than the Christian En- 
deavor Society. Opportunely born, after woman had en- 
joyed the rights of higher education, it has been eagerly 
captured by those who love not the Pauline prohibition, 
and has proved one of woman's strongest allies. 


In reporting the work of the Christian Endeavor Society 
I shall deal little with figures, which are constantly chang- 
ing, and shall speak of the aims and accomplishments 
of this mighty organization. The real power of the Chris- 
tian Endeavor is found in that portion of the pledge which 
reads, " I promise to be present and take some part, aside 
from singing, in every meeting, unless prevented by some 
reason which I can conscientiously give to my Saviour." 
It is this vow which has given more than forty thousand 
women the privilege of speaking publicly for their Master. 

Christian Endeavor has removed the conventionalities of 
the past, and woman may rise to the religious privileges of 
her brother. No longer must she sit in silence and hear, 
" Thus far shalt thou go and no farther ;" no longer need 
she find her highest church attainment in arranging 
tableaux and passing ice cream, but rather is she expected 
to exert positive spiritual influences. 

Another office of Christian Endeavor has been to change 
religious theory into practice. Jesus expressed it, " Be ye 
doers of the word, not hearers only." Christian Endeavor 
would report her women as doers of the word, for in her 
societies they are taught practical Christianity. There is 
not a phase of religious activity but can be performed under 
some of the committees of this noble organization, which is 
developing s)niimetrical Christians. 

In the Christian Endeavor Society work is done for the 
Home Missionary, Foreign Missionary, City Missionary, 
Temperance, Life-saving, and a host of other organizations, 
and so evenly balanced are all these that one Christian 
virtue is not exalted at the expense of another. This focal- 
izing of all charities under one society is developing noble 
and symmetrical women ; and, as if for a still further broad- 
ening, Christian Endeavor has introduced into the church 
the new feature of inter-denominational fellowship. We 
used to sing about it. and preach about it, and sigh for it, 
but not until the Christian Endeavor Society was born did 
we realize it. 


Over many of our sanctuaries floats a better flag than 
Wesley's or Calvin's, for on it is inscribed "Christian 
Unity." God grant that neither petty jealousy nor narrow- 
mindedness shall ever pull it down ! 

In an exhaustive article in the New England Magazine of 
June, 1892, are written these words: "From the begin- 
ning. Mrs. F. E. Clark, the devoted wife of the president 
of the United Society, has engaged heart and soul in the 
work. It was she who organized the little missionary 
society which became the first society of Christian En- 
deavor, and it is only fair to give a large share of the 
credit to the woman whose influence, though quiet and 
unobtrusive, has been so effective." And in this article 
I gaze on the picture of the original Mizpah circle, and see 
only girlish forms and faces. Had these young women 
been too timid to take the pledge, perhaps the Christian 
Endeavor Society would have been wanting in our church 

Thus we see the mighty influence of woman in this grand 
movement ; nor have we mentioned her influence for good 
over the masculine members of this society. Previous to the 
birth of Christian Endeavor there was a lamentable absence 
of young men from our churches, but sincp the mouths of our 
maidens have been unstopped, man has been attracted again 
to the sanctuary, where, after conversion, he has learned 
to give utterance to his religious thoughts. How much 
of his development belongs to the persuasiveness of his 
Christian Endeavor sister we may not be able to state, 
but we do know that his unwillingness to be counted of 
less value than the feminine members of his society has 
incited him to speak for his Master, and we also know that 
many men have become alive to missionary work by having 
it presented by women. And how many of those who so 
lovingly minister to the outcasts, both at home and abroad, 
are from our Christian Endeavor ranks ! It was by keeping 
that pledge to take some part in every meeting that the 
timid women came out of the shell, and once they came out. 


how earnestly have they gone forth until their whole lives 
are now g^ven to others in loving service ! 

And now, in closing this report, I must not fail to speak 
of that branch of the work so near my own heart, namely, 
woman's part in the religious training of the children in 
our Junior Endeavor societies. We have not the exact 
number of these noble, self-sacrificing women, who are 
mighty fashioners of characters, but we can find them in 
every city and town, working away on the children com- 
mitted to their care like skilled sculptors chiseling out 
Christian men and women. 

The Order of King's Daughters and Sons of Canada 
— Report by Elizabeth M. Tillev of Canada, 
Dominion Secretary. 

The order of King's Daughters had been formed only 
one year in New York when it was heard of in Canada, 
and its broad, loving spirit, showing forth so clearly " Our 
duty toward God and our duty toward our neighbor," 
bespoke for it a warm reception. 

The first circles were formed in Ontario, New Bruns- 
wick, and in British Columbia, in the year 1888. Since 
then the order in Canada has attained a membership of 
over three thousand, and has spread from Prince Edward 
Island on the east to British Columbia on the west. The 
silver cross now shines from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

A Dominion secretary, to take general charge of the order 
in Canada, was elected at the combined Dominion and 
Province of Ontario convention held in Toronto, October, 
1 89 1. Provincial secretaries have been appointed for six of 
the provinces, viz. : Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. 

It will be interesting to know the influence of this order 
where it has taken root, for after all it is the effect upon 
lives and communities that is the test by which we should 
seek to judge it. 


The badge of the order and the watchword, "In His 
Name," have exercised untold influence upon the hearts 
and lives of our members. The first signifies to us the 
redeeming love of our Lord Jesus Christ ; the second the 
scriptural injunction to " Do all in the name of the Lord 
Jesus." The effect of the order, when taken into the 
churches, has been most stimulating, not only to the work 
of the church, but to the lives of the individuals engaged 
in the work. 

The cause of foreign and home missions has received 
earnest attention and aid. Two of the King's Daughters 
are now preparing in a Toronto hospital to go to India as 
nurses and medical missionaries. Members of circles are 
working for missions and supplying both money and cloth- 
ing to sustain them in the Northwest, at home, and in 
foreign lands. Many members are actively working in the 
cause of temperance, and wear the white ribbon as mem- 
bers of the W. C. T. U. 

The badge of our order exerts great influence. Many 
are the instances personally known where a glance at the 
shining cross on the breast has restrained from sin. 

The leader of a circle of hard-working girls, toiling from 
morning until night, told me that one after the other 
reported the influence of the little cross in helping her 
control her temper and refrain from angry words. It has 
led many to acts of unselfishness and little deeds of thought- 
ful kindness, that the wearer might be more Christ-like. 

The influence has been felt among mothers in govern- 
ing their children. One mother said : " I was in the habit of 
chastising my children hastily, but since I put on this cross 
and have endeavored to do all in His name, it has made me 
more patient." Mothers have told of a like effect the cross 
and the watchword are having over their children, and the 
little ones are growing up under its influence and learning 
how to get the victory over self, and to lead useful and 
happy lives in ministering to the wants of others. 

Some circles unite in doing a large work. For instance, 


in St. John, N. B,, they provide a building where working 
girls are welcomed and made at home. They have evening 
classes for them, with educational and other advantages. 
Here you will find the King's Daughters who have had 
greater opportunities willing to come and impart knowl- 
edge to their less favored sisters. Classes are taught in 
arithmetic, writing, music, drawing, stenography, and cut- 
ting and fitting dresses. Another enterprise of this King's 
Daughters' guild is a day nursery, where, for a few cents, 
mothers may leave their children while they go to toil 
for their daily living. Noble women have these works in 
charge, and are faithfully serving in His name. 

In another town, Port Arthur, Ont., where there are 
numerous railway accidents among workmen, the King's 
Daughters saw these poor fellows being taken to the hospital 
in common rough carts, that much increased their suffering. 
By voluntary gifts alone they raised six hundred and sev- 
enty-five dollars; for six hundred dollars they bought an 
ambulance fitted up with every needful appliance, the bal- 
ance being reserved for repairs when needed. 

I attended the monthly meeting of a large circle of young 
girls. It was their custom at the close to spend a few 
moments in prayer, in which many offered petitions for dif- 
ferent things. My heart was deeply touched when among 
them I heard one pray for a notorious criminal lying in jail 
and about to suffer the death penalty. Truly it seemed a 
blessed thing that their young hearts should take in "all 
sorts and conditions of men " as the work laid upon them 
for their King and Saviour. 

In Toronto a circle has established a boarding home for 
young women, known as the Silver Cross House. It is more 
like a happy Christian home, and morning and evening the 
inmates gather for family prayer. The board is placed at 
as low a figure as possible, for all are girls working for their 
daily bread or preparing to do so. Other circles in the same 
town have worked to establish a night shelter for women, 
which has done faithful work. 



Enough has been said to show the effect and influence of 
the order. We, in Canada, have reason to bless God for it. 
Its influence for good is great when conducted on the lines 
upon which it was founded, viz.. to develop spiritual life, to 
stimulate Christian activity, and ** to hold one*s self respon- 
sible to the King, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 

The Young Woman's Christian Association in Swe- 
den — Report by Sigrid Storckenfeldt of Sweden. 

The work among young women in Sweden has continued 
a long time, but was not incorporated until the year 1886, 
when it assumed the name of the Young Woman's Chris- 
tian Association, the headquarters being in Stockholm, with 
its branches spread all through the country. Especially 
may I mention the one in Gothenburg, where the work is 
flourishing under the direction of Miss Beatrix Dickson. 

Our work is very similar to that of our sisters in America. 
We spend every evening in the week, excepting Saturdays, 
instructing these young women in the common branches of 
education, also in music, German, English, etc. Sundays 
we have Bible classes alternating with missionary services, 
instructors being of our most accomplished ladies, who give 
their time to this work for the love of their Master. 

Another important branch of our work is the young girls* 
department, into which we take girls at about the age of 
eight years, teaching them sewing once a week, while some 
good Christian ladies read with them. As they grow 
older they are fully prepared to enter our Young Woman s 
Christian Association. 

In connection with our work we have also the well-known 
Flower Mission. Members of our association visit the hos- 
pitals and distribute cards and flowers. Our society is fully 
organized, consisting of numerous committees, each one 
with its appointed duties. In the manufacturing parts of 
our largest cities we have special homes for the working 


girls, where meals and rooms can be obtained at reduced 
prices. While we help these women in their weary, toil- 
some life, and give them words of encouragement and 
sympathy, our highest aim is to win their souls for the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

I consider it a great honor to have been invited to the 
World's Congress of Representative Women, and I can not 
at this moment fully express my appreciation of this honor, 
nof the pleasure it has given me to say these few words, 
knowing that, although we are separated by language and 
distance, our hearts are united in this grand, noble work 
for the love of our dear Lord and Master. 

The Young Women's Christian Association: Its 
Aims and Methods — Report by Mrs. William 
Boyd of Missourl 

Long years before our young women's work took shape, 
the Young Men's Christian Associations in their work for 
young men were solving our problems, laying down our 
sound principles, and fighting many of our battles. To them 
we owe our earliest inspirations ; to them we owe the con- 
servation of those principles which have made for rapid 
and permanent growth ; from them we have received 
encouragement, counsel, and moral support in hours of dis- 
couragement ; and to them we give the gratitude of all our 
workers, expressed in our endeavors to build up a sister 
organization in every way worthy its complement. The 
inter-collegiate movement of the Young Men's Christian 
Association in co-educational institutions made some inde- 
pendent form of work for Christian young women in these 
institutions a necessity. It is not strange that these associa- 
tions should have been modeled on the same plarfas theirs, so 
as to become the counterpart of the young men's work in col- 
leges. These local college associations realized that greater 
strength and inspiration must come through channels of 
inter-communication by means of correspondence, publica- 


tions, visitations, and conventions; and in the years 1884^ 
1885, and 1886 grouped themselves in their various State 
organizations. This action the more emphasized the need 
for a centralizing and unifying power. SeeJdng in vain 
for some older association whose form of organization, 
basis of work, and definite aims were such as to promote 
the growth and unity of our association ideal, a national 
convention was called to meet at Lake Geneva, Wis., in 
August, 1886. This convention consisted of representative 
delegates from seven State organizations, young women 
of disciplined intellectual power, accustomed to cope with 
difl&cult problems. They saw, as never before, that the 
times were calling for a higher type of strong, thought- 
ful, earnest, individual, Christian young womanhood ; that 
many forces were leading in contrary directions. Agreeing 
that the best results could be accomplished by the young 
women themselves, they determined to band together all 
over the land with one end in view — the development of the 
highest type of Christian womanhood. 

The question of a permanent organization gave emphasis 
to the following facts : 

First, there was in existence no permanent national 
organization working on an evangelical basis, and having 
for its stated object the development and extension of 
associations by and for young women, looking toward their 
highest symmetrical development. 

Second, the Young Men's Christian Associations were 
doing among young men what should be done all over the 
land for young women, with slight variations. 

Regarding permanency and efficiency of organization as 
of vastly greater importance than originality of mere forms, 
the National, afterward the International, Young Women's 
Christian Association was formed on the same plan as that 
of the Young Men's Christian Association. 

The basis of all general association work must be the 
local organizations ; of these, we have grouped under our 
State and international associations two divisions, the city 


and the college associations. The aim of both these divi- 
sions is the symmetrical development of all young women 
who can be brought within their field of labor. Each recog- 
nizes that symmetrical development requires effort along 
many lines in order to awaken, inspire, and unfold a well- 
rounded womanhood. Hence the object of these local asso- 
ciations may be stated to be the associating of all young 
women together for their highest physical, social, business, 
intellectual, and spiritual interests and development. 

The city association undertakes this aim in five depart- 
ments with their subdivisions. The general affairs of each 
local association are directed by a board of managers elected 
by and from the active membership of the association. The 
active work is planned and executed by committees of 
young women appointed from the active membership by 
the board of managers. The physical culture committee in 
charge of the physical department provides gymnasia, with 
scientific, practical, and normal training, a counseling physi- 
cian, out-of-door clubs, and all that can promote the widest 
opportunities for the development of the physical life of 
young women. 

The social department is maintained by the work of three 
committees; the one on rooms provides reception room, 
reading room, parlor and amusement rooms and hall, fur- 
nishing them in attractive style for the entertainment and 
social life of young women, as well as rooms for the other 
departments. The reception committee, daily on duty, 
welcomes young women, makes them acquainted with the 
objects and plans of the work and the advantages to be 
derived from membership ; also arranges for and presides 
over members' general and special receptions. The enter- 
tainment committee provides a wide range of literary, 
musical, and other entertainments. 

The business department groups all the business manage- 
ment of the organization — executive, finance, and member- 
ship committees — with their specific fields of work. There 
is an employment bureau, through which business and pro- 


fessional young women may be advanced in their chosen 
lines, and a boarding-house directory, through which stu- 
dents, business and professional young women may be 
directed to suitable homes while away from their own homes. 
One of the most promising features of the local associa- 
tions is its educational department. Only one young woman 
out of each one hundred, or one hundred thousand out of 
the twelve millions in our country, enjoy the advantages of 
a broad or general education, and of these the majority 
come from the smaller cities, towns, and country places. 
The association aims to inspire young women of the cities to 
seek higher intellectual possibilities, and to provide for all 
grades of mental development, from the common English 
branches and commercial studies to language, literature, 
science, music, and art, with wide provision for the practical 
and manual branches. Much stress has been placed upon 
the building up of interesting libraries specially adapted to 
young women ; upon practical talks on educational lines ; 
upon lectures and University Extension courses. The 
association makes ample provision for literary, musical, and 
other organizations, and encourages and supports all that 
tends to a higher type of individual and intellectual life. 
In this International Congress of Women we are classified, 
and rightly, too, under the religious department. By no 
means is ours a work of hand and mind alone, but of heart 
and soul. We are more than a religious organization, in 
that we are a Christian association doing a definitely evan- 
gelistic work among the young women of the colleges and 
cities of the land. Young women are banded together in 
Bible classes, classified according to previous knowledge 
of the Word. There are also evangelistic, new converts', 
general and devotional classes open to all, while the workers' 
Bible training classes are for the training of Christian young 
women in active personal work. Services of song and 
prayer, gospel meetings, and personal interviews are the 
direct channels through which a large Christian work is 
being accomplished. 


What of the so-called secular departments ? Permeated 
as they are by the presence of true, earnest, Christian young 
women, these, while secular in themselves, are avenues of 
acquaintance and approach through which the spiritual 
department gets a stronghold for direct personal effort. 
Such is an outline of the aims of our city associations and 
some of their methods of operation. 

One can see that with the same aim for college young 
women, remembering that the educational and often the 
physical features are amply supplied by the college or uni- 
versity, we still have a wide field for social and individual 
effort. Leaving the question of the responsibility of col- 
lege women to Christian work for other presentation, we 
must remember that college life with all its possibilities of 
development is by no means free from its temptations. 
The homesickness of the first days away from home pro- 
duces unusual susceptibility to influences good or bad ; the 
strangeness of the people and surroundings tends toward 
a suppression of the old spontaneous heart life, easily fol- 
lowed by indifference and hardness of heart ; the pressure 
of college work emphasizes the intellectual life alone, mak- 
ing it of highest importance, and tends gradually to substi- 
tute general culture for spiritual life and activity. The 
multiplicity of college interests invariably produces the 
impression that the student has not time for aggressive 
Christian work or systematic Bible study; the pendulum 
too often swings from the intellectual to the social extreme, 
and the young woman leaves college with no adequate idea 
of real life and earnest work ; but with a dwarfed spiritual 
nature and no immediate training for Christian service, and 
with lessened taste therefor. The college association there- 
fore supplements the physical life by recreative clubs and 
outings, builds up a Christian fraternity or sisterhood, and 
a social life which conserves rather than tears down the 
highest ideals of womanhood ; it brings the new student, 
even before her entrance into the institution, and during 
her formative years, into acquaintance with the best Chris- 


tian womanhood of the college ; it groups the Christian 
students for thorough Bible study and definite personal 
work ; it holds services for the inspiration and expression 
of a practical Christian life, and through general and mis- 
sionarj' libraries and meetings brings them in touch with 
the active interests and work of young women throughout 
the world ; its connection with the State and international 
associations and student volunteer movements brings stu- 
dents, by means of summer schools, conventions, and other 
resources for training, in touch with the widest professions 
open to women. 

The third link in our chain is the State association, con- 
sisting of the union 6f these local city and college organi- 
zations in the various States, with an executive committee 
of management elected by them in their annual convention. 
Their object is the promotion of the interests of the 
existing associations and assistance in the organization and 
development of new associations, with general education 
in the objects, method, and growth of the work in their 
respective States. 

By far the most important agency in the growth and 
power of this movement has been, and is, the International 
Association. The work of this general organization may be 
outlined as follows : First, the collection and classification 
of the latest and best information and methods of work 
from the entire association field. Second, the compilation 
of records, statistics, and historical facts concerning the 
growth of the association movement. Third, the dissem- 
ination of information to associations and those interested, 
or to be interested, by correspondence, which means thou- 
sands of letters each year ; by means of publications, includ- 
ing The Evangel, published monthly in direct interest of 
this cause ; circulars, addresses, pamphlets, reports, instruc- 
tions for the use of various officers and committees, and 
articles for the general and religious press. Fourth, assist- 
ance to local and State associations in the form of secretarial 
visitation, anniversary and other meetings, counsel with 


boards and committees, and conferences to increase the local 
interest. Fifth, the securing, training, and recommenda- 
tion of secretaries for local and State fields, with the 
employment and direction of an adequate force of travel- 
ing, editorial, and office international secretaries, who are 
the executives in these vast lines of work. Sixth, a close 
study of the principles and methods by which the entire 
work may be best conserved, developed, and extended, and 
all young women become interested in it. Seventh, a 
study of the needs of unorganized territory. Eighth, the 
extension of missionary interest and work, through the 
student volunteer movement. Ninth, preparing for and 
holding biennial conventions. Tenth, organizing and main- 
taining annual summer schools and conferences for Bible 
study and training of secretaries and volunteer workers, 
together with a large share in the development of the 
world's association, which, being a union of five national 
organizations, is now organized and is counted as the fifth 
link in our chain. This work of the international associa- 
tion is intrusted, by vote of the biennial convention, to an 
executive committee of thirty-three women, a large number 
of whom reside at the international headquarters, Chicago, 
and hold regular monthly meetings, employing a large and 
competent force of executive secretaries, through whom 
they are able to accomplish such a far-reaching work with 
rapidity and permanency. 

Such being an outline of our history, form of organiza- 
tion, and general methods, let us pass to the more important 
consideration of those limitations and fundamental princi- 
ples which we have chosen for our work, which distinguish 
us from all other organizations of women and give us a 
distinct and independent field. 

First. Our efforts are limited to young women as a class. 

Second. Our aim is the education and development of all 
young women rather than the immediate alleviation or 
assistance of any special class. We are trying to reach the 
true woman in young women ; and hence, instead of being 


classed as charitable, philanthropic, or reformatory, we are 
striving to reach young women whose lives may be multi- 
plied, and while interested in all we can not sacrifice the 
high development of many to the temporal alleviation of 
a few — that work being already done by other organizations. 
We hold that by multiplying leaders and developing Chris- 
tian workers we can easily solve the other problems also. A 
wealthy young woman, a college graduate, recently asked 
an association president if the Young Women's Christian 
Association reaches the class for whom it was really in- 
tended. She received the reply: ** I am afraid not here, for 
we have failed to reach you and to induce you to concentrate 
your talents and wealth to the work of the Saviour among 
the many less favored young women. You could do more 
to upbuild young womanhood here than a score who do 
not have your education, wealth, and influence." On the 
other hand, a bright, intelligent stenographer, becoming 
interested in the physical department, took a thorough 
course in the gymnasium, was called to another association 
as instructor, and now has entered the Chicago University 
to prepare herself for thorough scientific physical work 
among young women. We strive thus to call out the woman 
for Christ and his service, in whatever position or circum- 
stances she may be found. 

Third. With us the true association idea predominates. In 
work which really benefits young women this becomes the 
essential living feature. Young women are slow to take 
advice, but quick to imitate, influenced more by associations 
than by any other element that enters into our lives. 
Realizing the force of this principle, we have adopted it as 
essential to our highest success, and while we endeavor to 
secure the cooperation of the women having years of 
experience and judgment in affairs of organization, our 
young women bear the responsibilities and do the active 
work of the association. 

Fourth. The real needs of the young women are the same 
all over our land. No one field may be called in truth a 


peculiar field. The same general principles of organization 
and method apply to all. We have realized, therefore, that 
greater economy of effort and more far-reaching results and 
more rapid growth has resulted from a uniformity of organi- 
zation and work throughout our entire organization. This 
makes possible a helpful class of literature ; it renders con- 
ventions, correspondence, and visitation practicable; it 
enables us to train volunteer workers for more efficient 
service, and has created the office of general secretary, and 
given her a wide plane of usefulness. 

Fifth. Indeed the secretaryship, opening up a profession 
for educated, consecrated young women, may well be said 
to be a fifth feature which distinguishes our work from 
others. While we believe thoroughly in training a large 
force of volunteer workers, the personal element in the 
local association, the symmetrical development and uni- 
formity of the entire work and its growth upon a permanent 
basis, in accordance with one lasting principle, depend 
almost entirely upon the efficiency of the secretarial forces 
in the local, State, and international fields ; while on the 
other hand a more desirable or useful professional career 
has never been opened to Christian young women than may 
be found in this work. 

Sixth. Most important of all is our basis of membership, 
known as the ** Evangelical Basis," or ** List of Member- 
ship." It is evident that just what we mean by this and 
its value to our work is not clearly understood by all, 
hence a word of definition seems necessary: First — Let 
it be understood by all that membership in the Young 
Women's Christian Association is open to all young 
women of any or no religious beliefs. Second — It must be 
remembered that the avowed aim of the association is the 
development of all sides of character in young women, 
which includes not simply a religious but a spiritual nature. 
The founders and maintainers of the association understand 
this to mean a character which accords with the life and 
teachings of Jesus Christ ; hence we are called a Christian 


association. To maintain this principle the membership 
has been divided into two classes, active and associate, the 
active consisting of those members who are anxious to 
protect this principle and work on these lines, and are found 
holding membership in the evangelical churches. With 
these rests the voting power and responsibility for the 
character and development of the association work ; the 
associate membership includes all others who desire to 
receive the benefits of the organization, to help in its work 
in a general way, and who are striving toward a truer, better 
womanhood. This excludes no one who has a real desire 
for the association, and still preserves a decided Christian 
character to the work beyond the possibility of present or 
future change. We are not a church, we advocate no set 
creed, but we are the united workers of those churches 
which hold to evangelical truth, believing this necessary to 
the accomplishment of our fundamental purpose and object ; 
and we are dominated by their united representative vote. 

We still have before us a study of the possibilities for 
future power and usefulness. A review of the past shows 
that the association has marched steadily forward with a 
phenomenal yet continuous and permanent gro\v^h. Each 
new year has more clearly defined our field, and suggested 
new and effective methods by which it might be occupied. 
Each new year has raised up for and among us a large 
force of consecrated women, who are giving their time, 
their money, and themselves to the highest interests of 
young women ; an increasing secretarial force giving their 
entire time to the work of supervision ; a larger number of 
friends and supporters; many organizations started spon- 
taneously in large and important cities, showing that the 
importance and value of the association is rapidly becoming 
appreciated ; and, best of all, a grand army of young women 
from every avenue of life, marching to victory, calling 
upon all young women to join their ranks, bearing aloft the 
standard of a perfect, symmetrical womanhood. 

What means this for the future ? It means the strongest, 


and ptixest, and truest, and best young women of the world, 
endeavoring to unite all young women in simple but per- 
fect obedience to the power of Almighty God, which union 
must produce a power too great to be measured by man's 
mind ; a power to be felt in every department of life, the 
home, the church, the school, the State, ever growing and 
increasing until the ages of eternity roll by, and then 
" we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is." 

Sermon Preached by Rev. Anna H. Shaw of Michigan, 
IN THE Hall of Washington, on Sunday Morning, 
May 2 1 ST. 

The services on the morning of Sunday, May 21st, were of 
unique character. The entire programme, with the hymns 
sung on the occasion, will be found in Chapter II of 
Volume L— [The Editor.] 

Mrs. May Wright Sewall introduced the presiding minis- 
ter thus : It is with solemn joy in our hearts that we open 
the services of this morning. It is a matter for congrat- 
ulation, suggestive of prophetic hopes, that there are seated 
upon the platform this morning eighteen ordained clergy- 
women, representing thirteen different denominations of 
the Christian church. I take great pleasure in presenting 
to you the Rev. Caroline J. Bartlett, pastor of the First 
Unitarian Church of Kalamazoo, Mich., who will con- 
duct the services. 

Rev. Anna H. Shaw said : I will read for our scripture 
lesson from the words of Jesus. 

" Ye are the light of the world.*' "A city that is set on a 
hill can not be hid." 

" Neither do men light a candle and put it under a 
bushel, but on a candlestick ; and it giveth light unto all 
that are in the house." 

" Let your light so shine before men that they may see 


your good works, and glorify your Father which is in 

Now I have a little paragraph from the religion of the 
far east, from Zoroaster : ** The man who has done good 
rather than evil, morally and physically, outwardly and 
inwardly, may fearlessly meet death, well assured that 
radiant spirits will lead him across into the paradise of 
eternal happiness. Souls risen from the grave will know 
each other and say, that is my father, or my brother, my 
wife, or my sister. The weak will say to the good, where- 
fore when I was on the world didst thou not teach me to 
know righteousness, O thou pure one ? It is because you 
did not instruct me that I am excluded from the assembly 
of the blest." 

And from Buddhist scripture we have : " There are 
treasures laid up in the heart, treasures of charity, piety, 
temperance, and soberness. These treasures a man takes 
with him beyond death when he leaves this world." 

And we have from the Mohammedan scriptures this: 
** One hour of justice is worth seventy years of prayer." 

And from the Chinese, from Confucius: ** The good man 
loves all men. He loves to speak good of others. All 
within the four seas are his brothers. Love of man is chief 
of all the virtues. The mean man sows that some of his 
friends may be helped, but the love of the perfect man is 

And we have from St. Augustine these words : *' I have 
read in Plato and Cicero. They are wise and very beauti- 
ful, but I never read in either of them, * Come unto me all 
ye that are heavy laden.' " 

** The multitude that published the tidings were a great 
host." In the new version it is changed, both in letter and 
in spirit, for instead of being a past word and past revela- 
tion, it is an ever present word, an ever present revelation, 
and the people who publish the tidings are a new class of 
people — they are our people. ** The Lord giveth the word. 
The women that publish the tidings are a great host." 


The inspirations and aspirations which have been aroused 
by this remarkable conference will awaken in our hearts 
such thoughts of joy and blessedness that neither time nor 
distance shall ever be able to separate it from you until 
time shall be lost in eternity ; and your journey up the steep 
and rugged heights where truth dwells will ever be made 
easier, and at the last be made surer because of our meet- 
ings here the last week. The women who have read 
various papers, who have discussed the various subjects 
which have been before you, have, in the undertone of all 
that has been uttered, voiced but one cry, the cry to be 
free ; free to be ; free to do ; free to become that which is 
best and truest for God's people everywhere. Each has 
voiced the heartache and sadness which has come from 
woman who, in the past, has endeavored in any line of 
activity or research to lift herself or her sisters on a higher 
plane of life. Each has felt the cramping, crippling, and 
dwarfing power of prejudice and custom. Each has felt 
the terrible strain which the endeavor to fight against 
these barriers has put upon all the energies of her nature, 
and each has given voice to the vision revealed by him 
who revealed all truth of the time when the struggle for 
freedom shall be over, and when men and women shall live 
in that true and nobler atmosphere, in which truth and not 
tradition shall be our guide ; the time when each man and 
each woman will take as a sublime watchword that which 
was to her, one of our old leaders, the very tone of her 
entire life : " Truth for authority, and not authority for 
truth." In the heartache which has followed this vision, as 
the darkness of the ever present has closed about the right, 
these women have turned to God, and lifting their eyes 
mutely to him have asked : ** O ! thou infinite One, give 
me freedom that I may help the world to find Thee." And 
then turning to men for guidance, they have asked the 
scholar : ** Where shall freedom be found for the race ? " 
And the scholar has answered : " The pathway to knowl- 
edge is the highway to freedom." But these women have 


known that knowledge is not, and has not been, the power 
to free the race, and that many who have been the most 
learned have been not only the most oppressed but the 
greatest oppressors. Then they have turned to the states- 
man, and asked of him where freedom shall be found, and 
the statesmen have answered : " The highway to freedom 
leads through constitutions and laws. Governments will 
ultimately evolve such perfect systems of law that all men 
shall be free." But we have known that laws and constitu- 
tions have been used as instruments by which men have been 
enslaved and oppressed. They have turned to the church, 
and asked of the churchmen where freedom was found, 
and the churchman pointed to his creeds and to his rites 
and ceremonies, saying : ** Believe and you shall be free.*' 
But we have known, not so much by our own experience as 
by the history of the past, that creeds have been cruel, 
ceremonies and rites have enslaved, and that they who are 
most bound by the creeds are least free. Then the soul 
has turned back again to the vision, and has asked Him 
who was able to reveal the future : ** Shall freedom come ? " 
And He has answered : " My child, neither in constitutions 
and laws, nor in knowledge, nor in creeds, shall you find 
the way to freedom, but the truth itself, and the truth alone, 
can make men and women free." 

Grasping this thought, then, women have gone forth 
regardless of custom, regardless of prejudice, regardless 
of the reproach of the church, and in the words of him of 
old, have cried out : " Is it better to obey the law of man 
or to be directed by the spirit of God?" And helped by 
this thought these women who have gathered here together 
have been out in the world through the years that are 
passed, teaching and preaching in all realms of life, and in 
all spheres of activity, the truth which shall ultimately 
make us all free. 

This gathering together of women has taught the world 
that women are learning that one lesson which is the 
hardest for the human race to know, that lesson of toler- 

••I* •••• 
•••• • • 

• •• 

• • • 

f •• • 

Dr. Makv H. Stilwell. Mks. Lukraixk J. Imtkin. 

Laura S. Wilkinson. 

E.Mii.Y s. Richards. Marv C. SNEi)r>EN. 


ation each for the other. And in our coming together here 
there has been aroused a kindlier interest in each other's 
work, a kindlier friendship for each other ; and no woman 
of us shall go to our homes who does not feel that her 
heart throbs in unison with all women everywhere whose 
eyes are lifted toward the light ; and we have learned as we 
never could have learned in any other way, that lovers of 
the law are one. We have learned of the past ; we have 
had enough of the creeds. What matters our label so truth 
be our aim ? But coming forth from this blessed experi- 
ence, we shall each feel that whether the world accepts our 
truth now, or whether it shall do so in the years to come, yet 
there is in our heart such oneness of sympathy and oneness 
of hope, that no woman can ever say truthfully again, " I 
am all alone of all the women in the world." 

But as we have come together we have realized, perhaps 
more than ever before, the obstacles and difficulties which 
lie in our way. This has been our love-feast, but it will be 
of little value to us if it does not fit us better to go forth to 
meet the real experiences of life which shall come to us 
when we have laid aside our day of thought and have 
entered into life's practical mission. The difficulties which 
we have met in the past are still around us, and we shall 
find that the world to-day is bound to its own thought as in 
the past. One of the greatest obstacles which we shall meet 
is the fact that there are certain classes of people gathered 
together of a single church, of a single society, who cry 
out : " If you are not seeking truth in our way, then it can 
not be that you are true, and you are not seeking truth at 
all." These are people who are bound to truth by their 
limited vision of it, who cry : " My creed, my philosophy, 
my work is true, therefore all else is false." But the women 
who go forth from this great gathering shall feel that there 
can be no great movement to which has gathered any number 
of people but that underlying it, and running all through 
it, is some deep and profound truth, and that it is only a 
barren mind that can look upon any great movement fol- 



lowed by any large number of people, and can say it is all 
false. This has been the mission of this great congress, and 
our women have learned that it has been a high privilege to 
search all the great movements presented here, and out of 
each one of them to gather a germ of truth, and unite 
it with a germ which has be en discovered in another great 
movement, until in going forth we shall be bound together 
by one great chain, each link a great truth gathered up 
out of the world and made our truth. So that we shall go 
forth, not as women of individual thought, or an individual 
church, but we shall go forth as women in whose souls have 
been planted gemio uf many great truths, and we shall be 
what was explained to us as the root-thought of the word 
Sorosis, yesterday, that great coming together of many 
seeds, the result of which shall be the bread of life to the 
people of the w^orld. 

Not only shall we meet the obstacles which have -always 
been in our way, but we shall also find that other great 
obstacle which more than any other keeps woman in the 
background to-day. Women have always been taught that 
self-submission is the highest part of womanly character ; 
that they should efface themselves, give up all hope of 
education, and all development and growth in themselves, 
that another may grow ; we have justified the sacrifices of 
a sister in order that she may earn the means by which a 
brother shall be educated ; the sacrifices of a wife that she 
may help push to the front her husband ; or the sacrifices 
of a mother that she may assist her son ; not because there 
is any principle in it; not because there is any special 
good accomplished ; not because the son, or husband, or 
father has any special powder in himself ; but the sacrifice of 
the woman for the uplifting of the man seems to be the on'e 
thought, regardless of the principle of justice. But the 
sequel shows that many women have gone to their graves 
broken-hearted to lift up a man who w^as not worthy of 
living after he had been lifted ; a man incapable of recogniz- 
ing the sacrifice ; a man who did not begin to possess in 


himself such possibilities as were in the one that was sac- 
rificed. Women will need to revise their table of virtues. 
Men have made it for us in the past, but in the future 
when we shall revise it we will leave in the table of virtues 
self-sacrifice, but we will put by its side self-assertion. 
What God needs in humanity to-day is recognition of the 
fact that one-half of the divine nature in the world is 
clothed in womanhood, and unless womanhood is developed, 
one-half of divinity itself is kept from the knowledge of the 
peoples of the world. The mission of woman in the pulpit 
is not alone to keep alive the fire of the Holy Ghost in the 
hearts of men and women in this world, and teach men and 
women the truth of the power of God to transform human 
life and human character ; but one of the missions of the 
woman preacher is to people heaven with the feminine 
thought as well as the earth, and the race must be taught 
that they can no more be half -orphans in heaven than they 
are on earth, and that in the spirit of divine life, in the 
spirit of infinite love, in divinity itself, we have the feminine 
and the masculine, and God is the eternal parent of us all, 
the father and mother of the human soul. And when 
heaven shall be re-peopled by the Divine Spirit, which is 
the spirit of motherhood as well as fatherhood, oh how the 
heart of the human race will gladly sit at the feet of the 
mother-heart of God, and be comforted in the woes and 
sorrows and heartaches of life! 

But the reformers themselves must learn, for it is impos- 
sible for any woman to become a real reformer who is not 
herself reformed. It is impossible for any human being to 
become a teacher who has not first been taught ; impossible 
for any to lead and lift, who has not first learned to obey. 
^Therefore I may be pardoned if I address some of my 
words to my own colleagues this morning and say, no more 
can every woman be a reformer than can every woman be 
a true and righteous mother, or than can every woman be a 
home-maker. God has not endowed all for any one thing, 
and those who would themselves become reformers must 


learn that to be a guide and teacher there are certain quali- 
fications and certain lessons which must become a part of 
our being, or else we are not equipped for our work in the 
world ; and that this is the tenter of every reformer's life — a 
broad, vigorous, healthful character. No woman is fit to be 
a reformer who does not possess strong character. Now, 
character is what we are, and no one is nobler and truer 
than the character which she forms. Taking this thought 
outside of one's self, no life character is greater than the 
character of her who has wrought it. A mean mind can 
not build a vast life structure. A narrow soul can not 
build broadly, or wisely, or well. So if we would become 
builders whose building shall remain, if we would become 
teachers whose lessons shall abide, then must we become 
women of strong character in all of our relationships to the 
world and to God. In the building up of the work of the 
world there must be a strong character, regardless of what 
one's reputation may be, and in order that we shall be pos- 
sessed of a strong character three things are essential to us. 
First, we must be possessed of moral courage, and that is 
the thing to-day which is rarer than anything else — moral 
courage. Now, moral and physical courage are very differ- 
ent things, and it has been thought that women could not 
be possessed of strong characters because they were not 
possessed of strong bodies. But moral courage, which is 
bom of the soul, moral courage which enables one, regard- 
less of his surroundings, to sacrifice anything and every- 
thing for truth, that is the first and necessary qualification 
for a leader and teacher of men. What the world needs 
to-day is great, broad minds, broad enough to reach out and 
grasp the truth, and hearts pure enough to receive it, and 
souls brave enough to defend it. And could the men and 
women of the world who believe the truth to-day and have 
minds large enough to grasp it, possess souls brave enough 
to stand by it, then would there be no more sacrifices of men 
and women on the altar of persecution and ignorance. But 
the women who go forth to work in the world to-day must 


be possessed of this strong character whereby they can 
stand by the truth thrgugh the moral power which enables 
them to face social ostracism, prejudice, and denunciation, 
and take their stand by truth, because at the last they only 
are victors who are found on the side of truth. Longfellow 
has justly said, ** No evil thing can succeed, no good thing 
can fail. There is no success save in the triumph of the 
truth.** So we who stand by the truth, who are always 
standing by that, shall in the end be victors. Nations shall 
pass away, generations of rnen shall be bom and die, the 
world may even pass into utter oblivion, but the truth, like 
the Divine One, is eternal and shall abide evermore. 

Not alone must we be possessed of moral courage to 
stand by the truth, but we must be possessed of faith in 
God to be men and women of strong characters. I do not 
stand here this morning to define God to you. I do not 
undertake to tell you just how you shall believe in God or 
just what your conception of God may be, but no man or 
woman can ever be possessed of a strong character and 
become a teacher and leader of men, triumphing over 
obstacles, confident of victory before the battle has been 
begun, who has not faith in an overruling power, who is 
ultimately able to guide all things toward that which is 
right and pure. Plutarch said long thousand years ago that 
he made a search up and down the earth that he might find 
a city without a symbol of the man Christ Jesus, but could 
never find a city without any symbols or shrines ; and what 
was true in the days of Plutarch- is true to-day. In all 
this world there is no city or nation the center of whose 
life is not God. There is no number of people who have 
gathered together for any great purpose who have not 
some faith in some power somewhere, upon whom all 
others are dependent. 

Then not only must a reformer be possessed of moral 
courage to stand by what she knows to be true and teach it ; 
not only must she be possessed of faith in God, and know 
that ultimately she shall see somewhere, at some time, the 


triumph of the truth, but she herself must become uncom- 
promisingly obedient to the higher laws of God every- 
where. You and I, all men and women of every land or 
clime, know that above the laws controlling our physical 
and our governmental life there are higher laws controll- 
ing our moral and spiritual characters, and it is as natural 
for us to turn our faces toward these higher laws as it is for 
the face of the heliotrope to turn toward the sun, and a 
woman of strong character must evermore keep her face 
toward obedience. The men and women of strong charac- 
ter then find out what the law of the highest is. You ask, 
where do we find it ? I do not know, only in this world it is 
to be found, we believe, and it is to be found written 
on the hearts and lives of our fellow men and women 
everywhere. It is to be found written on the face of nature 
everywhere. In all lands and under all conditions God has 
never left himself without a witness to all peoples of the 
world. Therefore, we may learn the law of God in our 
relations in life, in our associations each with the other. 
Look into the history of the race, and what will you find ? 
You will find that God has placed in the hands of men and 
women some wondrous powers, wondrous possibilities. 
Some of the great poets of old have had given to them by 
God harps that were divinely attuned, and he has asked of 
them to sing a song which, when sung, would thrill the 
heart of the race and lift it up toward him ; but they have 
taken these harps divinely attuned and sunk them in the 
dust at the feet of their lusts, and to-day the world mourns 
the lost songs everywhere. To every man and woman of 
us here God has given a soul, a soul so divinely attuned that 
we may hear the very harmonies of heaven ; a soul so 
divinely attuned that we may hear the voice of God speak- 
ing with us, and be directed by that voice out into a high 
and holy plane. So whether that which we believe is true 
or not, if we stand by what we believe to be truth, God will 
illuminate the path, and we shall by and by know the truth, 
if we are true to the bit of truth we all possess now ; for 


they who are loyal to truth will find that truth is always 
loyal to them ; and they who harken to its divine voice shall 
hear it all about them, and know the voice of truth and fol- 
low it, and the voice of a stranger will they not follow. 

Now then, you ask, what shall be the reward of these who 
are thus laboring for the uplifting of truth ? I say : My 
sister, be not disheartened. It matters not what your 
reward shall be. It matters not how it shall come. Your 
reward may not be the great, sweet honor of grateful suc- 
cess, but this it shall be — you shall be lifted into a true life, 
able to look out without servility, able to look up to God 
without fear, and though your truth may not be accepted, 
though you yourself may be rejected, though you may die 
and yet the world refuse to hear, this is not life*s greatest 
sorrow. It is a greater one never to have heard the voice 
of truth speaking in the soul. As George Eliot says: 
" The words of deepest bitterness that can be known to the 
human soul can never be wrung from the lips ; they are out- 
ward. It is only when one has covered her head in shame 
and humility, and has said, ' I am not worthy to be a 
martyr. The truth shall prosper, but not by me.' " 

And, therefore, my sister, if it be your high and exalted 
privilege to have gotten a glimpse of truth, thank God. If 
it has been your higher and still more exalted privilege to 
have been able to give this truth to the world, thank God. 
If it has been your sublime privilege to see the world 
accept it, thank God. But in every case and all cases thank 
God that truth is, and that you have heard its voice. 

Then, oh, woman ! what may we not prophesy of thee, 
when thou hast come into perfect harmony with the truth, 
when thou hast heard its voice speaking in thine own being ? 
What may we not prophesy of thee when from oflF the altar 
a living coal shall be pressed to thy lips, and thou shalt 
speak words all aflame with truth, which, when sinking into 
the heart of humanity, shall kindle a flame all divine within 
each heart, and a nation shall be bom, an unknown nation 
yet, but a nation shall be born who shall call thee blessed? 


It has been said that it is the greatest sacrifice one can 
make for a friend to give up one's life for one's love ; to 
sacrifice one's life ; to lay down your own to find it in the 
good of another. But how much richer, how much holier, 
is the praise of her who lays down her own good, who sac- 
rifices it for the good of another unknown, or for the good 
of a nation yet unborn. This is the highest test of loyalty 
to truth. So that whether that which you have in your 
soul to-day, which bums like a living flame, shall be 
accepted by the race or not, if you lay down your own good 
for the good of a race that shall be, then you have mani- 
fested the greatest loyalty to truth that can be manifested 
by any one, and the truth has come, and your reward shall 
be the love of a people. 

Do not now say I lift the standard too high. The 
standard of God can not be lifted too high. The standard 
of truth must ever be high above the standards of the 
world, and the standard-bearers of truth must ever be in 
advance of the great march of the world behind them. 
Therefore, do not lower your standard one inch. Do not 
stay your progress one moment. Do not hesitate or falter, 
but remember the words of the young color-bearer in our 
late war, who, when the standard-bearer* of his regiment 
was shot down, sprang forward, caught the colors ere they 
reached the ground, and then, thrilled with enthusiasm, 
pressed on before, on, on, up the hill toward the rampart 
upon which they were charging. Seeing him go faster 
than the men could follow, the colonel shouted out : " Bring 
back those colors ! " But without faltering he glanced back 
and cried, " No, colonel, bring your men up to the colors ! ** 
And on he went and planted the colors, and the men 
gathered around the flag of their country. 

And so, my sisters, do not falter ; and when they cry, the 
world is not ready, the world has not been educated up to 
your truth, call back to the world, ** We can not lower our 
standard to the level of the world. Bring your old world 
up to the level of our standard." Then shall the people of 


the world be lifted nearer to God, near the glory which 
evermore surrounds truth, near the eternal peace of God 
flowing like a mighty river, near in heart and soul to the 
truth and the source of all truth, the infinite love of 
Divinity itself. 

Therefore, let me close in the words of one not of our 
faith, or the faith of any here ; one from across the seas, a 
Brahman, who said : " The differences in religious views 
have divided the world into seventy great nations. I scan 
them all, and in and through them all I gather one truth — 
divine love." 

And let us add to that the words of Jesus Christ of 
Nazareth : " One is your father, even Gk>d ; and all ye are 



Editorial Comment — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the 
Department Congress of the Women's Trades Unions, by Mary E. 
Kenney — Extracts from Addresses Delivered in the Department 
Congress of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union» 
BY Clara C. Hoffman and Frances Leiter — Extracts from an 
Address Delivered in the Department Congress of the National 
Christian League for the Promotion of Social Purity, by Elizabeth 
B. Grannis — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Depart- 
ment Congress of the National Columbian Household Economic 
Association, by Laura S. Wilkinson — Extracts from an Address 
Delivered in the Department Congress of the American Protect- 
ive Society of Authors, by Grace Greenwood (Sara J. Lippincott) 
— Extracts from Addresses Delivered in the Report Congresses 
BY Mrs. John Wood Stewart, Mrs. Fairchild Allen, Hanna Bteber- 
Boehm, and Mrs. Bedford Fenwick. 

AT first sight the contents of this chapter may seem 
oddly grouped, but a little reflection will enable 
one to see that existing moral and social conditions 
are, in large degree, the consequence of industrial standards, 
conditions, and opportunities. The growing desire to lift 
housekeeping into a profession, to classify and systematize 
** the medley of shreds and patches '* included under that 
vague general term, is most encouraging. It is evident that 
the phrase "dignity of labor," which has served to decorate 
so many fine exhortations delivered by the idle to the indus- 
trious, has assumed a practical significance. Women see that 
in the ability to sustain themselves by labor lies their only 
certain basis of self-respect, their only security against the 
most insidious and fatal temptations. That wealth does not 



release its possessor from the moral necessity of developing 
and applying her powers, and that poverty does not excuse 
its victim from results that her own industry might forestall, 
are truths of relatively recent acceptance. — [The Editor.] 

Organization of Working Women — Address by Mary 
E. Kenney, Organizer for the American Federa- 
tion OF Labor. 

To say that it is difficult to organize women is not say- 
ing the half. There are several reasons which prevent 
women from wishing to organize. In the first place, they 
are reared from childhood with one sole object in view — an 
object I do not wish to discourage but to elevate from its 
present conditions — that is, marriage. If our mothers 
would teach us self-reliance and independence, that it is our 
duty to depend wholly upon ourselves, we should then feel 
the necessity of organization, and especially of the new form 
of organization, which is voluntary cooperation. The one 
reason I have given leads to others. Because they do not 
feel that they have a permanent place in the industrial 
world they go into it for the time being only, and do not 
study its interests. They accept the system they are com- 
pelled to slave under as they find it, and give no thought to 
whether it could be changed or their conditions bettered. 

Again, they feel that an institution, which has for its plat- 
form protection, is for men only, and the only protection 
they expect is the protection given them by men, not real- 
izing that it is their duty to protect themselves. So that 
the only hope in the organization of women is in getting 
them to feel that they are, or should learn to be, 

Another reason, and especially the reason in New York 
City, is that the women are intimidated by their employers, 
and in many cases by the forewoman. I met a very bright 
young woman in New York who was discharged for being 


a member of an organization. She feels the necessity of 
united effort among the workers, but is compelled to earn 
her livelihood, and consequently is deprived of the right to 
better her condition, or assist or meet her sister workers, 
through the fear of being deprived of her present means of 
subsistence. Such is the existing condition of the working 
women in our free America, where slavery is supposed to 
be a thing of the past, but where it really exists to-day in 
the most tyrannical form. 

In addition to the above reasons, there is a difficulty in 
reaching the women in factories, especially in large cities, 
where it is difficult to gain access, in order to distribute 
invitations to a meeting under the guise of " an entertain- 
ment with addresses." I have entered many a factory 
with the expectation of being thrown out when detected, 
and in many instances have been told to get out as quickly 
as possible, without a thought that I was at least human. 

Statistics of women employed in cities show that the time 
lost by women in Chicago earning less than one hundred 
dollars a year is 1 15.5 days, while the time lost by women 
earning five hundred dollars a year and over is 14.5 days. 
In other words, the women and girls who are poorly clad, 
poorly fed, and poorly housed, lose more than eight times 
the number of days lost by those in comfortable circum- 
stances. In New York the women earning less than one 
hundred dollars a year lose an average of 128 days, while 
the women earning five hundred dollars or more lose only 
17.3 days. The same is true of Boston, where women earn- 
ing under one hundred dollars a year lose 108.5 days, while 
the women earning five hundred dollars and over lose 11.4 
days. It is only reasonable to suppose that the unfortunate 
women receiving starvation wages are deprived of even 
these through ill-health caused by poor food, poor clothing, 
and poor shelter. 

There is but one city, in my judgment, where justice is 
done working-women, and that is in Troy, N. Y. Here the 
principal industry is shirtmaking, and the women are 


thoroughly organized. The employes work by the piece, 
six and eight hours a day, and receive ten to twelve dollars 
a week, which is fair wages. In Troy, if one individual 
has a grievance, and a just one, all demand justice at once. 

In Albany, just across the river, the conditions in this 
same industry, and above all in the shops owned by the 
Troy firm of shirtmakers, are just reversed. The town is 
wholly unorganized. The women in the shirt industry, 
with the exception of those in one factory, are intimidated 
and kept from organizing. The factories are nothing bet- 
ter than slave prisons. 

I applied for work at one factory with the object of 
becoming acquainted with some of the girls. I found 
that I should have to purchase a machine if I went to 
work. This would cost forty-five dollars, of which five 
dollars must be paid down, and one dollar a week after- 
ward till paid for. When I became an expert shirt- 
maker I could earn from five to six dollars a week. I 
had to be at my machine at half -past seven in the morning 
or be fined. Not a word must be spoken during working 
hours. This is a rule in every factory in which I have 

Here are conditions existing in twin cities, one working 
under the factory lash, and the other under the condition 
of organized labor. Many of the Troy girls told me it was 
a pleasure to work in their shops. In Albany it is a dread. 
What a shame it is for a majority of the people to allow 
their freedom to be jeopardized by a few, especially when 
they hold the remedy in their own hands ! 

In my own trade, bookbinding, the wages paid in Albany 
are seven cents an hour for a ten-hour day, or four dollars 
and twenty cents a week, and still we are expected to be 
respectable. I know a forewoman in Albany who receives 
only five dollars a week, and she has an aged mother to 
support out of that. In this same office I know a young 
woman feeding presses who receives five dollars a week, 
and she also has a mother to support. This woman is 


doing the same work a man does, and ought to receive 
from ten dollars and one-half to twelve dollars a week. 
Both of these young friends of mine give their whole 
time, labor, and skill from seven o'clock in the morning 
until six o'clock at night for a bare existence, 

I have given only a few facts from personal experience. 
Just such conditions exist in our very midst. We don't 
have to go to Boston or New York. 

Is it any wonder, then, with these fearful facts confront- 
ing them, that the masses are beginning to feel the injustice 
and oppression that is forced upon them ? There are a few 
awake to their sense of duty, both to themselves and their 
fellow workers. All the masses need is to be educated to 
that sense of duty which will demand justice and abolish 
that system which compels my sex to accept wholesale 
prostitution, crime, and degradation. 

A Bird*s-Eye View of the National Woman's Chris- 
TiAN Temperance Union — Address by Clara C. 
Hoffman of Missouri. 

Well was it said by Mrs. Lathrap in the council of 1891, 
" No other association has become so distinguished for the 
friends it has won and the enemies it has made. It has 
touched the home, the school, the church, the political and 
legislative power of the whole country until the shore-marks 
of its influence are wide as the Republic," The National 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union is applied Chris- 
tianity ; applied, not to a select few, but to humanity. It 
implies the possession and cultivation of a sense richer than 
benevolence, wider than philanthropy, and kinder than 
theology; the sense of humanity that sees the father- 
hood of God for all, the brotherhood of man in all. It is a 
teacher who sees with the natural eye, and knows with the 
human reason, a multitude of conditions in this life that 
can and should be changed ; a teacher who believes that the 


much-talked-of, yet distant, coming of our Lord will be 
mightily hastened when all the people are taught the 
duties and" conduct of this life; taught concerning the 
duty of husbands to wives and wives to husbands ; concern- 
ing the right of all children to be born of love and hope, 
not lust ; concerning the equal responsibility of parents, the 
care of the house, ventilation, wholesome cooking, cleanli- 
ness of streets, comfortable and convenient clothing, holi- 
days, amusements, equal pay for equal work, justice to 
woman, good manners at home and in the public assembly. 

With our young women, called '* Y's," and our host of 
honorable honoraries, with Loyal Temperance Legions, 
boys and girls, and the valiant men who register our senti- 
ments at the ballot-box, our national family sweeps away 
beyond the half -million line. 

Every State and Territory is organized, and unions are 
formed among the colored people, the Swedes, Norwegians, 
and Germans in this country. The National Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union has joined hands with England and 
British America, and its insignia, the white ribbon, and its 
ritual of total abstinence are adopted there as here. 

More than twenty-seven thousand medals, silver, gold, 
and diamond, have been given by that great-hearted phi- 
lanthropist, W. J. Demorest of New York, to the youthful 
winners in oratorical contests, conducted mainly by the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 

By ceaseless agitation it has compelled city councils and 
authorities to recognize the necessity of police matrons, 
until this office is now firmly established in a great number 
of cities. The barbaric law, practically pronouncing the 
little girl of ten years old enough and mature enough to 
protect herself against the wiles of evil men, can no longer 
stand on our statute books unchallenged by the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union ; and for every advance made 
toward decent, humane legislation on this subject, it must 
in all fairness receive the major credit. Through plans 
carefully devised in national conventions, and faithfully 


carried out by department superintendents, the broaden- 
ing, elevating, humanizing, christianizing influence of the 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union has reached 
all sorts and conditions of men. 

Happy under the leadership of one wise enough and 
broad enough to seek " every creature's best," to help in 
the betterment of the world, the National Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union has never refused to cooperate with 
every society whose aim is truth and justice for humanity. 
Steadily has it maintained the right of woman's equality, 
officially committing itself to that most righteous cause 
when policy counseled silence; and to-day its advocates 
for woman suffrage outnumber those of any society in this 
magnificent council of women. 

Through its varied activities, its wide philanthropies, and 
tireless education within, without, around, and everywhere, 
the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union has 
become the mightiest dynamite under the moss-grown walls 
of prejudice built centuries ago on the traditions of men. 
Where politics and ecclesiasticism had failed came the 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union with love 
in its heart, and a knot of snowy ribbon in its hand, and 
bridged the chasm between a severed North and South. 

To the incomparable leader of the National and the 
World's Woman's Christian Temperance Unions, Frances 
E. Willard, God has given a vision broader and kinder than 
that seen from Pisgah's height ; the vision of a promised 
land fairer than Canaan, whose inhabitants with sober brain, 
clear eye, and steady limb shall confess God's law within 
their members, as on stony tablet ; whose constitution shall 
be the Golden Rule, and whose allegiance shall be forever 
to the King of Kings and Lord of Lords. Jesus Christ. 


Florence Elizabeth Cor v. 
Florence Fenwick Miller. Emmeline R. Wells 

• • . J 


Physical Education for Women — Address by Frances 
W. Leiter of Ohio, Superintendent of Physical 
Culture Department of the Young Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union. 

It has been significantly stated that the girl who can 
enter womanhood with a liberal education and good health 
is equipped to command the world. In the majority of 
cases, where such is seriously desired, the liberal education 
is denied because good health is lacking. The abundant 
opportunities in these days for self-help make pecuniary 
disadvantages of small account in acquiring an education, 
if the individual possess courage and endurance, which are 
the results of health. 

The success of all plans for the advancement and enlarged 
usefulness of women, as a class, will be determined in years 
to come by prevailing physical conditions. 

What has it been in the past? Prejudice in favor of 
unsuppressed activity for the boy, and modest inactivity for 
his less fortunate sister, has laid the weight of unfair 
restraint upon every girl from the hour of her birth. If 
the vivacity of some physically gifted daughter has vent- 
ured to break the bars of. this time-honored restraint, she 
has, until recent years, been branded a " hoiden." 

There is nothing in the genesis of the human race 
which can lead to the conclusion that God ordained two 
sets of laws, almost diametrically opposite, for the main- 
tenance of health in Adam and his wife Eve. The penalty 
which has been suffered under this false adjustment bears 
its own disastrous marks in the generations of to-day. 

The father may possess a fine physique and a robust con- 
stitution. This does not, however, insure to the son the 
same, if the mother is lacking in these directions ; nor is 
the daughter assured even her mother's disabled status 
with such unbalanced parentage. 

The highest possibilities of the race demand improve- 



ment in both fathers and mothers. It does not, however, 
require a very keen student of the situation to understand 
that the success of human fruitage rests largely with the 
sex which nature has decreed shall foster the developing 
germ, and whose personal characteristics, w^hether merit- 
ing praise or censure, shall silently mold the child after her 
own pattern. 

Of the personal characteristics of the mother, which 
manifest themselves in a greater or less degree in her off- 
spring, as a rule, none are more striking, or indeed signifi- 
cant, than physical defects, because these often appear as 
indices of the grave elements in character. The skipping 
of a single generation or several, in proof of this, does not 
weaken the truth. 

Who is ready to deny that uncertain conditions of health 
bar women from the extended fields of usefulness already 
wide open to those who will enter ? Who, of all woman- 
kind, will venture to assert that woman can ever meet 
successfully even, the initial duties of citizenship, until a 
keener intellect, keyed to the demand by the supporting 
tide of physical well-being, enables her to grasp, mentally, 
some of the questions in social and political life ? 

What systematic physical discipline has accomplished 
for men it can do for women. Por their own sake and that 
of posterity these results should be sought. 

Who does not know that to be a Roman implied the pos- 
session of a magnificent physique, through which all the 
cherished attributes of that warlike people found expres- 
sion ? This was not alone the result of careful training, 
but the inheritance from the mother as well. So, promi- 
nent in Roman history stands the noble Roman matron, 
whose systematic training, physical and mental, fitted 
her to become the mother of sons of whom that nation 
was justly proud. Shall we do less for a nation whose 
form of government crowns each son with the emblem 
of sovereignty, and whose increasing knowledge of the 
right, in the light of divine law, will sooner or later place 


the same privileges and obligations upon every American 
daughter ? 

It is not the time or place to discuss at length the 
methods by which this needed discipline can be secured. 
Suffice it to say, each community, small or great, should 
establish a gymnasium where women and girls can assem- 
ble and receive instruction under some specialist qualified 
to meet the needs of the sex. 

After more than half a century of varying experience, 
physical training is taking its place gradually in the cur- 
riculum of popular education, which includes girls as well 
as boys. The various educational institutions for women 
are also adding well-equipped gymnasiums as one of the 
inducements for patronage. 

The first record we have of physical training for girls 
was made in the Boston Monitorial School, in 1824. In 
attempting to introduce some of the simplest exercises, the 
principal encountered the objections of primly educated 
parents. After a struggle these were, in a great measure, 
overcome. In writing to a friend regarding the experience, 
the principal said : " I trust the day is not far distant when 
gymnasia for women and girls will be as common in Boston 
as churches ; and that young men, in selecting mothers for 
their offspring, will see to it that they are healthy and 
strong, capable of enduring fatigue and encountering 

Seventy years later we respond to this a hearty Meth- 
odistic amen, with the addition, however, that we trust our 
young women, in accepting fathers for their children, will 
see to it that they can give purity for purity, lives untainted 
by the drugs and weed which are sapping the manhood 
of the nation, and through the laws of heredity cursing 


The National Christian League for the Promotion 
OF Social Purity — Report and Address by Eliza- 


National Christian League for the Promotion of 
Social Purity. 

The National Christian League for the Promotion of 
Social Purity was organized in 1886. The national chaiter 
was obtained in October, 1889. The league aims to estab- 
lish a single standard of purity, or to secure the same 
measure of chastity for men and boys which is required for 
women and girls. Girls and women must be freed from 
the sense of dependence upon men for financial aid and 
social position, which often becomes a temptation to wrong- 
doing, before this single standard can be universally con- 

Since the organization of the league much good has been 
accomplished along the many lines which promise a higher 
and equal standard of purity. Very much has been accom- 
plished through the religious and secular press, by regular 
monthly meetings, and by the special literature published 
and circulated by the league. 

The headquarters are at 33 East Twenty-second Street, 
New York City. 

We are convinced, and would suggest to other earnest 
advocates of a higher standard of purity, that no greater 
power can be summoned in the cause of purity than the 
regular daily, weekly, and monthly publications, in spread- 
ing a knowledge of the advantage gained to all classes in 
seeking to develop a higher standard and universal chastity 
for every individual. 

The league had four bills before the Legislature last win- 
ter. The '* tobacco " bill was in the form of an amendment 
to the code, and was designed for preventing the giving or 
sale of tobacco to minors by prison authorities. One might 
be surprised on learning that prison law and custom furnish 


tobacco to boys even under the age of eighteen, who have 
never had chewing tobacco in their mouths until confined 
in prison or jail for petit larceny or other crime, so that 
they come out veteran tobacco chewers. 

Our second bill was another amendment to the code, to 
the effect that any person convicted of breaking the Seventh 
Commandment should be imprisoned for not less than one 
year, and fined not less than one thousand dollars. We 
have had no law in the Empire State for more than forty 
years against the crime of adultery. There is often no 
alternative but to sue for divorce, which many wives and 
mothers are unwilling to do; while, if this bill could be 
passed, few persons could live openly in illicit relations, and 
it would have a most wholesome effect in preventing a 
reckless man from boasting to his wife of his unchaste 
relations with other women, and in many cases prevent such 
evil relations altogether. 

We also had a bill the import of which was to secure a 
farm, and a temporary city home, for persons of any age, 
worthy or unworthy, and regardless of sex, where they could 
receive employment at a nominal remuneration, but suffi- 
cient to provide them shelter, food, clothing, and baths. 

Our fourth bill was a very simple one, drawn by Judge 
Arnoux, who is a strong advocate of suffrage for women! 

During the past three years we have striven arduously to 
agitate public opinion in the interest of a higher standard 
of purity, among those particularly who do not believe that 
a life of perfect chastity is as desirable and possible for men 
and boys as for women and girls. We have discussed the 
various forms of impurity which exist in and out of the 
family relation, while our steady purpose has been to impart 
judicious information and intelligence respecting personal 
virtue, from the period of earliest consciousness to the grave. 
We do not fail to commend the stanch and noble declara- 
tions of many of the best members of the medical profession 
who believe in and teach the equal standard of purity; 
neither do we cease to denounce, as we have occasion, the 


fatal results of perverted judgment on the part of medical 
men who are graduates of our oldest colleges and practi- 
tioners in many of our best families, who teach that while 
physiological laws remain as they have existed from the 
beginning, and will continue to the end, the same stand- 
ards can not be required of men which are right and proper 
for women. 

We persistently seek to impress the fact that whatever 
enhances the value of woman in the home, or out of it, is 
of equal value to every man who desires to be the head of 
his own family, or who expects to participate in creating a 
home, and to be recognized as a member of respectable 

We have already commenced to raise a fund with which 
to rent or buy a permanent home, where needy girls and 
women may find employment without reference to age or 
condition of any sort. We must have a place in which any 
homeless person may find an opportunity to earn a humble 
^living. Existing charitable homes are usually established 
for special classes. There is almost no provision in New 
York City by which in an emergency a girl, boy, man, or 
woman, without friends or money, can find a refuge. Every 
place of shelter and help has been full this entire winter ; 
even Blackwell's Island is in every department overcrowded, 
and surely no able-bodied girl or woman, or one who is able 
to earn fifty cents per day, ought to be sent to the workhouse 
or almshouse. 

There is no institution so much needed in great cities for 
any class or classes of helpless persons as an institution 
which shall furnish temporary or permanent shelter to 
exceptional cases, and employment for self-support. Every 
dollar in money which is not earned when given has a 
tendency to pauperize or reduce self-respect. It is far bet- 
ter that all should render service for whatever they receive, 
whether the service is worth anything to any person or not ; 
and there is no one who is able to stand or speak who can 
not, under good executive management, be placed in cir- 


cumstances where he or she can do something toward an 
independent support. 

The league, by a unianimous vote at its general meeting, 
and at its woman's business meeting in February, passed 
resolutions denouncing a proposed " Song and Dance Bill" 
for licensing little girls of tender age to appear upon the 
stage in theatrical exhibitions. The league sent out one 
hundred and sixty copies of these resolutions to Senators and 
Representatives at Albany, urging them to kill this bill 
promptly, which, if passed, would necessarily aid in the 
propagation of vice. We have also sent many letters to 
individuals, asking their cooperation to aid in preventing 
its passage, and have received a number of responses from 
Senators and Representatives, who have promised to do all 
in their power to prevent the adoption of the bill. 

The incorporators of the Christian League are often 
asked why we did not unite with the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, or the White Cross movement, or some 
of the other organizations already in existence, instead of 
organizing as a distinct national society. 

First. After many years of deliberation we were con- 
vinced that it was necessary to have a headquarters at 
Washington or New York City. 

Second. We believe that men and women ought to be 
associated as co-workers in seeking a higher and equal 
standard of purity for both sexes in and out of the church. 
We recognize that there is a department of work which 
can be better done by men alone, and other work which can 
be done effectively only by women ; and that a far greater 
amount can be accomplished when managed by mutual 

While we would not intimate that the league has done 
better work than other organizations, still we are confident 
that in due time, when the league shall have attained mature 
age and full strength, it will have proven that the coopera- 
tion of men and women as workers in this cause has 


accomplished far better and greater results than either men 
or women could accomplish separately. 

Third. The league is, as a whole, thoroughly in sympa- 
thy with the various temperance movements, and its indi- 
vidual members work singly and collectively for the restric- 
tion of the tobacco habit, and total abstinence from it, as 
well as for the absolute disuse of alcoholic stimulants. 

The league exacts no pledge from any individual mem- 
ber, save that he or she accepts the Lord Jesus Christ as 
his or her personal Saviour and the leader and example in 
every good work. 

We aim to teach the right of every child to the counsel, 
companionship, and love of his father, the same as to that 
of his mother, under whatever circumstances it may have 
been forced into existence, whether it be born to a legiti- 
mate father and mother or not. We teach the enormity of 
the sin in the illegitimate father, notwithstanding that the 
law and custoin of the land permits him to give away the 
child to a public institution wherever philanthropy may 
provide a resting-place for the little bundle of helpless 
infancy, and thus ignore his fatherly responsibility to his 
own child, which is deprived even of its birthright to its 
father's name. 

We acknowledge that it is equally culpable in an illegiti- 
mate mother to dispose of her unprotected offspring, to 
whom no thought is given in most cases by the father, 
whether he have the wealth of millions, a college education, 
and forty years or more of worldly club-life experience, or 
whether he be the vilest of criminals from the lowest vaga- 
bond ranks. 

Women who have pursued with careful and prayerful 
investigation the helpless young mothers, gathered from 
the ranks of typewriters, stenographers, teachers, book- 
keepers, store or factory girls, often find them with their 
helpless infants in great charitable church institutions, 
lying-in hospitals, reformatories, or in the street, gone from 
bad to worse in hopeless despair, while the illegitimate 


father in many cases is rewarded by smiles and patronage 
from the officers of "church societies." Intelligent 
mothers in and out of the church connected with these 
great benevolent homes really believe in their hearts that 
these illegitimate fathers have been very generous under 
the circumstances to bestow one hundred and fifty dollars 
or two hundred and fifty dollars upon the institution which 
receives the pretty little errand girl, chambermaid, or book- 
keeper, as the case may be, and supplies her with a bed, 
and surrounds her with machine routine, medical attend- 
ance, and strangers to explain to her the enormity of the 
sin of giving birth to an " illegitimate infant." Yes, the 
shocking falsehood by the church and state must be reiter- 
ated even to-day, that the. innocent, helpless little offspring, 
directly- legitimate from the hand of the Creator, must suf- 
fer the stigma of the abominable sin of its illegitimate 
father and mother, until the laws of the land shall be 
revised in accordance with the gospel of Christ, taking the 
place of old Jewish law or the more unjust conservative 
rule of modem society. 

And what ought to be said and done concerning feticide 
in fashionable society ? What does it lead to in and out of 
the marriage relation, and where is it to end ? Is murder 
made respectable because it is a common and every-day 
occurrence in the families of communicants of every divis- 
ion of the church ? There is no space here or the oppor- 
tunity to call your attention to the unnamable sins of the 
age. We, as Christians, are commanded to go out and seek 
and save the lost. If we close our eyes to these terrible 
evils, how can they be restricted or cast out of our midst ? 

The letters which have been received by the officers of 
the Christian League from wives and mothers disclose 
facts which exist in the homes of the wealthy, in Christian 
families, in the haunts of degradation and poverty, as well as 
in the municipal government, of which most of us had never 
heard until we became an organized society to aid in these 


The highest Christian civilization may learn much from 
the oriental governments. If men are fitted to render safer 
and better service as eunuchs in oriental countries, why not 
adopt this most needed and surest method of punishment 
for certain criminals ? Have we not Scripture teaching and 
example to sustain this plan ? If any member of the body 
offend, shall it not be removed, that the whole body be not 
sacrificed to the one unruly member ? Let wise statesmen 
counsel with the elect women, and adopt more rational 
methods for preventing certain crimes. 

Working members of the Christian League have been 
frequent visitors during the past three years to all the city 
public institutions, prisons, insane asylums, and station, 
houses, during the day and night, where women lodgers and 
prisoners are received. From time to time we have sought 
in various ways to urge the necessary means for preventing 
practices which exist in these places ; and improvements 
have been effected by securing the cooperation of men in 
political power. Many of the patients in the insane pavilion 
at Blackweirs Island, and in all the asylums in the country, 
are victims of self-indulgence. Is it not time for the church 
to awaken to its responsibility and seek the cooperation of 
honest, chaste physicians, who will manifest a higher regard 
for physical and spiritual development for all God's children 
than for the etiquette so tenaciously regarded by men and 
women of the profession ? 

Solitary confinement in every penal institution is a source 
of untold evil. Every evil thought is rampant ; many evil 
schemes are concocted; evil hands are directed by evil 
thought ; and evil thought is certainly intensified by soli- 
tary confinement. 


The Columbian Association of Housekeepers and 
Bureau of Information, with Plans for the Work 
Outlined in the National Columbian Household 
Economic Association, which was Incorporated 
March 15, 1893.— Report by Laura S. Wilkinson 
OF Chicago. 

The National Columbian Household Economic Associa- 
tion is a direct outgrowth from one of the committees of 
the congress auxiliary. When the chairman on Household 
Economics was appointed she called together the members 
of her department, but found that there was no formulated 
plan of work. This committee, numbering thirty, was one 
of the largest in the auxiliary, yet its attendance was so 
irregular that we discovered that no real work could be 
done unless we could be aided by additional money and 
more members. The one way to meet this difficulty was 
to form an association which should include the members 
of the committee, and make it possible to obtain subscrip- 
tions to carry on the work. This was done early in October, 

The objects of this association are, as the constitution 
announces, " To awaken the public mind to the importance 
of establishing a bureau of information, where there can 
be an exchange of words and needs between the employer 
and employed in every department of home and social life. 
Second, to promote among its members a more scientific 
knowledge of the economic value of the various foods and 
fuels, and a more intelligent understanding of correct 
plumbing and drainage in our homes, as well as of the 
need for pure water and good light. Also to secure skilled 
labor in every department of woman's work in our homes." 

The work of the association was to be done through 
seven committees. It was not our intention to confine our 
work to Chicago, and for this reason we adopted the name 
of the " Columbian Association of Housekeepers." 


The chairman of Household Economics prepared and sent 
out the preliminary address, which was copied into many 

Our aim has been to consider the condition of the girl at 
service, her limitations, and her hours of labor ; and con- 
stantly to ask ourselves if we, in her place, without a special 
training, could do as well. We attempted to find out why 
intelligence offices were so unsatisfactory. We found that 
there were several hundred intelligence offices in the city, 
but that they were doing little more than to receive their 
fees, and leave the housekeeper to look up the references 
of those who applied for situations. 

Failing in our efforts to improve the intelligence offices, 
we next turned our attention to what could be done toward 
establishing schools where instruction could be given in 
housework, and to see what could be done to induce girls 
to take a three months* course of training before going into 
service. We found that there were no such schools. To 
establish one would demand trained teachers, salaries, 
buildings, etc. And then, where could we find the girl to 
take this preparatory course, when every kitchen is open to 
her to learn at the employer's expense ? There is no estab- 
lished rate for service. All seems to depend upon the purse 
of the mistress. 

We have brought the topic before the association, and 
committees have been appointed ; but the fact is slowly 
though surely being impressed upon our minds that the 
fault lies with the housekeeper. Recognizing this, we 
decided to have a course of lectures on domestic service. 
These lectures were given by Prof. Lucy M. Salmon of Vas- 
sar College, who brought before us, in a historical and 
scholarly way, the condition of domestic service. 

Not succeeding in arousing enthusiasm for our school of 
household science, we next turned our attention to what 
could be done in the way of establishing a housekeepers' 
emergency bureau to supply temporary help, the employe 
returning to her home each day. A committee of ladies 


have charge of this work, look up the references of those 
who apply for the work, and a book of registration for 
employer and employe is kept at the office. On these books 
are found women wishing and willing to do all kinds of work 
— sewers, menders, housekeepers, teachers, stenographers, 
caterers, nurses, scrub women, and day governesses. 

The monthly reports of the Housekeepers' Emergency 
Bureau constitute one of the most interesting features of 
our regular meetings, and testify to the value of the bureau. 

Early in 1893, the chairman of the Food Supply Commit- 
tee began her market reports. When these reports were 
read at our regular meetings, they proved so acceptable that 
it was voted that the association print them in pamphlet 
form for distribution. These reports make a general sur- 
vey of the condition of the markets, both east and west, 
and contain many valuable hints in regard to purchasing 
food, as well as most practicable suggestions for the 
preparation of food. Usually recipes are given. At the 
same time all the latest improvements in prepared foods 
are mentioned. 

Another item of interest to the housekeeper has been the 
finding out of those utensils which are absolutely necessary 
for a well-appointed kitchen. The cook-books in the market 
vary considerably in their printed lists of these, and it has 
been one of the duties of the association to look up this 

The Aladdin oven is perhaps the most popular of all the 
inventions that have been reported to us. This, as is well 
known, is the invention of Edward Atkinson, who has made 
a study of the nutritive qualities of food, and has made a 
scientific investigation of the most economical and hygienic 
way of applying heat. This oven seems to be one of the 
most satisfactory inventions of the age, but it must be put 
into the hands of an intelligent housekeeper. The ordi- 
nary g^rl will have no patience with it, as it is necessary 
that the meal should be planned ahead, so that proper time 
can be given for the cooking. The Aladdin oven can not 


be hurried. It does its work slowly and surely. It is a 
great boon to those women who do their own housework. 

What is the advantage of becoming a member of the 
National Columbian Association ? is constantly asked. The 
first advantage is that it brings those women who are most 
interested in the real study of economic problems into 
closer relation with each other. 

What is the advantage to those women not living in a 
city ? Our monthly meetings are held the fourth Wednes- 
day in each month. Our plan has been, within ten days 
from the day of the meeting, to mail reports of what is done 
at the meeting to each non-resident member. Usually, 
at our meetings, letters which have been sent to the asso- 
ciation are read, and extracts from these letters are pub- 
lished. Questions are presented which sometimes remain 
unanswered for months, and the answer may come from a 
long distance. 

In summing up the year's work last October, one thing 
which we had pledged ourselves to take hold of was a 
school for household science. We had made a study of the 
plans outlined in the Pratt Institute of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In the meanwhile Armour Institute was opened on 
Thirty-third Street, with Doctor Gunsaulus as president, 
and we soon learned that Armour Institute was to be 
modeled after the Pratt Institute. Doctor Gunsaulus had 
recognized the importance of a school of household science, 
and in the institute will be given the opportunity for our 
young girls to become fully instructed in scientific house- 

The next point is, what guarantee w^ill there be that the 
girls having received the instruction will go out to service? 
This will be the most difficult of all our problems. But 
when we recognize the fact that the girls in domestic serv- 
ice need the same thoughtful consideration as the girls in 
shops and offices, then will be found college settlements 
springing up to help the servant girls by establishing clubs 
and study classes. 


It will not break up our homes to have our cooks and our 
maids come at regular hours to do their work and depart. 
But it will occasion a more systematic arrangement of all 
housework, and will ultimately end in establishing a system 
of cooperation differing from those plans of cooperation 
which have been tried and found wanting ; because, in this 
new era of cooperation, skilled labor will be demanded in 
each department. When business methods shall have been 
established in the kitchen as in the shop, none will be selected 
for any line of labor save those educated in that line. 

The food question alone is one of the most serious, and 
worthy of careful study. It is not enough to know how to 
prepare food ; we must understand its adaptation from a 
chemical standpoint. In other words food must be made 
subservient to the various needs of the human organism, 
superinduced by climatic influence, occupation, and other 
causes of no less importance. 

Another object is to make a study of the fuels and the 
application of heat needed in the preparation of food. This 
will lead to an investigation of those inventions which 
have so perfected the means to this end, viz., the applica- 
tion of gas and coal-oil, and the possibilities in electricity. 

A Statement of Facts — Address by Grace Green- 
WOOD (Mrs. Sara J. Lippincott) of Washington, 
D. C. 

I would willingly preach a double-headed sermon, or one 
based on two distinct texts, yet not without spiritual con- 
nection, namely: " Put not your trust in publishers," 
" Train up your daughters in the way that they should go, 
as," not /?r, "business men." In treating both texts I 
should be compelled to stand torth as the "awful exam- 
pie." I shrink with actual shame from revealing, as I must, 
in a truthful statement, my own weakness, ignorance, and 
eternal verdancy in matters of business. 


I have been almost from the beginning of my book- 
making experience a meek, sheared sheep ; a bewildered, 
plucked goose, subjected to all the inclemencies of the book 
market and trade sales, lost in " the ways that are dark," 
done for by " the tricks that are vain " of the masters of the 
guild. Still for the truth's sake, and the good of younger 
sisters, I have made up my mind to " a round unvarnished 
tale deliver," wherein I shall " naught extenuate and naught 
set down in malice." 

My first publishers, a distinguished Boston house, who 
took me up in 1850, perhaps spoiled me a little by their 
kindness. They were my personal friends, and fair and 
considerate, as publishers go. I was really very popular in 
those days, when clever women, ambitious for literary hon- 
ors, did not beset publishers in such ravenous hosts as office- 
seekers beset Congressmen now, and I do not think that 
Messrs. Ticknor & Fields, who continued to publish for me 
some twenty-five years, lost by me at any time. But the 
house changed hands, and during my absence for a year in 
Europe, their successors, without consulting me, sold the 
plates of all my books, some fourteen volumes, to a certain 
New York publisher, also distinguished, who, I was assured, 
would continue to publish for me, keeping the books in the 
market, as far as possible, and paying me my royalty on 
all copies sold. I never received from this New York 
house one penny, nor was any account ever rendered, even 
of the copies printed, which were, I am told, sold with the 
plates. Had I not been crippled by some serious pecuniary 
losses, and discouraged by more serious illness, I should 
myself have bought the plates, and resumed the publication 
of at least the juvenile story books, which were and are the 
most popular of my writings. As it was, I had to let them 
remain in the hands of that very respectable concern, 
hoping always that they had *' a good Holt " on them, and 
would see their way to resume their publication and do 
justly by me. I was not quite simple enough to look for 


On my return from my trip abroad, I ascertained that 
another New York house which had published my two 
latest volumes, bringing them out handsomely and report- 
ing good sales, had, in a stress of adverse fortune, sold not 
only the plates of both my books, but the copyrights ! 
My copjrrights ! Still I did nothing. I did not see that I 
could do anything but harm others without benefiting 
myself. These gentlemen were publishers, respectable 
citizens, honorable men — " all honorable men." 

During another and prolonged visit to Europe I was 
informed that the Alden book concern had exhumed the 
long-buried plates of my juvenile books, and was publish- 
ing them in a cheap, much mixed-up edition. I winced a 
little at the inelegant dress of the Boston-bom volumes, but 
was comforted somewhat by a modest royalty, which was 
regularly paid me for two or three years, until that company 
failed, owing me several hundred dollars. This time a court 
awarded me judgment for the amount due, but the sheriff 
reported that he could only collect sufficient from the wreck 
to pay his own fees ! Still I believe the company soon 
revived and went on as before, even better, lightened of 
tiresome obligations. 

The big scoop-net of the United States Book Company 
gathered up my poor little floating volumes. To pacify me 
they brought out a new edition on which I bestowed a great 
amount of new work, and was beginning to receive some- 
thing in the way of royalty when that stupendous concern 
was suddenly wound up, or tied up, leaving me again in 
the lurch. 

One or two of my volumes are at present in the hands of 
Tait, Sons & Company. They are also New York pub- 
lishers, and yet I have hope in their justice and fair deal- 

•• Hope springs eternal in the human breast.'* 

Since the failure of that gigantic book company, the 
jtiggemaut of smaller publishing concerns, I have ascer- 



tained that they were publishing two additional volumes 
bearing my name, one of which I had heard of, and 
denounced to them as ** a piracy " — an early book reprinted 
with a new title, in order, of course, to deceive — the other 
being one on which I had received no royalty since the 
first year, when the payment was quite satisfactory. The 
piratical publication was entitled "My Tour in Europe,** 
bought out by the United States Book Company from Hub- 
bard, a Philadelphia publisher, who printed and dealt in 
the mutilated volume, but from whom I can gain no 
account by which I can trace the first mutilator. The other 
volume, wherein, as it is held, I have no rights which a pub- 
lisher is bound to respect, is a ** Life of Queen Victoria," 
published by a certain, or uncertain, transitory firm, Ander- 
son & Allen, in New York and London, in 1883. This firm 
dissolved partnership in 1884, since which time the remain- 
ing partner has given me no returns, vouchsafed me no 
account, although he did make to me, some four years after 
the dissolution of partnership, the astonishing statement 
(which I have in writing as a curiosity in a business way) 
that he had destroyed his old account books, so that he 
knew nothing of what was due me, and had no way of 
finding out ! This thrifty old gentleman has, however, 
offered to sell me at a third of their cost (a considerable 
sum at that) the plates of the biography — a book which 
was certainly very well received by the public, both here 
and in England, and approved by the royal family, but the 
sale of which was injured by the gaudy style of binding 
and by exceptionally bad management. During the jubilee 
year, however, it revived and did well, as the party most 
concerned admitted, but not then, nor in any year since 
1884, has the value of one of the queen's own penny 
postage stamps been poured into my coffers by a grateful 
publisher. Still, I doubt not that in the eyes of his kind he 
is an honorable man — 

" So are they all, all honorable men." 


The Needlework Guild of America — Report by Mrs. 
John Wood Stewart of Pennsylvania. 

In the realm of charity there is no need nor desire for 
international copyright. We borrow and lend plans for the 
public good, glad to receive and glad to share. Methods 
evolved in America have commended themselves as univer- 
sally beneficent, and have been adopted by other countries. 
America has been equally ready to take with gratitude 
ideas germinated in other soil which seem suited to her 

Perhaps England has been more than any other nation 
prolific in practical plans for philanthropy. The character- 
istics of most of these are directness, simplicity , and another 
quality which seems strange in a country where class dis- 
tinctions are so strongly marked, an adaptability to all sorts 
and conditions of men. The Needlework Guild, founded 
by Lady Wolverton, is a notable instance of these combined 
qualities. Two thoughts appeared to rule her mind in 
devising this scheme — one, the great need of garments for 
the poor ; the other, in face of this, a desire to start a crusade 
against the waste of time in the manufacture of so many 
useless articles which come under the head of fancy work, 
and to turn to the benefit of suffering humanity much val- 
uable energy going to waste from want of thought rather 
than from want of heart. The destitution was perpetual 
and almost the same everywhere ; the relief was capricious 
and varied by whim or chance, and meanwhile incalculable 
hours were going by in many women's lives filled with mere 
listless and aimless occupation. 

"I sent a paragraph," says Lady Wolverton, "to our 
county paper, suggesting the possibility of organizing a 
Needlework Guild, which should substitute useful for use- 
less work, and provide an object for many who had hitherto 
worked without one ; the work to be given to the hospitals, 
homes, etc., in the county ; at the same time asking any who 


approved the idea to communicate with me." The plan 
was this — only two garments were to be required from each 
member; only one meeting of the officers a year. Very 
little time or money was asked of any one person, and there 
was to be no red tape in the proceedings when the grants 
of accumulated clothing were made — only the satisfaction 
of inquiries prompted by common sense. Her own county 
took it up, and within a month the parent of all needlework 
guilds was organized and at work. Since then the growth 
of the guild has been rapid and widespread. It is firmly 
established, and by its inherent nature does not grow more 
complex. There is only multiplication again and again of 
little similar individual parts, as in the cell structure in 
animal life. 

Two years after the organization of the guild, Lady 
Wolverton issued a report. Copies of this were brought 
to America by persons in touch with the work in England, 
or were sent to them by friends. The idea of soliciting 
from individuals the definite donation of two garments a 
year was adopted by some existing organizations, usually in 
connection with churches, and some distinct societies were 
formed embodying in the main Lady Wolverton*s plan. 

In April, 1885, Mrs. M. M. Hartpence received an English 
report and put it into the hands of a small circle of women 
in Philadelphia, who held a weekly semi-social meeting in 
a private house. Its beginning gave very little prophecy 
of what it has become. They saw at the outset that it had 
possibilities of growth beyond their own limits, and the 
idea of extension and broad organization grew rapidly in 
their minds, and appeared in their first printed matter put 
forth two months later. This was in the form of a set of 
rules embodying, in general, the principles which govern 
the society to-day. The papers were sent broadcast from 
Maine to California. Of the four persons who organized 
the work in Philadelphia, two lost interest the first year, 
and have taken no active part since. The other two are 


the present general president, Mrs. J. W. Stewart, and the 
general secretary, Miss S. B. Hodge. 

So far as we can learn, the Philadelphia organization is 
the only one which attempted from the beginning to 
extend the guild beyond the limits of its own town or city. 
Therefore, it may rightly assume the honorable title of 
parent guild. 

The first annual report, published in 1886, recorded seven 
branches, and a distribution of nine hundred and twenty- 
five garments. In 1886, Mrs. Morrison was appointed 
president of the parent guild, which was at that time, and 
remained until 1891, the center to which all branches 
reported. She has held that post ever since, and the guild 
owes its continued existence largely to her faithful service. 

The work grew steadily, though slowly, never losing 
ground, but hampered by the prolonged illness of some of 
those most interested in the movement. For four years it 
developed by the slow process of spontaneous growth, 
aided only by an occasional newspaper article and by its 
annual report; this always showed increase, but not the 
rapid enlargement which the country required. We felt 
that we held in our hands a force for the alleviation of suf- 
fering which should be communicated to every town and 
city in the land. 

In June, 1890, conditions being more favorable, definite 
effort was made to spread a knowledge of the guild. 
Articles were written for prominent papers, many per- 
sonal letters were sent, meetings were called here and 
there to explain the workings and benefits of the society. 
The results were quickly apparent, and many branches 
were added. 

Up to this time the parent guild in Philadelphia had been 
the center to which all branches reported, and it had borne 
the entire labor and expense. With the enlargement of 
its borders it became evident that the parent guild could 
not continue this course, and it was decided to make an 
even division of responsibility among the branches, and to 


give to each a voice in the management. Thus, in January, 
1 89 1, the form of organization was changed and put upon 
its present basis, and at the same time the name " Needle- 
work Guild of America " was adopted. Notwithstanding 
the great distances between city and city in our country, 
the unity of the work as it had already begun, and its out^ 
look for the future, justified the name. The growth of the 
society originating in Philadelphia had, with one exception, 
absorbed all other branches existing in this country, and 
had met with no zeal like its own, so that new branches 
formed in the future were likely to be the outcome of its 
own effort, not, as before, sporadic and unconnected exist- 
ences. It was only as the " Needlework Guild of America '* 
extended its territory that it learned of the existence of 
other societies in our country formed on Lady Wolverton's 

When the first step was taken to organize a branch in 
New York City, in 1890-91, the society in Grace Church 
was in vigorous operation. Its members, recognizing the 
well-established and widely-extended work that was being 
done by the larger organization on much the same lines 
on which they were working, cordially united with the 
" Needlework Guild of America," and their society is now 
represented in the New York branch by two or more sec- 
tions, which are among the largest that it has. 

The unit of organization is a group of five persons — 
president, secretary, and three directors — each pledged to 
the collection of twenty-two garments a year. This num- 
ber in a town or village (providing all denominations are 
represented, for the guild is non-sectarian, and must so 
manifest itself at the outset) constitutes a branch. The 
same organization in a city constitutes a section, and when 
ten sections have been formed the presidents elect four 
leading officers — honorary president, president, secretary, 
and treasurer — who have the oversight of the branch. 
Vice-presidents are not required, as the section-presidents 
stand in that relation, but they may be added in a village 


In October or November a meeting is held, when the 
garments are brought together and are distributed accord- 
ing to the votes of the officers and directors. In a village 
branch, directors share in the voting ; in a city branch, the 
section-presidents form the committee for management and 
distribution. It has been found that there is economy of 
time and labor in having but one meeting a year. 

Each branch conforms to the few simple rules given in 
the leaflets, reports as soon as organized to the general 
secretary, and receives from her the leaflets and other 
papers containing instructions for carrying on the work. 

As soon as possible after the autumn meeting, a state- 
ment is sent to the general secretary, giving the number of 
garments received and distributed, and the names of officers 
and directors up to date, and this information is inserted in 
the published yearly report. 

That there may be unity of interest in this widely-spread- 
ing society, and that every branch may have a voice in 
whatever concerns the whole, the central bureau is estab- 
lished to legislate for the entire body. This is composed 
of the four general officers of the guild, the officers of the 
parent guild, and the presidents of all the branches, and 
meets annually in Philadelphia on the first Thursday of 
December. During the year the affairs of the guild are 
intrusted to an executive committee appointed for the cen- 
tral bureau, to which it reports at the annual meeting. 

Considering the wide scope of the guild, its expenses are 
phenomenally small. There are no salaried officers. One 
clerk at a salary of ten dollars a week is all that is necessary 
to supplement the work of the officers ; an office of modest 
proportions in a central location is the only other expense, 
except postage, printing, and stationery, but this is a large 
item. The branches pay for such literature as they order, 
but much is sent them gratuitously, and an enormous 
amount is distributed freely for the development of the 

The ideal plan for guild extension is that each branch 


shall assume the task of organizing branches in its own 
vicinity and wherever the influence of its members may 
reach. We desire to impress upon our members, not only 
as a privilege but as a duty, that each member may rightly 
consider herself a deputy from the central bureau for this 
purpose, for the guild is a multiplication of minute forces, 
and cooperation is our watchword. Under this system the 
burden will rest lightly on all, heavily on none. Thus also 
will it be impossible for the work to suffer decline through 
the failure of any of its leaders. Any who desire to under- 
take the forming of a branch may be sure of the hearty 
cooperation of the officers of the central bureau. The 
rules are so few, so exact, and so simple, that if complied 
with a successful organization must invariably result. 

The first step to be taken in organizing a branch is to 
write to the general office, 1108 Walnut Street, Philadel- 
phia, for leaflets. An assortment of these is furnished gra- 
tuitously to any one who will undertake to establish the 
work wherever she has influence. In applying for papers 
state the population of the place. A town of twenty-five 
thousand or over requires a different set from a smaller 

The guild is a channel through which all, of whatever 
name, nation or creed, may work together in unity, and 
only those who are in sympathy with this spirit should lead 
the movement. It should be representative of the broad 
spirit and best energy" of any town or city in which it is 

Each branch controls the distribution of the garments it 
collects. They may be given to the needy of the town, to 
the charities of its nearest great city, or wterever the 
officers or directors choose to send them. 

A quarterly message is sent to the branches through the 
Altruist Interchange, a magazine devoted to the exchange of 
news among widespread philanthropic societies. 

There is hardly a town or village in our land where such 
an organization would not be a power for good. It will not 


supplant nor in any way interfere with the work of any 
other society, but is so designed that it may include and 
stimulate those who, for many reasons, can not attend 
meetings for sewing, and for the large number in every 
community who do no systematic work of this sort. 

The cordiality with which the guild is received and its 
beneficence appreciated, is instanced in the case of St. Louis, 
where in less than two months after organization four 
thousand garments were collected. Milwaukee in six weeks 
after hearing of it had over three thousand ; Elizabeth, 
N. J., over two thousand within five weeks ; Buffalo, N. Y., 
in the same time, fifteen hundred; and Newark, N. J., in 
less than four weeks, twenty-five hundred. All these with- 
out any pressing emergency other than the **unexagger- 
ated statement of daily happenings." 

Anxiety has been expressed lest in great collections of 
garments gathered by the Needlework Guild, with so little 
cost or effort on the part of any one, there might be a 
freedom in the distribution which should tend to pauper- 
ization. We appreciate this, and impress caution upon 
each branch in giving to individuals. There is little 
danger in making grants to institutions. A paper pre- 
pared to aid in our annual distributions is called ** Inqui- 
ries to Institutions." After a word of explanation as to the 
reason for making the inquiry, these questions follow: 

First. State the sex, range of ages, and number of inmates of your 

Second. How many new garments were received and distributed by 
you last year ? How many old ? 

Third. How many more garments could have b6en used to advantage ? 
(In case of hospitals include in this estimate two warm suits of under- 
clothing for every convalescent leaving your care.) 

Fourth. What kind of garments are most needed? 

Fifth. Does your work include any distribution to the outdoor poor? 
If so, what proportion ? 

These inquiries have elicited facts concerning the need 
which may well persuade one to join a movement aiming 
to meet that need. A well-known hospital stated that not 


one new garment had been contributed during the previous 
year, when eight thousand were in demand, and where 
there was no source of supply except voluntary contribu- 
tions. When one considers that this is a statement from 
but one hospital, what of the many ? It does not take 
a severe mental calculation to demonstrate that the five or 
ten thousand garments in our individual city collections, 
and the total ninety-five thousand for the past year, repre- 
sent but the beginning of the effort to supply an almost 
unlimited demand. 

Physicians testify that many discharged as cured often 
return to the hospital with a relapse, or some new form of 
disease, because sent forth to meet cold and hardship so 
poorly clad. The guild thus not only prevents suffering, 
but saves the city or State fund, and claims attention on 
account of its economy of the public service. Its field is 
not confined to hospitals alone. Homes for destitute chil- 
dren and the aged, homes for discharged convicts, life- 
saving stations, day nurseries, schools for the f reedmen — 
these and many other forms of beneficent work have 
received its benefits. 

The women prisoners in a certain penitentiary were 
found fit subjects for merciful help in midwinter. They 
often entered clad in summer rags, to be discharged in the 
depth of winter, with only their own clothing returned. 
Several have been reclaimed afterward by this interest 
shown in them by their fellow-women. It has been said in 
this connection more than once that "the line between 
respectable poverty and pauperism is the clothes-line." 

It is estimated that in New York City two hundred 
thousand garments would barely supply present necessity, 
and the president of the Chicago branch has said this city 
could use judiciously an equal number. 

The guild is now established in twenty-two States and in 
almost all of the principal cities. We are unable to fore- 
cast its future. Our constitution already provides for State 
secretaries. Whether any more complex organization than 


the present will become a necessity for a society having but 
one department of work and requiring but one meeting a 
year, we can not tell. 

The Anti-Vivisection Society — Report by Mrs. Fair- 
child-Allen of England. 

The first organized movement against vivisection occurred 
at Florence, Italy, in the latter part of 1863, when public 
attention was called to the doings of Professor Schiff , whose 
name frequently appears as one of the most infamous and 
reckless experimenters of the world. No persecution or 
prosecution was attempted at the outset. A memorial was, 
however, presented to him, urging greater moderation. 
Schiff scoffed at this memorial, denied the charge of cruelty, 
and proceeded with his work until 1877, when, through the 
revival of the agitation by the devoted Countess Baldelli, 
he returned to Geneva. There he doubtless followed his 
" profession '' until his death. 

** The Handbook of the Physiological Laboratory," pub- 
lished in 1873, liad, in the meantime, directed the attention 
of the people of England to the extension of the practice 
of vivisection in that country, and the Royal Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals prosecuted the Norwich 
experimenters. During that same year a memorial urging 
immediate efforts for the legal restriction of vivisection was 
drawn up by Miss Frances Power Cobbe, and extensively 
circulated, receiving many hundreds of signatures. This 
was followed by the introduction of restriction bills in both 
houses of Parliament, but the Royal Society not being 
unanimous in regard to action upon this matter, both bills 
were subsequently withdrawn. 

In February, 1875, the first society in the world for the 
abolition of vivisection was formed in London by Mr. 
Jesse. In November following. Dr. George Hoggan and 
Miss Cobbe, knowing the demand for abolition to be prac- 
tically useless at that time, resolved to found a society " to 


obtain the utmost possible protection for animals liable to 
vivisection/' This was accomplished in the early part of 
1876, and was followed by similar organizations in Ireland, 
Scotland, and other countries of Europe, until now there 
are fifty societies in the Old World and two in America ; 
among them the great German League for the Prevention 
of Scientific Animal Torture, the Scandinavian, the Irish, 
the Scottish, the London, the French, the Swiss, the St. 
Petersburg, the Dresden, the Friends*, the Netherlands' 
anti-vivisection leagues ; anti-vivisection societies at CardiflF, 
Wales, and at Bombay, India, and the Humanitarian League 
in London. 

Through the efforts of the Victoria Street Society a bill 
for the restriction of vivisection received the royal signa- 
ture and became an act, August 15, 1876. This bill was by 
no means satisfactory to the opponents of vivisection, being 
deemed entirely insufficient. As time passed their fears 
were realized. The abuses connected with the practice 
continued fully as aggravated as before, and now all the 
societies not content with half-way measures af e demanding 
unconditional abolition. They are officered and supported 
financially by some of the noblest of names, including 
church dignitaries- and royalty, and many of them are 
steadily issuing series of publications, which are being 
widely disseminated in both Europe and America. 

The American Anti-Vivisection Society w^as founded at 
Philadelphia in 1883, first for restriction, but later it 
declared for abolition. A bill for the prohibition of class 
demonstration passed the Pennsylvania Senate a short 
time since, but was lost in the House. The society, how- 
ever*, is undaunted, and is working with renewed vigor 
toward its object. 

The anti-vivisectionists believe, first, that no practical 
value has accrued to the human race through experiments 
upon living animals ; second, that if there has, the practice 
is unjustifiable; third, that the debasing effect of the 
studied practice of cruelty upon defenseless creatures far 


outweighs in its evil effects the good that is claimed for it 
by medical scientists ; and they can not comprehend the 
necessity for repeating before classes of medical students 
painful experiments, the results of which have already 
been made known. They believe also that as other great 
wrongs, which seemed as firmly rooted as this, have been 
suppressed, so will vivisection be abolished, and once again 
will the world witness the triumph of the higher humanity. 

Die Jugendschutz — Report by Hanna Bieber-Boehm 

OF Germany. 

I stand before you as the president of the association 
Jugendschutz in Berlin, which means, in English, protec- 
tion to young people from the danger of impurity, which 
destroys the happiness and health of mankind. 

The practical part of our work is to provide homes for 
honest young girls without means of making a living, and 
without any one to support them. We make no discrimina- 
tion among religions in the Jugendschutz, but teach girls 
to understand that the essential is the same in all religions, 
namely, to be good. Another purpose of the Jugendschutz 
is to show to everybody the fearful dangers which are 
threatening the happiness and health of our families. 
Surely there is no mother in any country of the world who 
is not glad to see her daughter married. But do these 
mothers consider how many of their daughters when 
married suffer from illness and disappointment by reason 
of the fact that ninety-nine per cent of all young men live 
impure and vicious lives before they marry ? Famous pro- 
fessors of medicine — for instance, Noggerath and Ricord 
— assert that eighty per cent of young men who lead 
impure lives are infected with gonorrhea and syphilis 
by those unfortunate girls who, with the permission of the 
government, are submitted to the most infamous and degrad- 
ing prostitution. These contagious diseases, which are a 
thousand times more dangerous and fearful in their destruc- 


tion than the cholera (as we are told by Professor Pehlman, 
in Bonn, and others), are incurable, and are followed often- 
times, even after many years have passed, by dreadful 
abscesses, rotting off of various parts of the body, blind- 
ness, drj'ing up of the marrow, madness, etc. The famous 
Professor Schroeder of Berlin gave us the assurance that 
most of the attacks of illness among women are the results 
of the former vicious living of their husbands, the family 
doctor concealing always this fast in order not to disturb 
"conjugal peace,** as they call it. The same authority 
traces back directly to hereditary syphilis all nervous dis- 
eases of children, cramps, imbecility, dropsy of the head, 
disease of the spine, and scrofula. Even more serious than 
syphilis is gonorrhea, because this illness has not been 
regarded as dangerous, and, therefore, has not been treated 
so much. Doctor Noggerath of New York showed, in 1872, 
the danger of this malady. He states that the malady is 
incurable, and always, even if seemingly cured, infects the 
wife. The truth of his statement is confirmed by many 
famous physicians, as Henning, Lenger, Gusserow, Martin, 
Fritsch, Hegar, Schwarz, McDonald, Lawson, Schroeder. 
Olschansen, Kraft-Eling, Ribbing, and Torrel. 

We ask with astonishment, how can it be possible that 
nevertheless so many physicians degrade themselves by 
aiding unconscientious men in the work of making thou- 
sands of wives miserable ? Is it not time to lift the ethical 
level of the profession ? 

Will such explanations not induce even the most phleg- 
matic of mothers to consider whether she has been a good 
protectress of her family? Professor Ribbing says that 
only a woman who knows what prostitution is understands 
the danger eventually to be feared from a husband whose 
moral purity is stained, whose health is destroyed, whose 
manners are coarse, whose faithfulness can not be trusted, 
whose sense of beauty is ruined ; she knows that her chil- 
dren will inherit diseases and sexual concupiscence. She 
must furthermore fear as a consequence of prostitution 


many dangers and temptations for her sons, and the most 
cruel disappointments and sufferings for her daughters. 

Is it not the greatest nonsense for people to pretend that 
prostitution is a protection to honest women ? It is false 
that prostitution is a ** necessary evil,** and must be toler- 
ated in order to satisfy the instinct of propagation in men. 
We demand herewith that education and self-control shall 
be applied to the instinct of propagation. Mankind must no 
longer be injured by this instinct, which up to date has been 
nursed and increased enormously in an artificial way, by 
means of drinking spirituous liquors, by consuming too much 
meat, by reading equivocal books, by visiting frivolous spec- 
tacles and public houses. This demand agrees perfectly 
with that of hygiene, which prescribes an absolutely pure 
life for men and women before marriage, and absolute faith- 
fulness during marriage, as the only possible assurance of 
health. Professor Kraft-Eling says : " A large number of 
young men of normal constitutions do desist from contenting 
their instinct of propagation without injuring themselves 
thereby." Osterlin reports : " Self-control can protect from 
misfortune if based on fine moral sentiment, on pure sense, 
proper judgment and education, and if supported by a proper 
method of living and pure moral surroundings." Lionel 
Reale of King s College in London says : "It can not be 
taught too impressively that the most rigid abstemiousness 
and purity is in accordance with the laws of physiology, and 
that yielding to the wishes and desires can not be justified 
by the physiological more than by the moral or religious 
nature." Professor Ribbing assures us that during his 
practice of twenty-nine years he did not find anybody who 
claimed that it was impossible to control this instinct. Acton 
declares in his famous chapter on " Continence and Incon- 
tinence," that total abstinence from sexual intercourse can 
be practiced by young unmarried men without danger to 
their health." The College of Medicine of the University 
of Christiana, in 1887, asserted that, ** The opinion that a pure 
life and sexual continence are working injury to the health 


of mankind is a great mistake. About this we are of the 
same opinion. We do not know of any disease or debility 
which can be traced back to a pure moral life." 

We must use all our energy to reach a better moral edu- 
cation for both sexes, but all of this labor will be of no 
avail so long as we are governed by laws which, as far as 
impurity is concerned, stand on the side of the wicked. So 
long as any higher and bolder vocation is closed against 
women, and the most uncleanly and injurious trade of pros- 
titution is allowed, no moral education will be of avail. If 
women had a seat in our parliament these shameful laws, 
which are a disgrace to all the people of the world, never 
would have existed. But as this is not the case we must do 
for the present what we are able to do. 

The Royal British Nurses* Association — Report by 
Mrs. Bedford Fenwick of England. 

The English nation will look back to the years 1854-1855 
as the beginning of the changes in trained nursing ; before 
that time our hospitals were worked primarily by the Sis- 
ters of Mercy, who had but little theoretical knowledge of 
hospital duties. The nursing of the sick was handed over 
to women of the very lowest type, women who could get no 
other work to do, the most demoralized of our sex. The 
portraits drawn by Dickens of Mrs. Gamp and Betsy Prigg 
were taken, I believe, from life. 

The abuses in our hospitals called forth a better class of 
workers. Cultured women some years ago began to under- 
take the work, but it was found very arduous ; the food was 
bad, the hours were long, and the companionship was de- 
moralizing. Out of this system the regulations which are 
enforced to-day arose, and only women of education, culture, 
and the best physical and intellectual endowment are ac- 
cepted. I may say that in one of the largest London hospitals 
one thousand six hundred applications are now received from 
educated women to fill from sixty to seventy vacancies. 


The Royal British Nurses' Association is composed only 
of medical men and nurses, and was formed in order to 
unite all qualified British nurses in the membership of a 
recognized profession, to provide for their registration on 
terms satisfactory to physicians and surgeons, as evidence 
of their having received systematic training, and to asso- 
ciate them for their mutual help and protection, and for the 
advancement, in every way, of their professional work. 

There is no necessity to point out the immense advan- 
tages of cooperation. Nurses, when they decide to combine, 
only follow the example shown by nearly every other 
profession, handicraft, and trade in which men are now 
engaged, but they make almost a new departure, so far as 
professional women are concerned, and for this reason their 
union acquired the greater significance. The progress of 
the association has been curiously watched in this and other 
countries, as illustrative of an experiment which, if success- 
ful, might have far-reaching effects in the encouragement 
of cooperation among women employed in other spheres of 
life. It may fairly be said that the progress of the associa- 
tion hitherto has been more satisfactory than could have 
been at first anticipated. In four years it has been joined 
by more than three thousand nurses, and although many 
have died, and more have for various reasons resigned, it 
now has more than two thousand eight hundred members. 

The first subject which engaged the attention of the 
association was the most important question of the registra- 
tion of trained nurses. The practice of enrolling upon a 
general register the names of the members of any skilled 
calling in order to distinguish them from persons who 
assume the same title without any justification, is of admit- 
ted utility and public benefit, and the principle of registra- 
tion has frequently been sanctioned by Parliament. It was, 
and unhappily still is, notorious that grave necessity exists 
for the protection of the public, not only against ignorant 
women terming themselves nurses, but also against well- 
trained workers who have proved themselves to be entirely 



unworthy of trust by drunkenness, or by the commission of 
various grave offenses and crimes. In other professions 
means exist whereby such discreditable characters can be 
removed from the recognized ranks of the calling, and nurses 
very fairly ask that similar powers shall be provided in order 
that their profession may be cleared of persons who disgrace 
it. After considerable discussion at meetings held in differ- 
ent parts of the country, and after most careful considera- 
tion, the association applied first to the General Medical 
Council, and then to all the large hospitals in the United 
Kingdom which train nurses, asking each, the former sepa- 
rately and the latter collectively, to undertake the work of 
registration. The General Medical Council declined to do 
so, chiefly upon the ground that it had no power to under- 
take such a scheme. With a few exceptions the hospitals 
also declined, the majority of their governing bodies being 
of opinion that it was no part of their duty to control nurses 
who were not in their service. The association, in default 
of all other help, therefore, undertook the work itself. It 
appointed a very influential and representative registration 
board, and opened a register of trained nurses, offering for 
the first six months, as a period of grace, to enroll the 
names of all who could prove that they had been in attend- 
ance upon the sick for at least three years, and that they 
were of unexceptionable character. Since June 30, 1890, 
every candidate for registration has been required to prove 
that she has had three years* hospital work and experience. 
The most careful inquiries are made into each applicant's 
character and work, and the board has the power to remove 
from the register the name of any nurse who shall, after 
full inquiries, be considered by the board to be unworthy to 
remain thereon. 

The advantages of this system to medical men, nurses, 
hospitals, and the public are very great. The registers 
being published annually, doctors are able to learn at a 
glance when and where any registered nurse received her 
hospital education ; whether, in fact, she has had special 


experience or not in the cases for which she is needed. 
Trained nurses are distinguished for the first time from 
women who assume that title without being in any way 
entitled to do so, and from those who bring discredit upon 
nurses as a body. Hospitals which were formerly power- 
less to protect the public against women who forge or steal 
their certificates, or against nurses whom they have trained, 
or perhaps even certificated, but who afterward proved 
unworthy, are now protected to some extent against the 
discredit which such persons reflect upon them. And the 
public is benefited most, because, by demanding a regis- 
tered nurse, they can now be protected as never before 
against the many dangers to life and property which 
ignorant or untrustworthy nurses can cause. 

Beyond this important work, however, the association 
seeks in various ways to help nurses. It has established a 
benevolent fund from which pecuniary assistance is given 
to members of at least two years' standing who are in need 
of such aid. Pensions of twenty pounds a year each have 
been established for members of not less than three years' 
standing, who are past work and without sufficient means 
of subsistence. In time it is hoped that this department 
will grow to be of the greatest service to nurses in times of 
adversity, sickness, or old age. The association holds six 
meetings during each winter for the reading and discussion 
of papers on nursing subjects, a conversazione in Decem- 
ber in London, and the annual meeting in July in a pro- 
vincial town. At the offices there is a reading-room and 
library for the use of members, and a list of vacant appoint- 
ments is also kept. The Nurses' Journal is sent, post free, 
to every member once a quarter. In various other ways 
now it benefits nurses, and by still other methods, as time 
goes on, it will be able to advance their interests. In short, 
the Royal British Nurses' Association can claim that, with 
nearly three thousand members all over the world, and with 
its record of accomplished work, its existence has been 
already more than justified. 




Editorial Comment — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the 
Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement Association, by Emily S. 
Richards — Extracts from an Address Delivered in the Depart- 
ment Congress of the Daughters of the American Revolution, by 
Mrs. Adlai E. Stevenson — Extracts from an Address Delivered 
IN the Department Congress of the Woman's Relief Corps, by 
Kate Brownlee Sherwood — Extracts from an Address Delivered 
in the Department Congress of the Order of the Eastern Star, 
BY Mary C. Snedden — Abstract of an Address Delivered in the 
General Congress, by Rachel Foster Avery. 

OF no Other subordinate Congresses were the managers 
more painstaking in the preparation of their respect- 
ive programmes than were the committees charged 
with the control of the Department Congresses here repre- 
sented. The report, of the Department Congress of the 
Eastern Star, so carefully prepared and so generously sent 
by Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, merits special mention. 

In numbers and in public influence the four organizations 
herein reported are among th^ strongest in the countrj-. 

It seems appropriate that the last pages of this historical 
r6sum6 shall be filled with the last utterance of the Con- 
gress. Therefore, the address of Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery 
is here reproduced. It serves to bind the subordinate 
Congresses to the main Congress ; it seems not an echo but 
a clear prolongation of the key-note of the great meeting, 
the greatest significance of which lies in its recognition of 
the fact that harmony is greater than melody; that not 
merely is the whole greater than any of its parts, but that 



a whole is greater than the sum of all its parts, inasmuch 
as to the aggregated life of all its parts it adds its own 
vitality.— [The Editor.] 

The Legal and Political Status of Woman in Utah 
—Address by Emily S. Richards of Utah. 

The legal age of woman in Utah is eighteen years. She 
possesses all the property rights enjoyed by man. She is 
not only his equal in this respect, but, if a married woman, 
she enjoys a marked advantage over her husband ; she not 
only has power to possess property in her own right, which 
she can control and dispose of without consulting her hus- 
band, but she also has a dower right in his real property. 
All women of legal age, whether married or single, have 
the same right as men to acquire, hold, and dispose of all 
kinds of property. 

As early as 1872 the territorial Legislature provided that 
all property owned by either spouse before marriage, or 
acquired afterward by purchase, gift, bequest, devise, or 
descent, with the rents, issues, and profits thereof, was the 
separate property of that spouse by whom the same was 
owned or acquired, and that separate property so owned or 
acquired might be held, managed, controlled, transferred, 
and in any manner disposed of by the spouse so owning or 
acquiring it, without any restriction or limitation by reason 
of marriage. The law also gave women the right to sue 
and be sued. Under this statute a great many women 
have acquired and held title to property in their own right, 
and the percentage of such property owners is large as 
compared with that in other States and Territories. 

The causes for divorce in Utah are similar to those in 
most States in the Union, and apply equally to men and 
women. An actual residence of one year before the com- 
mencement of the action is necessary to give the court 
jurisdiction. Children that have attained the age of ten 


years, and possess sound minds, have the privilege of electa 
ing to which of their parents they will attach themselves. 
Neither party is entitled to the custody of a child as of 
right, but, other things being equal, if the child is a girl or 
of tender years it shall be given to the mother. In all 
cases the court makes an equitable distribution of the 
property of the parties, and provides for the maintenance 
of the wife and children. 

From 1870 to 1887 women voted and held ofl&ces in Utah. 
As an instance of the latter, Miss Ida lone Cook, who is not 
unknown in educational circles in Chicago, was elected and 
served as superintendent of public schools for Cache County. 
Several women served as notaries public, and we have a 
number of practicing attorneys who are women. 

Woman suffrage was conferred by an act of the legisla- 
tive assembly in 1870. The law provided that every woman 
of the age of twenty-one years, bom or naturalized in the 
United States, or who was the wife, widow or daughter of 
a. native-born or naturalized citizen of the United States, 
who had resided in the Territory six months next preced- 
ing any general or special election, should have the right to 
vote at any election. This privilege was taken away by an 
act of Congress in 1887. 

Though repeated efforts have been made to restore the 
franchise, they have thus far been unavailing, as Congress 
has the exclusive power to change the law. The sentiment 
in the Territory favoring woman suffrage is believed to 
be as strong now as when we were enfranchised, and it may 
be confidently predicted that when the local government 
regains the power to do so, women will be restored to their 
political rights and privileges. 

Socially, women enjoy all the privileges accorded to men. 
All our educational institutions are open to them. They 
are encouraged to practice law, medicine, and all the other 
professions. They are at liberty to preach the gospel, speak 
at public gatherings, visit the sick, and officiate at funerals. 
Important educational positions are occupied by them, and 


all the walks of life are open to them. Some are engaged 
in business for themselves ; others, without opposition or 
prejudice, occupy places as clerks, saleswomen, typewriters, 
typesetters, bookbinders, factory operatives, telephone and 
telegraph operators, photographers, and other suitable posi- 
tions, in many of which they are taking the place of men. 
The influence of woman is fully recognized. Her coop- 
eration is sought in nearly all undertakings of a public, 
political, or social character, and in whatever direction her 
energies have been employed her attainments compare 
favorably with those of men. The efforts and achievements 
of our women are appreciated by the men, who give them 
every encouragement and assistance in their various enter- 

Response to an Address of Welcome — By Mrs. Adlai 
E. Stevenson of Washington, D. C. 

In response to the cordial invitation extended by the 
World's Congress of Representative Women, under the 
auspices of the Woman's Branch of the World's Congress 
Auxiliary, we are present to-day representing three thou- 
sand of the Daughters of the American Revolution, a 
national organization founded two and a half years ago. 

It has been founded, as has been well said, upon a senti- 
ment, the sentiment that cherishes and holds in sacred 
reverence the traditions, faith, and achievements of our 
revolutionary fathers. 

It is therefore with both pleasure and pride that I greet 
for the first time, and under these most pleasing and inspir- 
ing circumstances, so large and representative a gathering 
of the National Society of the Daughters of the American 

As lineal descendants of the men and women who, for the 
sake of political and religious liberty, faced undismayed the 
dangers of the primeval forest and turned not back from 
the perils of an inhospitable shore and an unfriendly race, 


it is eminently meet that you have gathered in this now 
historic hall and add your voice to the general rejoicing on 
this natal day. 

To the great discoverer whose genius and courage opened 
the portals through which our fathers passed into an inher- 
itance in this fair and fertile land, we accord all honor. 

However, as Daughters of the American Revolution we 
are bound by stronger ties to the brave men and heroic 
women who, by their valor and patient endurance, achieved 
American independence, and made possible for us these 
sheltered homes and all the g^and possibilities which now 
lie within the reach of the women of this centur)\ How 
firm their purpose and how faithful the performance, his- 
torian and poet have Wed to tell. 

Just now a new interest has been awakened, and middle- 
aged men and women, no less than the lads and lassies, are 
turning to moldy tomes and neglected tombs to learn what 
deed of chivalry performed by a forgotten ancestor entitles 
them to honorable enrollment among the Sons or Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution. 

It is well that in the mad rush of modem American life 
we can pause and ask from whom and whence came the 
mighty powers which have stirred the nations and have 
placed America in the foremost rank of the nations of the 

With a new Liberty Bell soon to be sprung into existence 
by the magic touch of the fair hand of the mistress of the 
White House, and then to speed upon its mission of pro- 
claiming liberty to the world ; with the bright prospect of 
a continental hall or home — whether to be shared with the 
Sons or not I am not advised — and the still higher ambi- 
tion of assisting in establishing a University of the United 
States in compliance with Washington's farewell sugges- 
tion, the Daughters of the American Revolution have every 
incentive to earnest endeavor, and I believe a few years will 
see the fullest realization of their aspiration. 

May I add one thought in closing. In all that you under 


take, in all that you do. ** think of your forefathers ; think 
of your posterity." 

The Past, Present, and Future of the Woman's 
Relief Corps— Address by Kate Brownlee Sher- 
wood OF Ohio. 

The first essential of the Woman's Relief Corps is frater- 
nity — the fraternity of loyalty which knows the flag, 
reverences its defenders, and cherishes the memory of 
their heroic deeds. 

The second essential of the Woman's Relief Corps is 
charity — " Charity toward all, and malice to none," in the 
words of Abraham Lincoln. Especially do they assist the 
Grand Army of the Republic and such other Union vet- 
erans as need their help and protection. They give need- 
ful aid to their widows and orphans, finding them homes 
and employment. 

The third essential of the Woman's Relief Corps is 
loyalty, and upon this their fraternity is based. It is the 
loyalty which has its root in the Declaration of Independ- 
ence itself, enjoining all members to true allegiance to the' 
United States of America, to the inculcation of the love of 
liberty and country in the hearts of their children, and to 
encourage the spread of liberty and equal rights to all. 
Loyalty and correct deportment are the sole qualifications 
for membership in the Woman's Relief Corps, and its one 
hundred and thirty-five thousand members include women 
of every race and nationality within the Union. 

It is with honorable pride that we claim to be the direct 
heritors of the first national association of women in the 
United States, organized in 1861, under the auspices of the 
Ladies' Aid Society, to render aid and comfort to the Union 
soldiers engaged in putting down the rebellion — a society 
which taught American women the power of organization. 
Lincoln's call for volunteers, April 15, 1861, enlisted the 
women with the men. 


The loyal women of America fought as great battles and 
won as signal victories in 1861-65 as did the Army of the 
Potomac beating at the gates of Richmond, or Sherman's 
army thundering its way from Lookout Mountain to the 
sea. The work of the Soldiers* Aid Societies, finding 
expression through the Sanitary Commission, was many 

Untried and without experience, without capital and 
without credit, women projected their enterprises, and they 
counted their profits by the millions. The darker the 
hours the brighter their hope ; the greater the needs the 
swifter the response. 

At a meeting of the Sanitary Commission in Washing- 
ton, Abraham Lincoln said : "I am not accustomed to the 
language of eulogy, I have never studied the art of paying 
compliments to women, but I must say that if all that has 
been said by orators and poets since the creation of the 
world in praise of women were applied to the women of 
America, it would not do them justice for their conduct 
in this war." 

April 6, 1866, the year following the war, the Grand Army 
of the Republic was organized, and as the order spread, 
local aid societies of women were organized as auxiliaries. 
Three years later the first Woman's Relief Corps was 
organized by the soldiers of Portland, Maine. Like soci- 
eties were instituted elsewhere in New England, nearly all 
opening their doors to all loyal women, and in 1871 Massa- 
chusetts organized a State department, other New England 
States following. In Ohio and other Western States aid 
societies were formed, as posts of the Grand Army felt the 
need of woman's work. 

In July, 1883, following a call from Commander-in-Chief 
Paul Van Dervoost, by authority of the Fifteenth Annual 
Encampment of the G. A. R., representatives of the various 
women's organizations, east and west, met at Denver, 
Col., in connection with the Seventeenth National Encamp- 
ment, and formed a national association known as the 


" Woman's Relief Corps Auxiliary of the Grand Army of 
the Republic." Fifty-six women became charter members. 
This great Columbian year the Woman's Relief Corps has 
a total membership of one hundred and thirty-five thousand, 
divided into two thousand six hundred and eighty-six corps 
in thirty-five States and Territories, and has raised and 
expended in relief a cash aggregate of nearly one million 

The Woman's Relief Corps has assisted largely, through 
petition and direct influence, in securing just pension laws 
for the relief of the Union Soldiers, their widows and 
orphans ; and alone and unaided secured the passage by the 
fifty-third Congress of the bill for the relief of army 
nurses, after eight years of unflagging work. They have 
built and are carrying on the National Relief Corps Home 
at Geneva, Ohio, for soldiers' widows, mothers, and army 
nurses, and dependent soldiers and their wives. They have 
built, by States or departments, the Memorial Home in 
Pennsylvania, the Evergreen Home in California, and the 
Woman's Annex to the Soldiers' Home in Michigan. They 
contribute largely to the support of the Soldiers' Home in 
Massachusetts, and are furnishing hospital comforts, books, 
and pictures to the Soldiers' Homes and Soldiers' Orphans' 
Homes of New Hampshire, Vermont, Ohio, Indiana, Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado, Minnesota, Washington, 
California, and other States. 

Systematic, concerted movement in connection with 
school authorities in this line of patriotic, educational 
work has been inaugurated by the Woman's Relief Corps, 
which promises to be a fixed propaganda for the dis- 
semination of republican principles underlying our free 

With our large influx of illiterate and ignorant for- 
eigners, and the rapid enrollment of their children in our 
public schools, the momentous issues hanging upon a move- 
ment like this are readily seen. Though the first aims of 
the Woman's Relief Corps are defined in its auxiliaryship 


to the Grand Army of the Republic, yet its platform is so 
broad that the organization will be perpetuated long after 
the last veteran of the Union has answered to the final 

The Eastern Star, Its Origin, Progress, and Develop- 
MENT — Address by Mary C. Snedden of Missouri. 

Certain landmarks or laws in Masonry were handed down 
from age to age and from generation to generation, no one 
knowing whence they originated and no one having the 
right to alter or change; but all Masons were bound to 
obey them. Among these landmarks we find that no 
woman may become a member of the craft. 

How, then, came women to be associated with this exclu- 
sive brotherhood of masons? And what is the relationship 
existing between the Masonic fraternity and the Order of 
the Eastern Star ? 

The changes in the intellectual relations of men and 
women that have come with this generation have had their 
influence even in this ancient order, and have made our 
order possible. Every age has its John the Baptist. Such 
a one was Robert Morris, the founder of the American 
Rite of Adoptive Masonry. Robert Morris was made a 
Mason in 1846, and at once became so intensely alive to the 
beauties of its symbolic teachings that his whole life was 
given up to the study of Masonry. He married, and his 
desire was that his wife should go with him in these paths 
of beauty. In their studies and researches they found 
many side degrees, where the wife or daughter of a Mason 
was given some sign and password whereby she might 
make herself known to a Mason if in distress. 

The idea grew with him, and from 1850 to 1855 he com- 
municated to Masons and their women relatives five degrees 
and called them the Eastern Star. These degrees were 
based on an old French rite. No organizations were formed- 


It was simply a social degree usually conferred after the 
lectures. A banquet was often spread, and Masons* wives 
met with Masons in a Masonic hall. 

He soon became so far advanced in his ideas as to form 
organizations called constellations, which received charters 
from a Supreme Grand Constellation, of which he was the 
Supreme Grand Luminary. But few of these constellations 
were formed, and they were of short life. The parapher- 
nalia was expensive, the ceremonies too dramatic and com- 

Finding the work not practical in this form he undertook 
to simplify it, and published a manual entitled ** Families 
of the Eastern Star." This was used from 1859 ^^ ^868 by 
himself and other Masonic lecturers, who thus communi- 
cated the degrees. The system was lacking in that there 
was no permanent organization, but the germ was there, 
and from it has evolved the order of to-day. Others saw 
the beauties and possibilities of the Eastern Star. 

The first successful organization was formed in Michigan, 
in 1866, working under ** Tatem's Ritual." The Lodges 
were called " Eastern Star Lodges of Adoptive Masonry." 
A Grand Lodge also was formed which tendered its alle- 
giance to the General Grand Chapter in 1880. 

In 1876 there were Grand Chapters in Michigan, New 
Jersey, New York, Mississippi, California, Vermont, Indi- 
ana, Connecticut, Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, 
Kansas, and Massachusetts. 

The organization of these bodies and the publication of 
their proceedings revealed the fact that although the East- 
ern Star was founded upon a practical system, serious and 
growing evils had resulted from the peculiar method of 
growth as a system and extension. The publication of the 
different rituals, and revised editions thereof, had brought 
confusion in council and diversity of work, where there 
should have been unity and uniformity. 

July 15, 1 875, in the Grand Chapter of Mississippi, a reso- 
lution was adopted to this effect : That uniformity of ritual 


was essential to the future success of the order, and that 
delegates be appointed from the several Grand Chapters, 
and that a convention of these delegates be called to con- 
sider the formation of a national organization that should 
have absolute and supreme control over the ritual and 
lectures of the Adoptive Rite. This was followed by simi- 
lar resolutions in other Grand Chapters. 

April 6, 1876, the Grand Chapter of Indiana extended an 
invitation to all the Grand Chapters of the order to meet in 
Indianapolis, for the purpose of organizing said supreme 
organization. The invitation was accepted, and the con- 
vention resulted in the organization of the General Grand 
Chapter, November 16, 1876. At this first gathering of 
Eastern Star members, from the different sections of our 
country, there was much enthusiasm. A constitution was 
adopted and a ritual committee appointed. 

At the second meeting, May, 1878, the ritual was adopted. 
The third session was held in Chicago, August 20, 1880. 
Since its organization the growth and development of the 
order has been gradual and satisfactory. 

The General Grand Chapter has provided an unobjec- 
tionable method of extension into unoccupied territory. It 
exercises the right of domain over all States and Territories 
where no Grand Chapter exists, until the formation of one 

There are chapters under the immediate jurisdiction of 
the General Grand Chapter in Alabama, Arizona, Florida, 
Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, North Dakota, New Mexico, 
Louisiana, West Virginia, Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Utah, and Washington, D. C. 

This is a proud showing for sixteen years' growth. In 
1 876 a few scattered chapters, using many rituals, with no 
method of extension; in 1893 nearly one thousand three 
hundred chapters and about seventy-five thousand members. 

When individuals come together and form an organiza- 
tion they have an object in view. When the Eastern Star 
was conceived its founder sought to create a social tie 


between Masons and their families. He did not claim, nor 
have we ever claimed, that the Eastern Star was any part 
of Masonry, that any of its cherished secrets were g^iven to 
us. He sought to give the fraternity a helpmeet in all the 
beneficent work of the order. We believe we are justified 
in saying that the order has been of help and has reached 
a higher standard of usefulness than Robert Morris ever 
hoped for in his fondest dreams. Among the objects for 
which we are associated together are the caring for the 
widow and orphan, and assisting the great brotherhood in 
all deeds of mercy and love. 

Since woman has worked hand in hand with her Masonic 
brother a g^eat impetus has been given to the building of 
Masonic Homes, and there are now successful homes in 
Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, New York, 
Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, 
with prospects of several others very soon. 

These homes are such in name and deed. Here worthy 
but unfortunate Masons, their wives, widows, and children, 
find a safe retreat, where they are surrounded with all the 
comforts and conveniences of a home in every sense. They 
receive every care, and when sickness comes the best 
medical treatment is given, and their declining years are 
made as bright and comfortable as human love can make 

The inmates are as one family, free from the feeling of 
dependence that is felt in a public institution, and is so 
repugnant to a sensitive soul. They come as fathers and 
children, and are received as objects of personal love. In 
this noble work our order has not been officially recognized, 
but we have worked patiently, willingly, and quietly, trying 
thus to prove to our Masonic brothers the good there is in 
us, firmly believing that time will give us all we crave. 
And the time is coming, for already one grand jurisdiction 
has placed us side by side with the Grand Royal Arch Chap- 
ter, Grand Commandery Knights Templar, and Scottish 
Rite. Kansas has placed two members from each of these 


on its Masonic Home board of directors, and also g^ves two 
to the Eastern Star, and one of these a woman. It has gone 
further than this, and says the orphan children of members 
of the Eastern Star shall be admitted, even though the 
fathers were not Masons. I am proud that Kansas leads in 

Our order is often spoken of as a woman's order, but from 
the nature of our organization — owing our origin, life, and 
usefulness to the Masonic fraternity — it is not such. All 
Master Masons in good standing are eligible to membership, 
and on our rolls have ever been found the names of the best 
and noblest of the fraternity, who, when we came with 
uncertain step and timidly craved permission to enter the 
sacred portals of the Masonic hall, threw open its doors and 
bade us welcome. But for their influence, support, and 
cooperation we should never have achieved success. 

It is pleasant to know that the founder and patriarch, 
Robert Morris, gave the General Grand Chapter his sanction 
and approval. At the third session, 1880, he was an hon- 
ored guest, and was made an honorary member ; and his 
birthday anniversary, August 31st, was made the Festal 
Day of the order. 

Organization and its Relation to the International 
AND National Councils of Women— An Address by 
Rachel Foster Avery of Pennsylvania, Corres- 
ponding Secretary of the National Council of 

The great meeting which is just closing has shown a 
grand pageant of the organized work of woman, filing 
majestically before us day after day. 

It would seem as if woman had reached out her hand 
and taken possession of the intellectual and spiritual realms 
to show to mankind the power of organized womanhood. 

But this meeting is to the meeting which is planned for 


five years hence what a disorderly rout is to the march of 
an army. Strongholds which, to the undisciplined forces 
of free-lances, seem impregnable, promptly haul down their 
banners and send out their flags of truce on the approach 
of a disciplined, well-trained, well-oflficered army. 

When it was first proposed, eight years ago, by Elizabeth 
Cady Stanton, that in 1888 there should be held in this 
country an International Woman Suffrage meeting to com- 
memorate the grand beginning in 1848 of the struggle 
toward woman's full emancipation, the timid hesitated, 
thinking even that a great undertaking, demanding more 
money, time, and labor than could be found to devote to it ; 
but the woman whom we all delight to honor, the leader of 
the suffrage forces, Susan B. Anthony, she — the undaunted 
one — resolved that it should be. She developed the orig- 
inal thought into the idea of an International Council, to 
which all women should be summoned to bring their 
reports of progress along all lines, to compare together the 
work and the gains of the past forty years. This resulted 
in the International Council of 1888. 

When, in 1888, delegations of women came to us from 
seven other countries, and from ovet forty associations in 
our own and other lands, May Wright Sewall developed 
still further the plan, and conceived the magnificent thought 
of permanent organizations of women, national and inter- 
national, which should form grand clearing-houses for ideas. 

Acted upon by the delegates then present, this concep- 
tion crystallized into the National Council of Women of the 
United States and the International Council of Women. 

These bodies, oflficered by leading women of America 
and of Europe, have been found to be the proper vehicle for 
expressing the highest attainments of organizations among 
women. These together, the National and the Inter- 
national, have been the willing co-workers with the 
Woman's Branch of the Congress Auxiliary to give to the 
world the World's Congress of Representative Women. 

To thousands of women the International Council of 1888 



came as a revelation, broadening their horizon, uplifting 
them to higher mental and spiritual planes. 

The Congress of Representative Women should bring 
this same great boon of mental breadth and uplifting to 
many thousands more. 

From the individual woman working alone, through all 
the links of the local organizations, county, state, and 
national, along one line of work to the National Council, 
inclusive of the lines of the International, inclusive of all 
nationalities, women have now perfected a strong and flaw- 
less chain — a chain with which womanhood can bind the 
whole world together in peace and unity. 

The motto of the National Council of Women of the 
United States is " Lead, Kindly Light." The design is a 
light upheld by a delicate hand ; not a blazing, swiftly- 
consuming torch, but a light burning quietly and constantly 
before the altar of humanity, before which the united 
womanhood of the world pays its tribute. 

What the International Council of Women may come to 
be is for the future to decide, but when we look back five 
years and see the immense gain in the organized work of 
women, we can not doubt that the prophecy of this meeting 
is that five years hence there will exist materialized what 
now exists in the brain of the woman who has managed this 
congress — a grand International Congress of Women, com- 
posed of delegates from all civilized countries, sitting for a 
part of each year, considering all questions between nations, 
throwing the influence of a united womanhood in favor of 
better conditions for humanity, better educational opportu- 
nities for the world's children, and in favor of that equality 
between man and woman which shall give to man the high 
privilege of living, not with his social and political inferiors, 
but with his social and political equals, which shall lend its 
influence toward peace and the healing of the nations. 


When the chairman of the Committee on Organization entered into a 
contract to edit the volumes now presented to the public, it must be con- 
fessed that she had an inadequate conception of the difficulties which would 
arise in the execution of her task. In the first place she expected to receive 
from the officers of the Congress Auxiliary complete and accurate reports of 
all addresses delivered in the '• World's Congress of Representative 
Women." A cursory examination of the records turned over to her by these 
officers resulted in the discovery of many and grave errors. This must not 
be interpreted as an implied criticism of the official management of the 
Auxiliary or of the reporters employed by it. In the unfinished building, 
wherein the sound of the workman's hammer still lingered, mingled with 
the whistling and bell-ringing of the locomotives and the rumbling of trains 
over adjacent railroad tracks, the reporters labored under disadvantages 
which rendered accuracy impossible. Hence a letter was sent at once to 
every participant in the General Congress, inviting her, in behalf of histor- 
ical accuracy, to send a copy of her address or report to the editor. 

Many of the participants in the Congress responded to this appeal by 
sending their original manuscripts or carefully corrected type-written copies 
of them; many more, however, expressed their entire willingfness to be rep- 
resented by the editor's revision of the official reports of their work. 

Accuracy would have required that every participant in the Cong^ress 
should have had an opportunity to correct the proof of her own address; 
but the large number of the participants, and the extent of the territory 
over which they were scattered, together with the necessity for haste, 
rendered this impossible. 

It is to be hoped that these considerations will secure the indjilgence of 
both contributors and readers respecting errors which under the circum- 
stances are inevitable. That the second edition of this work may be 
amended, the editor further begs that the author of each address, report, 
paper, or discussion herein presented will send to her corrections of all 
errors noted. 

Although it was at first intended that these volumes should concern 
themselves with only the General Congress and the Report Congresses a 
preliminary inspection of material showed that no adequate conception of 
the character and scope of the great Congress could be given by a report 
which did not include the Department Congresses also. Inasmuch as the 
Congress Auxiliary was in no way responsible for reports of Department 
Congresses, the editor was compelled to collect all of the documents per- 
taining to such Congresses by personal effort. A letter asking for a copy 


928 editor's concluding note. 

of her contribution was sent to every woman whose name appeared on the 
Department Congress programmes. That no pains might be spared in the 
effort to secure a fair representation of the work of every organization hold- 
ing a Department Congress, a letter was sent also to the president and 
secretary ot each such organization suggesting to them the collection and 
revision of the addresses given in their Department Congress. 

In a majority of cases the participants in Department Congresses sent 
copies of their addresses directly to the editor, giving her carte blanche 
respecting their use. In a few instances the secretary or some other official 
of an organization collected and edited the papers given in its Congress. 
In this connection special mention should be made of the painstaking labor 
of Sarah A. Stewart, secretary of the International Kindergarten Union; 
Mary G. Burdette, secretary of the Women's Baptist Home Missionary 
Society; Elizabeth B. Grannis, president of the National Christian League 
for the Promotion of Social Purity; Lorraine J. Pitkin, secretary of the 
Order of the Eastern Star; Lily A. Toomy, secretary of the Catholic 
Women's Department Congress; Katherine Hodges, secretary of the 
American Protective Society of Authors; and Rachel Foster Aver\', cor- 
responding secretary of the National Council of Women of the United 
States; all of whom prepared admirable abstracts of the proceedings of the 
Department Congresses of their respective organizations. 

In order that the two volumes now completed should present an adequate 
history of the General Congress, two considerations were essential: first, 
that every paper given in the General Congress itself should be presented 
in whole or in part; second, that every subordinate Congress should be 
represented by at least one paper. These conditions have been observed. 

All of the papers given in the subordinate Congresses have been care- 
fully edited, and will be published later in a separate volume, making a 
third volume uniform with the two now offered to the public. 

It is hoped that the editor's desire to be entirely fair in endeavoring to 
present a balanced record of the work of woman will be attested by these 
volumes. If the representative of any organization should feel that it has 
been inadequately treated, let her attribute the unfortunate fact to the neces- 
sary limit of this work, and credit the editor with an unremitting effort to 
give all societies an equal showing. The four organizations with which the 
editor is most closely associated are the Association of Collegiate Alumnse* 
the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the National American Woman 
Suffrage Association, and the National Council of Women of the United 
States. Each of the first three of these organizations is represented in 
these pages by one paper only, read in its Department Congress, while the 
Department Cong^ss held by the last-named organization finds no mention 
here. It is the hope of the editor that these facts will be accepted as final 
proof that she has not availed herself of the opportunities of her position to 
magnify the importance of the lines of work which command her warmest 




The following is an extract from a letter sent to the Committee of Twelve 
Hundred, referred to in Chapter I : 

The Committee of Arrangements desires that this great opportunity shall be used in 
the way that will further the highest interests of humanity. It therefore is anxious that 
the programme shall be prepared with the greatest discrimination, and to this end is 
asking leaders in the various departments of work, the world over, to aid it by answer- 
ing the following questions: 

First. What subjects will you suggest for discussion in the World's Congress of 
Representative Women? 

Second. What women will you suggest to write papers, or lead in the discussion 
of the subjects suggested? 

It must be understood that the committee will find it impossible to place all of the 
subjects and all of the writers presented, in response to the above inquiries, upon the 
programme, but it solicits you to make your lists of both subjects and writers as full as 
you may desire, and will be very g^rateful for a prompt response to this appeal. 


Sur la proposition de Mme. May Wright Sewall, d61^gu6e du Grand Con- 
sell des Femmes Am^ricaines, la resolution suivante est vot^e: 

Persuade que I'organisation et la reunion fr6quente des femmes dans chaque pays 
favoriseraient les efforts qui ont pour but de provoquer la mise en pratique de cette 
justice nationale, de cette morality et de cette philanthropie plus 6\ev6e qui caract6r- 
isent le XIX sidcle; persuade aussi que I'union des femmes de toutes les nations pro^ 
duirait le m6me effet dans le monde entier, le Congrds Approuve la Pondation d'un ) 
Conseil International Permanent de Femmes. ^ 



The Congress has been, in a sense, divided into eight departments, to 
each of which has been assig^ned, during the entire week of its session, a 
conference hall, as follows: 

Conferences on Education, - - - - Hall XXVII. 

Conferences on Industry', Hall XXI. 

Conferences on Literature and Art, - - Hall XXVIII. 



Conferences on Philanthropy and Charity, - Hall XX. 

Conferences on Moral and Social Reform, - Hall XXXII. 

Conferences on Religion, Hall XXII. 

Conferences on Civil Law and Government, Hall XXXI. 

Conferences on Science and Philosophy, - Hall XXX. 
Each of these conference halls is in charge of a conference committee, 
some members of which will be found there each day from 9 to 10 a. m. and 
from 12.30 to 8 p. m. These ladies will receive and introduce all visitors to 
their conference hall, and will arrange for informal conferences^ subject in 
each department to the chairman of the committee. 

When formal meetings are arranged for conference halls, notices of these 
arrangements will be sent by a member of the sub-committee in charge 
immediately to the Bureau of Information, after conference with the chair- 
man of the committee. There they will be duplicated and copies sent to 
the presiding officers in all meetings then in session. These officers are 
requested to make announcements of these notices, which will, in all cases, 
be signed by the secretary of the Congress, Rachel Foster Avery. In this 
way conferences will at once be made known to all audiences assembled in 
the Art Palace. 


One department of the Congress work which will not appear until the 
printed reports are issued is a great series of general reports upon the 
eight departments mentioned above. The writers of these reports have 
been secured from among the most eminent women of the various countries 
represented. The list is not entirely completed, but will be filled before the 
reports are issued at the close of the series of congresses. The names of 
the writers of these reports are given under the eight departments of the 
Cong^ss, in conjunction with the conference committees of said depart- 
m.ents, as follows: 


Conference Commt//ee.— ChtLiTmsai, Susan Rhoda Cutler. Members: Isabel How- 
land, Lydia M. Dame, Elizabeth Porter, Sarah A. Stewart, Marion Talbot, Mary R. 
Chappell, Susan C. Ballard, Rev. Amanda Deyo, Prof. Ellen D. Hayes, Mary E. Garret, 
Mary C. Snedden, Sarah B. Cooper, Helen L. Webster, Nebraska Cropsey, Prof. Rena 
Michaels, Lucinda H. Stone, Martha Foote Crow, Carolyn H. Talcott, M. Carey Thomas. 

Genera/ Jfefior/s.— Helen L. Webster, United States ; Nellie Spence, B. A., Canada; 
Helene Lansrc Germany; Dr. Marie Popelin, Belsrium; Emilia Mariani, Italy; Charlotte 
B. Wilbour (included in fireneral report), Egypt; Mary M. Patrick (included in general 
report), Turkey; Umd Tsuda (included in general report), Japan; Dr. Emilie Kempin 
(included in general report), Switzerland. 


Conference Commt //ee.— Ch&irm&n, Jane Addams. Members: Florence Kelley, 
Eva McDonald Valesh, Mary Glennon, Ellen Gates Starr, Elizabeth Taylor, Corinne S. 
Brown, Mary E. Kenncy, Frances McNamara, Belva M. Herron, Miss Brown, Mrs. 
Morgan, Alzina Parsons Stevens. 

General Jfepor/s.— hilian Whiting, United States, Woman in Journalism; Ada M. 
Bitten bender, United States, Woman in Law; Edith J. Archibald, Canada; Madame 
Hector Denis, Belgium; Charlotte B. Wilbour (included in general report), Egirpt; Mary 
M. Patrick (included in general report), Turkey; Um6 Tsuda (included in general 
report), Japan; Dr. Emilie Kempin (included in general report), Switzerland. 


Conference Committee.— Chairmen: Emily Sartain, Art; Annie Nathan Meyer, Liter- 
ature. Members: Charlotte Fisk Bates (Mme. Rog£), Louise E. Francis, Mary Hart- 
well Catherwood, Alice Williams Brotherton, Lucy Monroe, Lilian Whiting, Mrs. Sum- 
ner Ellis, Helena Modjeska, Florence Elizabeth Corey, Jennie C. Croly, Mrs. Noble 

B. Judah, Jean Pond Miner, Mrs. Henry L. Frank, Caroline Kirkland, Fanny Hale 

General Reports.— Vlotence Fenwick Miller, England; Mile. Leonine La Fontaine, 
Belgium; Charlotte B. Wilbour (included in general report), Egypt; Mary M. Patrick 
(included in general report), Turkey; Um^ Tsuda (included in general report), Japan; 
Dr. Emilie Kempin (included in general report), Switzerland. 


Conference Committee.— ChaiiTraAn^ Lillian M. N. Stevens. Members: Mrs. Judge 
Foster, Ida M. Weaver, Sara L. Obcrholtzer, Mrs. A. G. Pettibone, Mary J. Aldrich, 
Amelia S. Quinton, Mrs. O. W. Potter, Rachel Hickey Carr, M. D., Mabel Blanche Kohl- 
saat, Mary A. Newton, Harriet G. Walker, Marian Mead, Augusta Merrill Hunt, E. 
Augusta Russell, Gertrude M. Bundy, Mrs. Fairchild Allen. 

General Reports.— Lillian M. N. Stevens, United States; Mrs. John Harvie, Canada; 
Regina Terruzzi, Italy; Charlotte B. Wilbour (included in general report), Egypt; Mary 
M. Patrick (included in general report), Turkey; Um6 Tsuda (included in general 
report), Japan; Dr. Emilie Kempin (included in general report), Switzerland. 

Conference Committee.— OnaArm&n^ Mrs. E. B. Grannis. Members: Margaret Isabel 
Sandes, Mrs. Arthur Smith, Alice Stone Black well, Mrs. M. R. M. Wallace, Maria Y. 
Dougal, Virginia Thrall Smith, Dr. Jennie de la M. Lozier, Frank Stuart Parker, Mrs. 

C. B. Sawyer, Octavia W. Bates, Caroline M. Severance, Harriet A. Lincoln Coolidge, 
Esther Pugh, Estelle Turrell Smith, HaVriet Newall Kneeland Goff, Clara C. Ho£fman, 
Anna Byford Leonard, Annie Jenness Miller, Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, Mrs. Dr. Allen 
Brooks, Emma Parker. 

General Reports.— "Lncy M. Coad, Canada; Dr. Marie Popelin, Belgium; Fanny 
Zampini Salazar, Italy; Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, Finland; Charlotte B. Wil- 
bour (included in general report), Egypt; Mary M. Patrick (included in general report), 
Turkey; Um6 Tsuda (included in general report), Japan; Dr. Emilie Kempin (included 
in general report), Switzerland. 


Conference Committee.- Chairman, Jane Bancroft Robinson. Members: Mrs. John 
Hoodless, Ursula N. Gestefeld, Mrs. Norman Gassette, Mrs. B. Ward Dix, Rev. Ada C. 
Bowles, Rev. Florence Kollock, Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, M. Louise Thomas, Rev. Ida 
C. Hultin, Mrs. James S. Dickerson, Mrs. John F. Unger, May L. Gibbs, Rev. Mila F. 
Tupper, Rev. Eliza Tupper Wilkes, Rev. Jeanette L. Olmstead, Louise A. Chap- 
man, Mrs. William Boyd, Rev. Lorenza Haynes, Mary G. Burdette, Frances Stewart 
Mosher, Mary Lowe Dickinson. 

General Reports.— Key. Juanita Breckinridge, United States; Madame Nyst, Bel- 
gium; Virginia Fornari, Italy; Lilli Lilius, Finland; Charlotte B. Wilbour (included in 
general report), Egypt; Mary M. Patrick (included in general report), Turkey; Um6 
Tsuda (included in general report), Japan; Dr. Emilie Kempin (includ^ in general 
report), Switzerland. 


Conference Committee.— Chaiivmain, Carrie Lane Chapman. Members : Myra Brad- 
well, Bessie Bradwell Helmer, Louisa M. Southworth, Mary E. Holmes, Mary Desha, 
Effle Henderson, Mary A. Ahrens, Cecilia Hedenberg, Mrs. William D. Cabell, Sui 
Look Avery, Ada M. Bittenbender, Susan B. Anthony, Lillie Devereaux BlakeyTTB. 
Fearing, Rosa Miller Avery, J. Ellen Foster, E. McGregor Burt, Lucy Stone, Ada C. 
Sweet, Abby Soule Schumacher, Helen P. Jenkins, Dr. Augusta Stowe GuUen. 

General Reports.— Ellen Battelle Dietrick, United Sutes ; Alice Cliff Scatcherd, 



England ; Elizabeth Ldfgren, Finland ; Dr. Marie Popelin, Belgium ; Charlotte B. Wil- 
bour (included in f^eneral reports Eg>i>t ; Mary M. Patrick (included in general report), 
Turkey ; Um« Tsuda (included in general report), Japan ; Dr. Emilie Kempin (included 
in general report), SwiUerland. 


Conference CommiZ/ee.— Ch&irmAn, Mary H. Wilmarth. Members: Caroline K. 
Sherman, Katharine B. Claypole, Helen H. Gardener, Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, 
Alice C. Fletcher, Laura S. Wilkinson. Mrs. Frederick A. Smith, Mrs. D. L. Shorey, 
Mrs. W. A. Kellerman, Dr. Mary B. Moody, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Marianna P. 
Seaman, Dr. Frances Emily White. Nellie Halsted, Mrs. H. F. Eddy, Mrs. A. P. S. 
Stuart, Annie S. Peck, Dr. Frances Crane. 

General Reports.— Dr. Frances Emily White, United States, Woman in Medicine; 
Dr. Emily Irvine, Canada; Marchesa Vincenjina de Felice-Lancellotti, Italy; Charlotte 
B. Wilbour (included in general report), Egypt; Mary M. Patrick (included in general 
report), Turkey; Um£ Tsuda (included in general report), Japan; Dr. Emilie Kempin 
(included in general report), Switzerland. 


Clara Barton,Vice-Pre«ident International 
Council of Women. 

Rachel Foster Avery, Corresponding Sec- 
retary International and National Coun- 
cils of Women. 

May W* right Sewall, President National 
Council of Women. 

Frances E. Bagley, Vice-President Na- 
tional Council of Women. 

Mary F. Eastman, Honorary Vice-Presi- 
dent National Council of Women. 

Isabella Charles Davis, Recording Secre- 
tary National Council of Women. 

Lillian M. N. Stevens, Treasurer National 
Council of Women. 

Susan B. Anthony, President National 
American Woman Suffrage Association. 

Cordelia A. Quinby, President Woman's 
Centenary Association of the Univers- 
alist Church. 

Frances E. Willard, President National 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 

Mary A. Davis, President National Free 
Baptist Woman's Missionary Society. 

Mrs. M. R. M. Wallace, President Illinois 
Industrial Reform School for Girls. 

Zina D. H. Young, President National 
Woman's Relief Society. 

Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, President of 
W imodaughsis. 

Dr. Jennie de la M. Lozier, Pres't of Sorosis. 

Blmina S. Taylor, President Young Ladies* 
National Mutual Improvement Associa- 

Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi. 

Dr. Marie E. Zakrzewska. 

Mary Clement Leavitt. 

Myra Bradwell. 

Helen Campbell. 

Grace Dodge. 

M. French-Sheldon. 

Ursula N. Gestefeld. 

Margaret Ravenhill. 

Fanny B. Ames. 

Alice C. Fletcher. 

Anna Rice Powell. 

Frances E. RusselL 

An;:ie Jenness Miller. 

Jane Field Bashford. 

Nebraska Cropsey. 

Dr. Caroline E. Hastings. 

Christine Ladd Franklin. 

Mrs. Bishop Simpson. 

Clara Conway. 

May Rogers. 

Annie Nathan Meyer. 

Nina Morais Cohen. 

Kate Douglas Wiggin. 

Louise E. Francis. 

Clara L. McAdow. 

Emma J. BartoL 

Ellen Battelle Dietrick, RepresenUtive of 
National Columbian Household Eco- 
nomic Association. 

Mrs. Samuel W. McCaulley. 

Mrs. Miles Sells, Representative of later* 
national Board of Women's Christian 



Elisabeth B. Grannis, President Xational 
. Christian League for the Promotion of 
Social Parity. 

Rev. Amanda Deyo, Corresponding Secre- 
tary Universal Peace Union. 

Sarah B. Cooper, President International 
Kindergarten Union. 

J. Ellen Foster, President Woman's Re- 
publican Association of the United 

E. McGregor Burt, President National 
Association of Loyal Women of Ameri- 
can Liberty. 

Charlotte Perkins Stetson, Representative 
of Pacific Coast Woman's Press Associa- 

Ellen J. Phinney, President Xon-Partisan 
National Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union. 

Mrs. E. S. Yockey, Representative Wom- 
an's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Reformed Church in the United States. 

Mrs. W. D. Cabell, President Presiding 
National Society of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

Rev. Ida C. Hultin, President Woman's 
Western Unitarian Conference. 

Hannah P. James, Representative of 
American Library Association. 

Margaret Ray Wickens, President Wom- 
an's National Relief Corps. 

Hattie A. Robinson, Supreme Chief of 
Supreme Temple of Pythian Sisters of 
the World. 

Esther Herrman, Representative of Amer- 
ican Society of Authors. 

Mrs. J. N. Crouse, President Woman's 
Baptist Home Mission Society. 

Margaret A. Evans, Representative of 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Union of 

Julia Ward Howe, President Women's 
Ministerial Conference and Association 
for the Advancement of Women. 

Alice May Scudder, Representative of 
Christian Endeavor Work. 

Mary C. Snedden, Grand Matron Order of 
the Eastern Star. 

Dr. Mary H. Stilwell, President Woman's 
First Dental Association of the United 

Judith W. Andrews, Representative of 
Ramabai Association. 

Mary Lowe Dickinson, Representative of 
International Order of King's Daughters 

Mrs. Mary Frost Ormsby, President Nat- 
ional Democratic Influence Clubs. 

Mrs. F. G. Stauffer, Representative of 
Woman's Missionary Society of the 
Evangelical Association. 

Mrs. L. R. Keister, Representative Wom. 
an's Missionary As.sociation of the 
United Brethren in Christ. 

Miss Eliva Anne Thayer, President Order 
of Melchisedek. 

Mrs. Wm. Boyd, Representative of the 
International Committee of Yonng 
Woman's Christian Associations. 

Harriette A. Keyser, Representative of 
Working Women's Society. 

Mrs. Samuel Shapleigh. President Union 
Maternal Association. 

Anna W. Longstreth. 

Mrs. Leland Stanford. 

Matilda B. Carse. 

Virginia C. Meredith. 

Louisa Reed Stowell. 

Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. 

Amelia E. Barr. 

Zerelda G. Wallace. 

Mary Jameson Judah. 

Mary E. Wilkins. 

Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 

Helen H. Gardener. 

Margaret Sangster. 

Mrs. A. D T. Whitney. 

Mary Anderson. 

Emma C. Thursby. 

Dr. Mary Wood Allen. 

Roberta M. West 

Mrs. Pearsall Smith. 

Clara Bewick Colby. 

Alice T. Toomy. 

Helena Theresa Goesamann. 

Amelia K. Wing. 

Grace Greenwood. 

Delia Lathrop Williams. 

Elizabeth Duffum Chace. 

M. Carey Thomas. 

Prof. Mary Jordan. 

Mrs. E. C. Hendricks. 

Mary H. Wilmarth. 

Anne Whitney. 

Lucinda H. Stone. 

Harriet Purvis. 

Lucia E. Blount 

Mary W. Kincaid. 

Elizabeth Howard Childs. 

Ruth O. Delamater. 

Mrs. Mandeville. 

Letitia Green Stevenson. 



Imogfene C. Pales, President Sociologfic 
Society of America. 

Rate Gannett Wells, Representative of 
National Alliance of Unitarian and other 
Liberal Christian Women. 

Urs. H. B. Skidmore, RepresenUtive of 
Woman's Porei^ Missionary Society of 
the M. B. Church. 

Charlotte Bmerson Brown, President Gen- 
eral Pederation of Women's Clubs. 

Dr. Helen B. O'Leary, President Ladies' 
Physiological Institute. 

Alice Freeman Palmer, Representative of 
Association of Collegiate Alumne. 

Mary Bonney Rambaut, Honorary Presi- 
dent Women's National Indian Associa- 

Mrs. O. A. Burgess, President Christian 
Woman's Board of Missions. 

.Mrs. John Wood Stewart, President Need- 
lework Guild of America. 

Caroline Barle White, Representative of 
Anti- Vivisection Society. 

Elizabeth Cady SUnton. 

Lucy Stone. 

Mary A. Livermore. 

M. Louise Thomas. 

Eliza J. Thompson. 

Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell. 

Prances E. W. Harper. 

Abby Morton Diaz. 

Anna Dickinson. 

Dr. Emily BUckwell. 

Alice Howard 

M. Adeline Thomson. 
Mary B. Boyce. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Waddington. 
Sister Mary Austin. 
Mrs. S. Gaston BailieflC 
Mrs. Mary Pandergast 
Mrs. Minnie D. Louis. 
Madame Janauschek. 
Georgia Cay van. 
Clara Morris. 
Rev. Ada C. Bowles. 
Olive Risley Seward. 
Charlotte Porter. 
Mra John C, Coonley. 
Louisa M. Southworth. 
Phebe A. Hearst. 
Mary P. Henderson. 
Dr. Hannah E. Longshore. 
Dr. Frances Emily White. 
Mrs. Henry E>ormitzer. 
Madame E. Louise DemoresL 
Mary E. Newton. 
Emmii Cary. 
Katharine E. Conway. 
Sister M. Aloysia. 
Katharine O'Keefe. 
Madame Modjeska. 
Julia Marlowe. 
Mile. Rhea. 
Fannie I. Helmuth. 
Mother Augusta Anderson. 
Jane G. Austin. 
Charlotte Fisk Bates Rog«. 


Dr. Marie Popelin. 
Mme. Vve. Altmeyer. 
Mme. Vve. Bourton. 
Mme. B. Canderlier. 
Mme. Jessie Couvreur. 
Mme. Hector Denis. 
Mme. Wjrvekens. 

Josefa Humpal-Zeman. 
Sleona Karla Machova. 
Mrs. Maria Blahnik. 

Margaret Windeyer. 

La Ligue Belgique. 

Mile. Gatti de Gamond. 

Dr. Van Diest. 

Mme. Hougeau de Cehaie. 

Mile. I^^onie la Fontaine. 

Mme. ComAds Servais. 

Mile. Marguerite von de Wiela. 

Mile. Jeanne Cordeua 


Mrs. Klementina Novak. 
Eliska KrUnohorska. 
Miss Prances Gregor. 
Miss Anna C. Mally. 


Dominion Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 
lira. Yotxmans. Mrs. Cunningham. 

Mrs. Dr. Todd. Mrs. Ella F. M. William& 

Mrs. A. O. Rutherford. Miss J. Tilley. 

Mrs. Edith J. Archibald. Mrs. Roberta E. Tilton. 

Miss Mary Scott. Mrs. Mary McDonell. 

Mrs. Sanderson. Mrs, J. Cavers. 

Mrs. Wilhelmina McLaren. 

Woman's Enfranchisement Association of Canada. 
Dr. Emily Howard Stowe. Mrs. Annie Parker. 

Mrs. Sarah Anne Curson. Dr. Augusta Stowe Gullen. 

Mrs. Ida Taylor Scales. 

Dominion Branch of the International Order of the King's Daughters and Sons. 

Mrs. Elizabeth M. Tilley. Mrs. May L. Gibbs. 

. Miss Lw Kirkpatrick. Mrs. £. M. English. 

Mrs. Lucy M. Coad. Mrs. M. E. Pinch. 

Miss Annie M. Brown. Mrs. Eliza J. McNish. 

Mrs. W. P. Brown. Miss Helen L. Barker. 

Mrs. J. Wesley Smith. Mrs. J. H. Macmichael. 

Miss D. Megarry. Mrs. Florence Tilton. 

Mrs. C. H. HaU. Mrs. F. H. Maitland DougalL 

Canada Congregational Woman's Board of Missions. 
Mrs. D. Macallum. Mrs. J. D. Nasmith. 

Mrs. A. P. McGregor. Mrs. Ella F. M." Williams. 

Mrs. E. S. Strachan, Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church. 

Mrs. John Harvie. Miss Eliza M. Balmer, B. A. 

Mrs. John Cameron. Miss Madge Robertson. 

Miss Nora Laugher. Emily Irvine, M. B